Skip to main content

Full text of "The illustrated history of the Centennial exhibition : held in commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary of American independence : with a full description of the great buildings and all the objects of interest exhibited in them ... to which is added a complete description of the city of Philadelphia"

See other formats


UNIVERSITY 

OF PITTSBURGH 

LIBRARIES 




Dar.Rm. 
T825 
Bl M12 
1876b 



THIS BOOK PRESENTED BY 



J. Badovinac 









yi^i^:-:^ 



*^¥fipmi^i^i^ 



'^'^-^'w^^^ 



!'i,/!^fc,.i 






t^^t^r^'^ 



V'vv, 



rav] 



' v-' >-' w'' ■ V V y^' y y . 






V^^vv^^^W^" 






























w vvv^ 









f ; ^yw^y^r^:V^^fi 









<^>^y^^^.':*'j^r:'^ 



^^^^^::^^^ 









FROM THE ART SALLERY.^CENTENlflAL EXKIBITICTT. 




iUJj 



it- 



Ly 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

OF THE 

Centennial Exhibition, 



HELD IN COMMEMORATION 

OF 



THE ONE HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY 



OF 



AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE. 

WITH A FULL DESCRIPTION OF 

THE GREAT BUILDINGS AND ALL THE OBJECTS OF 
INTEREST EXHIBITED IN THEM, 

EMBRACING ALSO 

A Concise History of the Origin and Success of the Exhibition, und Biographies of the 
Leading Members of the CcDtennial Cominissioa, 



TO WHICH IS ADDED 



A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF THE CITY OF PHILADELPHIA. 
BY JAMES D. McCABE, 

author of th.'j "ckxtkxxial hfstorv of the united states," 
"pathways of the holy land," etc., etc. 

EMBELLISHED WITH OVER 300 FINE ENGRAVINGS OF BUILDINGS AND SCENES 

IN THE GREAT EXHIBITION. 



Issueo by subscription only, and not for sale in the book stores Residents of any State desiriut 
a copy should address the Publishers, and an Agent will caiL u^n th«m. See page 875. 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE Jn"ATIO]S"AL PUBLISHIJ^G COMPANY. 

Philadelphia, Pa., Chicago, III., and St. Louis, Mo. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C- 



K 

Q 






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by 

J. :ei. J-OIsTES, 

In the OflHce of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C- 




VIKW iiN 'I'JIK MAIN liUJI.DiiNG, SIKJW iNG THE .SPANISH, KG Yl'tlAN ANJ) DANISH GGUKTS. 



^ ^ 






-if 



PREFACE. 



■4 o » • > 




HE close of the first century of American Inde- 
pendence naturally called for some extraor- 
^ dinary and imposing commemoration of the 
great event ; and when it was proposed to cele- 
brate it by an International Exhibition, in which the 
American Republic should display to the world tlie 
triumphs it has achieved in the noble arts of peace 
during its first century of national existence, and in 
which these triumphs should be compared in friendly 
rivalry with those of other and older nations, there 
was a general and cordial response of a^Dproval from 
the entire country. Out of this sentiment the Inter- 
national Centennial Exhibition was born. Foreign 
nations entered cordially into the competition to which 
they were invited, and the enterprise was carried for- 
ward to completion with the most gratifying energy 
and promptness. 

The International Centennial Exhibition was r 
grand success. It surmounted its early difficulties and 
delighted its friends and silenced its enemies by the 
beauty and grandeur of its proportions, and by it»' 



4 PREFACE. 

positive and overwhelming success as compared with 
the previous great Exhibitions of the world. 

It is a success of which the American people have 
especial cause to be proud, for it was entirely their 
work. The great International Exhibitions of Europe 
were the work of the governments of the countries in 
which they were held, and were fostered with the great- 
est care, and every resource of the state was placed at 
their disposal to insure success. The Centennial 
Exhibition, on the contrary, was viewed with disfavor 
by the American Government, which withheld its aid 
until the indignant remonstrances of the people forced 
it to come forward and do its share in the w^ork. The 
Centennial Exhibition was thus the work of the people 
of the United States, conceived by them, carried for- 
ward to its close by them, and made by them the 
grandest success of the century. 

The deepest interest was manifested by all classes of 
our people in their beautiful Exhibition. Thousands 
came from all parts of the Union, and yet other 
thousands from abroad, to visit the great Exhibition, 
and all these went away with the acknowledgment 
that, great as their expectations were, they were more 
than realized. 

Believing that such would be the interest of the 
American people in the Exhibition, the author began 
at an early day the preparation of this work, in which 
he has sought to present to the reader not only the 
history of the great enterprise, from its inception down 



PREFACE. 5 

to its close, but at the same time to give to him a life- 
like picture of the Exhibition and its varied sights 
and attractions. Apart from his other labors, he 
visited every portion of the Exhibition in person, 
note-book in hand, and has endeavored to record 
faithfully and accurately the various features and 
incidents of the great fair which seem to him most 
likely to give the reader a correct idea of it. He 
ventures to hope that he has succeeded in this task, 
and that the work will be found of use and interest 
by those who visited the Exhibition and saw for 
themselves the beautiful and instructive display de- 
scribed herein, as w^ell as by the thousands who could 
not enjoy this privilege. These latter know the Ex- 
hibition only by the reports that reach them through 
their friends and the newspapers. For their benefit 
chiefly the author has written these pages, in which 
he has endeavored to enable them to become familiar 
with the Exhibition without either the expense or 
trouble attendant upon a visit to it. It is believed 
that those who visited the- Exhibition w^ill find a 
perusal of these pages of benefit to them. The Ex- 
hibition was a W'Orld within itself, and the visitor 
entering its portals was plunged at once into the 
midst of so much that w:as beautiful, novel, and at- 
tractive that he w^as bewildered. A thorough study 
of this eighth wonder of the world through the 
medium of some systematic and carefully prepared 
account of it cannot fail to be of great benefit to tlio 



6 PREFACE. 

intelligent visitor. Such a means of study is offered 
him in this work. 

Those who saw the Exhibition will^ it is believed, 
admit the truthfulness of the picture herein presented, 
whatever they may think of the manner in which 
the work is executed. 

The engravings in this work have been prepared 
especially for it, and at great expense. It is sufficient 
to say that they were engraved by Messrs. Yan In gen 
& Snyder, Philadelphia, Harper & Bros., New York, 
and other well-known houses. 

Jas. D. McCabe. 

Philadelphia, 

December 4th, 1876. 



6 PREFACE. 

intelligent visitor. Such a means of study is offered 
him in this work. 

Those who saw the Exhibition will^ it is believed, 
admit the truthfulness of the picture herein presented, 
whatever they may think of the manner in which 
the work is executed. 

The engravings in this work have been prepared 
especially for it, and at great expense. It is sufficient 
to say that they were engraved by Messrs. Yan Ingen 
& Snyder, Philadelphia, Harper & Bros., New York, 
and other well-known houses. 

Jas. D. McCabe. 

Philadelphia, 

December 4th, 1876. 




TllK CENTRAL AISLE OF THE MAIN EXHIBITION BUILDING. 







1. Steel Portrait of George Washinsjtnn Frontispiece. 

2. Signing the Declaration of IndepenJeuce by the Conti- ■ " 

nental Congress, July 4th, 1776 " 

3. ^fain Building of the International Centennial Exhibition 

4. View in the Main Exhibition Building, showing the Spanish, Egyptian 

and Danish Courts i - 

5. Main Entrance to Exhibition Grounds ■ 

6. Agricultural Hall — International Exhibition , • 

7. Scene in Agricultural Hall,' showing the Tobacco Exhibit ' 

• 8. Memorial Building or Art Gallery — International Exhibition 

9. Machinery Hall — International Exhibition 

10. Yiew in Agricultural Hall, showing the Brazilian Exhibits ' ■ 

11. Horticultural Hall — International Exhibition 

12. Ceremonies at opening of the Exhibition 

13. General View of the Interior of Main Building 

14. Food Fishes of the Sea — Exhibited in the United States Govern- 

ment Building 

15. Grangers' Centennial Encampment 

16. Main Aisle in Agricultural Hall, showing the Old Windmill, 

etc 

17. Yiew at Ninth and Chestnut Streets 

18. "William Penn PAGE 18 

19. Penn's Treaty Monument 19 

20. Penn laying out the plan of Philadelphia 21 

21. Monkey House, Zoological Gardens 23 

22. Market Street below Seventh 26 

23. Ninth and Market Streets 27 

24. Declaration of Independence proclaimed in Philadelphia 28 

25. Lippincott's Building ii9 

26. Market Street above Eighth .♦ 30 

27. Corner of Market and Sixth Streets 32 

28. Bingham House 33 

29. The house in which the Declaration of Independence was written 34 

7 



8 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

80. Market Street above Seventh PAGE 35 

31. National Publishing Company's Building 36 

32. Christ Church in 1776 37 

33. Young Men's Christian Association Ihiilding 39 

34. Guarantee Trust and Safe Deposit Company's Building, Chestnut 

Street 40 

35. Carpenter's Hall 42 

36. Independence Hall in 1776 43 

37. Provident Life and Trust Company 44 

38. Chestnut Street below Third 45 

39. Chestnut Street above Sixth 46 

40. Post-Office 48 

41. Independence Hall, Philadelphia, in 1876 50 

42. Interior of Independence Hall 51 

43. Old Bell of Independence Hall 53 

44. Public Ledger Building 54 

45. German Democrat Building 55 

46. Guy's Hotel 56 

47. Old Masonic Temple, Chestnut Street 57 

48. Continental Hotel 58 

49. Girard House 59 

50. Chestnut Street at Twelfth 60 

51. A Chestnut Street Dry-Goods Store 61 

52. Colonnade Hotel 63 

53. Chestnut Street Bridge over the Schuylkill, Philadelphia 64 

54. Merchants' Exchange 65 

55. Eesidence of George W. Childs, Walnut Street 67 

56. Corner of Arch and Sixth Streets 69 

57. Benjamin Franklin 70 

58. St. Cloud Hotel 71 

59. Arch Street Methodist Church 72 

60. Beth-Eden Baptist Church - 74 

61. Horticultural Hall 75 

62. Academy of Music ''6 

63. Union League Club House 81 

64. La Pierre House 82 

65. The New Public Buildings 83 

66. The National Museum in Independence Hall 83 

67. New Masonic Temple 85 

68. Aviary, Zoological Gardens 91 

69. Moonlight on the Beach at Cape May— Branch of the Pennsylvania 

Railroad 94 

70. Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul 97 

71. Gethsemane Baptist Church. • 99 

72. The Old Swedes' Church 101 

73. Central Congregational Church 103 

74. University of Pennsylvania 106 

75. Girard College • 108 

76. Seminary of St. Charles Borromeo Ill 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 9 

77. Mercantile Library tage 112 

78. Baptist Board of Publication, Cliestnut Street 115 

79. Academy of Natural Sciences 116 

80. Presbyterian Board of Publication, Chestnut Street 120 

81. Philadelphia County Prison 122 

82. View of the Schuylkill from Laurel Hill, showing the Falls Bridge. 125 

83. View of Fairmount Water Works , 127 

84. Steamship Docks of the Pennsylvania Railroad on the Delaware 

River 130 

85. Fairmount Bridge 1.34 

86. View above the Dam, Fairmount 136 

87. Girard Avenue Bridge 138 

88. Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge, Fairmount Park 140 

89. The Battle of Gerraantown— Chew's House 141 

90. A Germantown Villa ! 142 

91. The Schuylkill, at Philadelphia 145 

92. Bear Pits in the Zoological Garden 146 

93. Fountain near Mineral Spring, Lemon Hill 147 

94. Monument to Abraham Lincoln in Fairmount Park, Philadelpiiia 148 

95. East Terrace, Lemon Hill, Fairmount Park 150 

96. Glen Fern, Wissahickon 152 

97. Schuylkill Bluff, Fairmount Park ,. 153 

98. The Hermit's Well 155 

99. The Wissahickon 157 

100. Hemlock Glen on the Wissahickon 159 

101. Entrance to Fairmount Park at Egglesfield 160 

102. Fairmount Park from the Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge 162 

103. Drinking-Fountain on the AVissahickon 163 

104. Columbia Bridge over the Schuylkill, from the Rustic B/id ;e in the 

AVest Park 168 

105. The Drive— Wissahickon 172 

106. Elephant House, Zoological Gardens 174 

107. The AVissahickon at Chestnut Hill 177 

108. On the Wissahickon 180 

109. Drive in Fairmount Park 184 

no. On the AVissahickon Drive 186 

111. Restaurant in the Zoological Gardens 189 

112. Bridge over the AAlssahickon at A'alley Green 191 

113. Bridge over AVissahickon, near Mount Airy 207 

114. Centennial Medal— Reverse 212 

115. Centennial Medal — Obverse 213 

116. Carnivora Building, Zoological Gardens 214 

117. Monster Pines, AVest Park 215 

lis. View from Belmont, AA^est Park : 219 

119. Building of the New York ^lutual Life Insurance Company 222 

120. Ravine in AVestern Park, Sweetbriar Vale 225 

121. John AVanamaker's New Clothing House, Market Street 220 

122. Scene near Tyrone, on the Pennsylvania Railroad 232 

123. Scene at AUegrippas, Pennsylvania Railroad 242 



10 LIST OF illustrations; 

124. The Horse-Shoe Curve, Pennsylvania Railroad page 247 

125. Track Tank, Pennsylvania Railroad 249 

126. Block Signal Station, Pennsylvania Railroad 252 

127. Bryn Mawr Station, Pennsylvania Railroad 256 

128. Bryn Mawr Hotel, Pennsylvania Railroad 264 

129. Depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Altoona 270 

130. Interior of a Parlor Car, Pennsylvania Railroad 274 

131. Central Dome, Vienna Exposition Building 278 

132. Chester Valley, near Philadelphia, as seen from the Pennsylvania 

Railroad 282 

133. Scene on the Schuylkill, near Philadelphia 291 

134. The Globe Hotel, opposite entrance to Main Building 297 

135. Transcontinental Hotel, opposite ^fain Building 298 

136. The United States Hotel, near the Main Exhibition Building.. 299 

137. Grand Exposition Hotel 301 

138. Centennial Depot, Pennsylvania Railroad, opposite Machinery Hall. 307 

139. Doyle's Restaurant 311 

140. Centennial Depot of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad , 314 

141. Bird's-Eye View of the Centennial Buildings, Fairmount Park, Phila- 

delphia 319 

142. The Roman Catholic Centennial Fountain 326 

143. Statue of Liberty to be erected in Independence Square 328 

144. Main Building of the International Centennial Exhibition, Phila- 

delphia, 1876 334 

145. Delaware State Building 340 

146. Connecticut State Building.... 343 

147. Ohio State Building • 347 

148. Massachusetts State Building 353 

149. New York State Building 357 

150. Studio of the National Photographic Company 362 

151. New Jersey State Building '. 370 

152. Colorado and Kansas State Buildii^g 376 

153. Arkansas State Building 380 

154. The Book Trade Exhibit— Showing J. B. Lippincott & Co.'s Case.... 385 

155. The Colosseum, Southeast Corner Broad and Locust Streets 391 

156. Eastern Entrance to the Swedish Court 404 

157. Entrance to the Spanish Court 409 

158. Entrance to the Egyptian Court 412 

159. Entrance to the Brazilian Court 422 

160. The Spanish Building 428 

161. Machinery Hall — International Exhibition 436 

162. The Corliss Engine in Machinery Hall 439 

163. Cook's World's Ticket Offices, Centennial Grounds 451 

164. The German Restaurant -. T. 462 

165. Agricultural Hall 471 

166. The Carriage Building 47G 

167. Interior of Agricultural Hall 484 

168. Horticultural Building 508 

169. Stairway in Horticultural Hall 511 



10 LIST OF illustrations; 

124. The Horse-Shoe Curve, Pennsylvania Railroad page 247 

125. Track Tank, Pennsylvania Railroad • 249 

12G. Block Signal Station, Pennsylvania Railroad 252 

127. Bryn Mawr Station, Pennsylvania Railroad 256 

128. Bryn Mawr Hotel, Pennsylvania Railroad 264 

129. Depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Altoona 270 

130. Interior of a Parlor Car, Pennsylvania Railroad 274 

131. Central Dome, Vienna Exposition Building 278 

132. Chester Valley, near Philadelphia, as seen from the Pennsylvania 

Railroad 282 

133. Scene on the Schuylkill, near Philadelphia 291 

134. The Globe Hotel, opposite entrance to Main Building 297 

135. Transcontinental Hotel, opposite :Main Building 298 

136. The United States Hotel, near the Main Exhibition Building 29§ 

137. Grand Exposition Hotel 301 

138. Centennial Depot, Pennsylvania Railroad, opposite Machinery Hall. 307 

139. Doyle's Restaurant 311 

140. Centennial Depot of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad 314 

141. Bird's-Eye View of the Centennial Buildings, Fairmount Park, Phila- 

delphia 319 

142. The Roman Catholic Centennial Fountain 326 

143. Statue of Liberty to be erected in Independence Square 328 

144. Main Building of the International Centennial Exhibition, Phila- 

delphia, 1876 334 

145. Delaware State Building... • 340 

146. Connecticut State Building 343 

147. Ohio State Building • 347 

148. Massachusetts State Building 3o3 

149. New York State Building •• 357 

150. Studio of the National Photographic Company 362 

151. New Jersey State Building 370 

152. Colorado and Kansas State Buildii^g 376 

153. Arkansas State Building 380 

154. The Book Trade Exhibit— Showing J. B. Lippincott & Co.'s Case.... 385 

155. The Colosseum, Southeast Corner Broad and Locust Streets 391 

156. Eastern Entrance to the Swedish Court 404 

157. Entrance to the Spanish Court 409 

158. Entrance to the Egyptian Court 412 

159. Entrance to the Brazilian Court 422 

160. The Spanish Building 428 

161. Machinery Hall— International Exhibition 436 

162. The Corliss Engine in Machinery Hall 439 

163. Cook's World's Ticket Offices, Centennial Grounds 451 

164. The German Restaurant 462 

165. Agricultural Hall 471 

166. The Carriage Building 470 

167. Interior of Agricultural Hall.... 484 

168. Horticultural Building 508 

169. Stairway in Horticultural Hall 511 




FOOD FISHES OF THE SEA — EXHIBITED IN THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDING, 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. IT 

170. The Forcing-House, Horticultural Hall PAGE 512 

171. Memorial Hall or Art Gallery 519 

172. Eagle used in ornamentation of Memorial Hall 521 

173. Italian Statuary in the Annex to the Art Gallery 534 

174. Photographic Art Gallery 541 

175. United States Government Building 546 

176. Post Hospital of the United States Army 586 

177. "Women's Pavilion, International Centennial Exhibition 590 

178. Pennsylvania State Building 600 

179. Maryland State Building ,.... 602 

180. The British Buildings 608 

181. Building of the German Empire .., 611 

1S2. Swedish School-House .'..613 

183. The Japanese Dwelling 615 

184. The Judges' Hall 619 

185. Grand American Eestaurant 621 

186. The Southern Restaurant 622 

187. Restaurant of the Trois Freres Provengeaux 623 

188. The Shoe and Leather Building 626 

189. Building of the Department of Public Comfort 630 

190. Singer Sewing Machine Building 633 

191. The Empire Transj)ortatiou Company's Building 636 

192. Building of the Campbell Press Company 638 

193. The American Xews])aper Building 641 

194. General J. R. Hawley, President of the U. S. Centennial Commission... 650 

195. John Welsh, Chairman of the Centennial Board of Finance 654 

196. A. T. Goshorn, Director-General of the Exhibition 655 

197. Professor J. L. Campbell, Secretary of the United States Centennial 

Commission 65S 

198. General Charles B. Norton, Secretary of the Centennial Bureau of 

Revenue 658 

199. Abbe Bolt Forging Machine, exhibited in Machinery Hall 660 

200. The New Post-Office, Philadelphia 662 

201. The Wisconsin State Building mh 

202. Women's Centennial Concert Garden, Broad Street 670 

203. Boat Houses of the Schuylkill Navy 674 

204. Commodore James M. Ferguson 679 

205. The Baldwin Narrow-Gauge Locomotive, used by the West-End Rail- 

way in the Exhibition Grounds 682 

206. The Ice-Yacht, exhibited in Machinery Hall 683 

207. The Sellers Slotting Machine, in Machinery Hall 685 

208. Johnson's Type Casting Machine, in Machinery Hall 687 

209. The Sellers Hydrostatic Wheel-Press, in Machinery Hall 689 

210. "The Death of the Elk"— Swedish Group in the Main Building 691 

211. Brayton's Hydro-Carbon Engine, exhibited in Machinery Hall 692 

212. Group of Paim Trees in Horticultural Hall 694 

213. Dead-Stroke Power Hammer, in Machinery Hall 696 

214. Sevres Vase, in Memorial Hall 699 

215. The Vintage Festival, by Alma Tadema, in Memorial Hall 702 



12 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

216. Langen Otto Gas Motor, exhibited in the German Section of Machinery 

Hall :.PAGE 704 

217. Flowers' Centennial Oil-Cup, exhibited in Machinery Hall 708 

218. Carved East Indian Furniture, in the Main Building 709 

'219. Machinery Section, Agricultural Hall 711 

220. Four-Cylinder Soap-Making Machine, exhibited in the French Section, 

Machinery Hall 712 

221. Interior of Rotunda of Memorial Hall 714 

222. "Aquometer" Pump, exhibited in Machinery Hall 715 

223. Department of Printing Machinery in Machinery Hall 717 

224. Becker's "Rizpah Protecting the Bodies of her Sons," in Memorial 

. Hall 719 

225. Combination Wood Worker, exhibited in Machinery Hall 720 

226. Eastman Johnson's "Old Kentucky Home," in Memorial Hall... 722 

227. Garlandal's Air-Cooler and Purifying Apparatus, exhibited in Ma- 

chinery Hall ■... 723 

228. The Stevens Parallel Vise, exhibited in Machinery Hall 724 

229. The Italian Department, Agricultural Hall 726 

230. Slotting Machine, exhibited by Ferris & Miles in Machinery Hall... 727 

231. The Sewing Machine Section, Machinery Hall 729 

232. Chambers, Bro. & Co.'s Archimedean Brick Machine, exhibited in 

Machinery Hall 730 

233. Power Punching Machine, exhibited by Ferris & Miles in Machinery 

Hall 731 

234. Dreaming lolanthe, in Butter, in the Women's Pavilion ' 733 

235. " Dug-Out" from British Columbia, in the United States Government 

Building 734 

236. Steam Hammer, exhibited by Ferris & Miles, in Machinery Hall.... 736 

237. Ferris & Miles' Shaping Machine, exhibited in Machinery Hall 738 

238. Totem-Post, from Haidahs, Queen Charlotte Islands, in the United 

States Government Building 739 

239. " Diana." Figure in Terra-Cotta, exhibited by Galloway & Graff, in 

the Main Building 742 

240. "Psyche." Figure in Terra-Cotta, exhibited by Galloway & Graff, 

in the Main Building 744 

241. View of the Interior of the Glass Works 745 

242. Chinese Pagoda, in the Main Building 746 

243. Kiosk of Stuffed Birds, exhibited in the Main Building 748 

244. Patent Folding Bed, exhibited in the Main Building 750 

245. The Whitmore Portable Steam-Engine, exhibited in Machinery Hall. 752 

246. Perforated Veneer Seats 754 

247. View of Section of Fish Exhibit, United States Government Building. 756 

248. " The Century Vase," exhibited* by the Gorham Company in the 

Main Building 757 

249. British Museum Vase, exhibited by Galloway & Graff. 7^19 

250. Tumbler Drainer, and Water-Jet, exhibited by Charles Lippiucott & 

Co., in Machinery Hall 761 

251. Palmer Power Spring-Hammer, exhibited in Machinery Hall 763 

252. Exhibit of Seeds in Agricultural Hall 767 




CEREMONIES AT THE OPENING OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 




QENERAL VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE MAIN liUILDING. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATION'S. 13 

253. Ticket-Office of the Pennsylvania Railroad, in the Exhibition 

Grounds page 770 

254. Soda Fountain, exhibited by Charles Lippincott & Co., in Machinery 

Hall 774 

255. J.npanese Bronze Vase, in the Main Building 776 

256. Baugh's Sectional Mill for Hard Substances, exhibited in Machinery 

Hall 779 

257. Liberian Ivory Display, exhibited in Agricultural Hall 781 

258. Malachite Mantel and Ornaments, exhibited in the Russian Section, 

Main Building ". 783 

259. Weimer's Suspended Hot-Blast Stove, exhibited in Machinery Ilall.. 785 

260. The " \Varwick Vase," exhibited by Galloway & Graff, in the Main 

Building 787 

261. Weimer & Birkenbine's Furnace Charger, exhibited in Machinery 

Hall 788 

262. The Twiss Vertical Engine, exhibited in Machinery Hall 789 

263. Terra-Cctta Vase, exhibited by Galloway & Graff, in the Main 

Building 792 

» 

264. Theorell's Printing Meteorograi)h, exhibited in the Swedish School- 

House 793 

265. Mammoth California Grape Vine, in Agricultural Hall 796 

266. Centennial Award Medal (Obverse) 798 

267. Centennial Award Medal (Reverse). ;.... ; 799 

268. Terra-Cotta Vase, exhibited by Galloway & Graff, in the Main Building. 803 

269. Patent Car Coupler, exhibited in Machinery Hall 805 

270. Blank Books, exhibited by W. F. Murphy's Sons, Philadelphia, in 

the Main Building 807 

271. The Aquaria, Agricultural Hall 809 

272. Alcott's Turbine Wheel, exhibited in Machinery Hall 811 

273. Steam Hammer, exhibited by Ferris & Miles, in Machinery Hall 814 

274. Portuguese Government Building.. # 816 

275. View of the Looms, Machinery Hall 818 

276. Rhode Island State Building 820 

277. Gregg's Impact Brick Machine, exhibited in Machinery Hall 822 

278. Liberian Coffee Huller, exhibited in Agricultural Hall 823 

279. "Keystone Soda Water Apparatus," exhibited by Charles Lippincott 

& Co., in Machinery Hall 825 

280. Terra-Cotta Vase, exhibited in the Main Building 826 

281. Silver Bas-Relief Plaque, Repousse, exhibited by the Gorham Co 828 

282. Ornamental Pagoda, in the Chinese Section, Main Building 829 

283. Mississippi State Building 831 

284. Communion Service, " Gorham Plate," exhibited by the Gorham 

Manufacturing Company, in the Main Building 833 

285. Drum Roller Printing Press, exhibited by Cottrell & Babcock 835 

286. The Runquist Oscillating Governor, exhibited in Machinery Hall.... 836 

287. Silver Flower Vase, Repousse Work, exhibited by the Gorham Co... 837 

288. Wagner's Chariot Race, in Memorial Hall 838 

289. Makart's "Venice doing Homage to Catharine Cornaro," in Mem- 

orial Hall 841 



14 LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS. 

290. Gillinder & Sons' Glass Works in the Exhibition Grounds...... PAGE 843 

291. Upright Drilling Machine, exhibited in Machinery Hall 846 

292. Brazilian Government Building • 847 

293. "Old Virginia" Building 848 

294. Philadelphia City Building 850 

295. French Burr Mill, in Machinery Hall 853 

296. Steam-Pump, exhibited in Machinery Hall 854 

297. Conelly's Statue of Thetis, in Memorial Hall 855 

298. Embroidered Screen, exhibited in the Chinese Section, Main Building. 856 

299. Vermont State Building '. 858 

300. The New England Log Cabin and Modern Kitchen 859 

301. Planing Machine, exhibited in Machinery Hall 860 

302. Eadial Drill, exhibited in Machinery Hall 861 

303. Liberian Coffee Display, exhibited in Agricultural Hall 864 

304. Screw-Cutting Lathe, exhibited in Machinery Hall 867 

305. Peacock's Feather, containing tlie famous "Brunswick" Diamond, 

and over 600 Small Diamonds 869 

306. China Vases >...•• 871 

307. China Vases 872 

308. Centennial Award Medal •• 873 

309. Interior View of the Kansas and Colorado Building... 

310. General View of the Interior of Machinery Hall 

311. The Hydraulic Basin, in Machinery Hall 

312. View of the Interior of the Women's Pavilion 

313. Interior of the United States Government Building 

314. Interior of the Brazilian Court, in the Main Building 

315. General View of the Interior of Horticultural Hall 

316. The Chinese Court, in the Main Building 

317. Exhibit of Garden Seed, in Agricultural Hall 

318. Ornamental Vase and Flowers, exhibited in Main Building 

319. "Exhibition Vase," exhibited in Main Building 

320. The Starch Pavilion, in Agricultural Hall 

321. General View of the Interior of Agricultural Hall 

322. Pagoda and Group of Vases, in the Chinese Section 

323. Japanese Temple in Bronze, Main Building 

324. Silver Pitcher, exhibited by the Gorham Co 

325. Solid Silver Salver, exhibited by the Gorham Co. Value $3,000 

326. Show-Cases in the Chinese Department, Main Building 

327. Group of Vases, exhibited in the Chinese Section 

328. Bronze Vase, exhibited in the Japanese Section 

329. Principal Depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad, West Philadelphia.., 

330. Improved Stop Cylinder Press, exhibited in Machinery Hall 




ftENERAI. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF MACHINERY HALIi. 




THE HYDRAULIC BASIN, IN MACHINERY HALL. 



I 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE CITY OF PHILADELPHIA. — HISTOEICAL. 

Founding of Philadelphia by William Penn — His. Treaty with the Indians 
— Original Plan of the City — Growth of the City — The Revolution — 
Occupation by the British — Commercial Prosperity of Philadelphia — 
Its Banking Interests — Consolidation of the Suburbs with the City — The 
Centennial Census — Population of Philadelphia 17 

CHAPTER II. 

PHILADELPHIA IX 1876. 

Location of Philadelphia — Size of the City — Its Regularity — Materials 
used in Building the Houses — "The City of Homes" — Philadelphia 
Houses — Mr. Kortwright's Statistics — The Public Squares — Market 
Street — The House in which the Declaration of Independence was written 
— The National Publishing Company's Building — Second Street — Christ 
Church — Chestnut Street — A Splendid Thoroughfare — Carpenter's Hall 
— The Continental Congress — The First Prayer in Congress — The Custom 
• House — The Post-Office — Independence Hall— The Fashionable Prom- 
enade—Noted Buildings— The Hotels— The Continental— The United 
States :Mint— Walnut Street— The Merchants' Exchange— The Commer- 
cial Exchange— An Interesting Site — Pennsylvania and Philadelphia 
& Reading Railroad Buildings — Offices of the Centennial Commission — 
The Abode of W^ealth and Fashion— Arch Street— The Grave of Frank- 
lin—Handsome Churches — Broad Street — The Baltimore Depot — Penn- 
sylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb — Academy of Music — The 
Colosseum — Union League Club House — The Public Buildings — The 
Masonic Temple — Academy of Fine Arts — Reading Railroad Depot — 
Third Street— The Financial Centre— The Girard Bank— Old Churches. 24 

• 15 



lo CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 

PHILADELPHIA IN 1876 — CONCLUDED. 

Steam Railroads— Their Depots and Ticket Offices— Steamship Lines— 
The Piiihidelpliia Markets— Prominent Ciiurches— Cathedral— The 
oldest Presbyterian and Roman Catholic Ciiurches — TJie old Swedes' 
Church — The Public Schools — University of Pennsylvania— The Medi- 
cal Colleges— Girard College— The Philadelphia Library— Mercantile 
Library— Ridgway Library— Academy of Natural Sciences— Learned 
Societies— The Zcol ogical Gardens— Benevolent Institutions— The Penn- 
sylvania Hospital— Insane Asylum— Naval Asylum— Prisons— House of 

Correction — Places of Amusement — Cemeteries — Newspapers — Banks 

Gas and Water— Street Railways— The Water Front— The Delaware 
Shore— Port Richmond— The Coal Wharves— Ship Yards— Camden- 
Smith's and Windmill Islands— Docks of the Pennsylvania Railroad— 
The American Steamship Line — The Old Navy Yard— Greenwich Point 
—League Island— The Navy Y.ird- Fort ^lifflin— A Reminiscence of 
the Revolution— The Schuylkill River— The Bridges- The Fairmount 
and Girard Avenue Bridges— The finest Bridge in America— West 
Philadelphia— Germantown— Manufactures and Commerce 92 

CHAPTER iV. 

FAIRMOUNT PARK. 

Dimensions of the Park— Its History— Improvements— Old Fairmount 
and Lemon Hill — View from the Hill— The Waterworks— The Art 
Gallery — The Lincoln Monument — Lemon Hill — Reminiscences of 
Robert Morris— Sedgeley Park— The River Road— The East Park— 
The Storage Reservoir— Old Country-seats — ]\Iount Pleasant— Arnold's 
Home — Fort St. David's — The Wissahickon — Romantic Scenery — The 
Hotels— The Hermit's Well— The Mystics— Washington's Rock— The 
Monastery— The West Park— Solitude— The Zoological Gardens— The 
Grounds of the Centennial Exhibition — Lansdowne — George's Hill — 
Belmont— Judge Peters — The Sawyer Observatory— How to Reach 
tlie Park I44 

CHAPTER V. • 

THE HISTORY OF THE. CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 

The First Proposals for the Exhibition— Initiatory Measures— Action of 
the City Councils of Philadelphia— The Memorial to Congress— The Act 
of Incorporation— Appointment of the Centennial Commission— Creation 
of the Board of Finance— Liberal Action of the City of Philadelphia- 
Donation of the Exhibition Grounds— The Formal Transfer— Proclama- 
tion of the President of the United States— The Invitation to Foreign 



co2ste:nts. 17 

Powers — The Law for tlie Free Entry of Exhibitors' Goods — The General 
Government Takes Part in the Exhibition — TJie Ground Broken, July 
4lh, 1874 — Plans of the Commission — Circulars of the Director-General 
— Regulations for Exhibitors — Order of tlie Treasury Department — 
Work of the Board of Finance — Sales of Stock — The Bureau of Revenue 
— Its Successful Work — Sale of Medals — Appropriations by Pennsyl- 
vania and Pliiladelphia — Refusal of Congress to Aid the Exhibition — 
Report of tlie Board of Finance — Action of the States — Appropriations 
by Foreign Governments — Congress Appropriates a Million and a Half 
to the Exliibition — Tiiird Annual Report of the Board of Finance — 
Reception of Goods — Completion of the "Work — Tiie System of Awards 
— The Centennial Calendar 167 

CHAPTER Vi/ 

THE MANAGEMENT OF THE EXHIBITION. 

A List of the Officers of the Centennial Exhibition, and the Commissioners 
from Foreign Countries 230 

CHAPTER Vll. 

GETTING TO TIIE EXHIBITION — ACCOMMODATIONS FOR 

VISITORS. 

Rush of Visitors to Philadelphia — Arrangements for Transportation of 
Visitors by the Railroads of tlie United States — Settlement of the Question 
of Fares — Arrangements of the Railroads leading into Philadelphia — 
How to reach the Exhibition Grounds from the city — The Pennsylvania 
Railroad — Magnificent equipment of the Road — The Model Railroad of 
the Union — Arrangements of tlie Philadelpliia & Reading Railroad — 
The Schuylkill Steamboats — The Street Railway arrangements — Cabs 
and Carriages — Regulations concerning them — The Philadelphia Hotels 
— Their Capacity for accommodating Guests — The Centennial Lodging- 
House Agency — Boarding Houses — Suburban Hotels — Circular of the 
Centennial Commission with reference to Accommodations for Visitors. 240 

CHAPTER Vlll. 

THE OPENING OF THE EXHIBITION. 

Arrangements for the Opening — Programme Issued by the Centennial 
Commission — Scenes in Philadelphia on the 9th of May — The Opening 
Day — The Rush to the Grounds — Arrival of Visitors from Distant 
Points — The Gates Thrown Open — The Grand Stands — A Brilliant Scene 
— Arrival of the President of the United States — Wagner's Centennial 
March — Bishop Simpson's Prayer — Whittier's Hymn — Enthusiasm of 
the Multitude — Transfer of the Exhibition to the Centennial Commis- 



18 CO^'TE2sTS. 

sion— The Centennial Cantata— Address of General Hawley— President 
Grant Declares the Exhibition Open— The Flag Unfurled— The Presi- 
dent's Tour Through the Buildings— The Starting of the Great Engine 
— Scenes ii he Exhibition Grounds— Illumination of the City 267 

CHAPTER IX, 

WITHOUT THE GROUNDS. 

Rapid Growth of the Centennial Town — The Transcontinental and Globe 
Hotels — The United States — The Grand Exposition — The Panorama — 
Sio-hts and Scenes on Elm Avenue — The Cheap Hotels — The Beer-Gar- 
dens—The Carriage Sheds— The Cheap Museums— The Oil Wells— The 
Street Car Concourse — A Busy Scene — Centennial Depot of the Pennsyl- 
vania Eailroad — Belmont Avenue — Appearance of the Street — The 
Largest Soda Fountain in the World — The Restaurants — The Tropical 
Garden— A Delightful Resort— George's Hill— Belmont— The Steam 
boat Landing — Centennial Depot of the Reading Railroad 296 

CHAPTER X. 

THE EXHIBITION GROUNDS. 

Topography of the Grounds— The Ravines— The Entrances— The Turn- 
stiles—Styles of Tickets used— The Photograph Regulation— The Cen- 
tennial Guard— The Fire Department— The Narrow-Gauge Railway— 
The Rolling Chair Service— Landscape Gardening— The Flowers— The 
Avenues— The Bridges— Bartholdi's Fountain— The Roman Catholic 
Total Abstinence Fountain— The Centennial Waterworks— Relief Plans 
of Foreign Cities— Statue of Religious Liberty— Statues of Christopher 
Colurabirs and Elias Howe— The Hunter's Camp— An Old-Fashioned 
Railroad Train— The American Soldiers' Monument— The Ice- Water 
Fountain— The Indian Camp ^^^ 

CHAPTER X!. 

THE MAIN BUILDING. 

Description of the Main Building-A Monster Edifice-The Interior- 
A Magnificent Hall— Decorations — The Galleries— A Beautiful and 
Imposhig Scene — Water-Closets — Restaurants — Fountains — Letter 
Boxes— Telegraph System— The Elevator— Classification of the Display 
in the Building— The American Department— The Great Organ— The 
Massachusetts Educational Exhibit— The Roosevelt Organ— The Paper 
Makers— The Book Pavilion— The Model Post-Office— The Cotton and 
Woollen Goods— The Carpet Rooms— American Pottery— Among the 
Iron Workers— The Fire-Arnis Exhibit— Rich Costumes— The Tele- 
graphic Display— The Gas Fixture Department— A Brilliant Display— 



CONTENTS. 1 

The Jewellers and Silversmiths — The Moorish Pavilion — A Gorgeous 
Exhibit of Eare and Costly Objects — The Century Vase — The Cologne 
Fountains — The Furniture Display — Model Houses Completely Fur- 
nished — The Pianos and Organs — Beautiful Instruments — Concerts — 
Great Britain and Ireland — Magnificent Display of Silver and Plated 
Ware — Splendid Furniture and Church Ornaments — Beautiful Porce- 
lains — Superb Pottery — Statuary — Process of Making Pottery — The Tile 
Exhibit — Eich Iron Work — Eare Furniture — A Eoyal Pavilion — Grand 
Display of Cotton and Woollen Goods and Linens — Jewelry — Splendid 
Carpets — The Book Display— The Graphic's Art Collection — Eich 
Stained Glass — A Gorgeous Show from India — The Canadian Exhibit — 
The Manufactures and Natural Products of tlie Dominion — The Educa- 
tional Exhibit of Ontario — The Australian Exhibits — The Wonders and 
Resources of the Pacific Continent — Pyramids of Gold — Superb PhotO' 
graphs of Australian Scenes — Dust from the Gold Coast — Native Dia- 
monds — The West Indian Display — France — The French Court — Eare 
- Bronzes — Exquisite Porcelains — The Textile Fabrics of France — The 
Silk Court — Beautiful Laces — Statuary — Eeligious Groups — The Book 
Trade Exhibit — Fine Engravings — Fine Cutlery — Articles de Paris — 
Scientific and Philosophical Apparatus 332 

CHAPTER XII. 

TELE MAIN BUILDING — CONCLUDED. 

Germany — Location of the German Section — A Superb Display of Porce- 
lain — Beautiful Vases — Plate Glass — Bronzes — The Silks — Displav of 
the Elberfeld Manufacturers — The Ivory Pavilion — The Chemical Dis- 
play — The Velvet Pagoda — The Hospital Department — Fine Church 
Decorations — Models of an Ocean Steamer — Tlie Book Pavilion — The 
Austrian Court — Magnificent Bohemian Glass— The Meerschaum Pipes 
— Exquisite Carvings — Vienna Leather Work — The Italian Court — 
Artistic Wood Carvings — Beautiful Jewelry — Glassware from Venice — 
Belgium — Magnificent Display of Textile Fabrics — Carved Furniture 
— Fire-arms — A Belgian School and Gymnasium — The Lace Court — 
Beautiful Iron Work — Pictures in Tapestry — The Netherlands — A Grand 
Display of the Public Works of Holland— The Woollen Goods— Model 
Farms — A Dutch Eating-house — Eare and Beautiful Art Works — Educa- 
tional Exhibit — The Artisans' School — Switzerland in Miniature — The 
Watchmakers — Scientific Instruments — The Swiss School System — Eich 
Laces — The W^ood Carvers — Sweden — The Peasant Groups — Scenes in 
the Home Life of the Swedes — A Beautiful Exhibit — Fine Porcelains — 
The Bessemer Steelmakers — Display of the Swedish Army — Norway — 
Peasant Groups — Tlie Laplanders — A Fine Collection — The Danish 
.Court — Etruscan Imitations — Esquimaux Houses and Boats— The Span- 
ish Pavilion — A Beautiful Structure — Eich Display of the Eesources' 
and Wealth of Spain — Evidences of Spanish Industry — The Egyptian 



*20 CONTENTS. 

Ck)urt — A Rare and Beautiful Display from the Land of the Nile — The 
Past and the Present — A Page from the Arabian Nights — Rich Robes — 
Articles from Central Africa— Egypt's Agricultural Resources— The 
Japanese Court— A Wonderful Display— Superb Bronzes— The Lacq- 
uered Ware — What the Island Empire Exhibits — The Ciiinese Court — 
A Beautiful and Curious Display — Exhibit of the Orange Free State— 
Another Sample of Dutch Energy— The Tunisian Court — Eastern Mag- 
nificence — Display of the Native Products and Manuftictures of Mexico 
— The Brazilian Pavilion — A Superb Edifice — Tiie Empire of Brazil 
Illustrated — Exhibit of the other South American States — Display from 
the Sandwich Islands — The Russian Exhibit — Rich and Beautiful Ob- 
jects from St. Petersburg and Moscow — The Portuguese Court — A Hand- 
some Collection — Special Portuguese Features — The Turkish Court — 
The Wonders of the Land of the Sultan — The Mineral Annex — The 
Carriage Annex 386 

CHAPTER XIII. 

MACHINERY HALL. 

Description of the Building — The Interior — Conveniences for Visitors — 
Precautions Against Fire^The Corliss Engine — Distribution of Power 
— The American Display — Curious and Interesting Machines — The 
Steam-Engines — The First Steam-Engine in America — The Blast Fur- 
nace — The Sewing Machines — A Handsome Display — The Suspension 
Bridge Exhibit — A Monster Cotton Press — W^eaving Machines — Making 
Watches by Machinery — Carpet Weaving — The AVater ^Motors — The 
Locomotives — The Railway Exhibit — The Vacuum Pan — The Tobacco 
Factory — Making India Rubber Shoes — Making Candies by Machinery 
— The Massachusetts Marine — Among the Printing Machines — The Old 
Franklin Press— Printing the New York Herald— The Ice Yacht- 
American Machine Shops— Nail and Tack :Making— The Hydraulic 
Annex— The Tank — The Cascade— The Hydraulic and Blowing Ma- 
chines—The British Section— The Road Steamers— Iroii Armor Plate- 
Weaving Machines— Railway Models— The Walter Press— The Sugar 
Mill— The Canadian Exhibit— The German Section— The Krupp Guns 
—The French Section — Silk Weaving — Lithographing — Belgian 
Machinery— The Well-Borer— The Swedish Section and Exhibits— The 
Russian Guns— The Brazilian Section— A Handsome and Characteristic 
Display '....'. ^^^ 

CHAPTER XIV. 

AGRICULTURAL HALL. 

Description of the Building — Interior Arrangements — Classification of the 
Exhibit— The American Department— Agricultural Machinery— The 
Plows— Harvesting Machines— Threshing Machines— The Cider Mill 



CONTENTS. 21 

— The Native Wines of America — The Starch Makers — The Windmill — 
The Natural History Collection — The California Buflet — The Aquaria — 
The Tobacco Exhibit — A Fine Display — Collective Exhibits of the 
Agricultural Products of the States of the Union — Daniel Webster's 
Plow— The Cape Ann Fisheries—'' Old Abe "—The British Court— A 
Small Display — Agricultural Products of Canada — Canadian Machinery 
— The French Exhibit — A Fine Display of French Wines — Germany's 
Contribution — The Wines of the Rhine land — Agricultural Products of 
Austria and Hungary — Exhibit of Russian Products — Italian Wines and 
Oils — Bologna Sausages — The Spanish Court — A Complete Exhibit of 
the Products of Spain — The Portuguese Collection — Holland's Exhibit 
— The Norway Fisheries — Swedish Exhibit — The Japanese Court — The 
Tea and Silk Culture — The Brazilian Court — The Cotton Pavilion — A 
Remarkable Collection — The Brazilian Silk Culture — Exhibits of 
Venezuela and the Argentine Republic — The Liberian Court — The 
Pomological Annex — The Wagon Annex 470 

CHAPTER XV. 

HORTICULTURAL HALL. 

Description of the Building — The Grand Conservatory — A Beautiful Hall 
— The Fountain — Cost of the Building — Classification of the Exhibit — A 
Rich Collection of Tropical Plants — A Beautiful Scene — The Forcing 
Houses — The East and West Rooms — Exhibit of Gardening Materials — 
The Electrical Organ — The Horticultural Grounds — The Guano Pavilion 
^-TheTent — Anthony Waterer's Rhododendrons — The Cuban Summer 
House 507 

CHAPTER XVI. 

MEMORLIL HALL. 

Description of tlie Building — Bronze Groups of Statuary — The Annex — 
Classification of the Art Exhibit — The Reception and Central Halls — 
The Paintings and Statues in them — The Art Galleries — Notable Pic- 
tures by American Artists — The English Gallery — Masterpieces of the 
Modern English Painters — The Older English Artists — The Queen's 
Pictures — The South Kensington Exhibit — The French Pictures — The 
German Gallery— The Austrian Collection — A Fine Collection of Italian 
Statuary — Italian Paintings — The Castellani Collections — Spanish 
Pictures — Art Gems from Sweden and Norway — Masterpieces of the 
Modern Dutch School — Notable Pictures from Belgium — Tlie Danish 
Gallery — Brazilian and Mexican Art — The Photographic Annex — A 
Fine Display of Photographs 517 



22 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDING. 

Description of the Building — The Grounds — Exhibits of the Various 
Departments Outside of the Building — The Monitor Turret — The Great 
Guns of the Army and Navy — The Postal Cars — The Transit of Venus 
Exhibit — Army Trains — Disposition of Space in the Hall — Exhibit of 
the Post-Office Department — A Model Post-Office — The Agricultural 
Department — A Fine Display — The Interior Department — Exhibit of 
the Patent Office — Historical Relics — A Rich Display of Indian Curi- 
osities — The Educational Exhibit — The Census — Photographs of the 
Geological Survey of the Territories — A Magnificent Display by the 
Smithsonian Institution — The Animals and Fishes of the United States 
— The Mineral Collection — The Treasury Exhibit — The Light-House 
and Coast Survey Branches — The 2!^avy Department — A Splendid and 
Complete Display of the Construction and Equipment of an American 
Man-of-War — The Torpedo Service — The War Department — Splendid 
Exhibit of the Signal Service — The Engineer Corps and its Work — 
Making Rifles and Cartridges by Machinery — The Post Hospital — The 
Laboratory — The Light-House 543 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE woman's building. ^ 

Description of the Building — Its Cost — A Lady Engineer — The Interior 
of the Building — The Exhibit — The Looms — Works of Female Artists 
— Inventions of Women — Institutions Managed by Women — Splendid 
Embroideries — Display from Foreign Countries — The Printing Office . . 589 

CHAPTER XIX. 

THE MINOR STRUCTURES OF THE EXHIBITION. 

The State Buildings — St. George's House — The French Government 
Building — The French Stained Glass Pavilion — The German Govern- 
ment Building — The Spanish Buildings — The Portuguese Building — 
The Swedish School-House — The Canadian Log-House — The Brazilian 
Building — The Japanese Dwelling and Bazaar — The Turkish and Tu- 
nisian Coffee Houses and Bazaars — The Syrian Bazaars — The ^loorish 
Villa — The Chilian Machinery HaJl — Buildings of the Centennial Com- 
mission — The Judges' Hall — The Restaurants — The Shoe and Leather 
Building — The Brewers' Hall — The Butter and Cheese Factory — 
Department of Public Comfort — Singer Sewing Machine Cottage — The 
Centennial Photographic Association — The American Railroad Ticket 
Office — Empire Transportation Company's Building — Starr's Iron Works 
The Glass Works^^Campbell Printing Press Building — The American 



CONTENTS. 23 

Newspaper Building — The World's Ticket Office — The Palestine Camp 
— The Women's School-House — The American Kindergarten — The 
New England Farmer's Home and Modern Kitchen — Pacific Guano 
Company's Building — The Sheet-Metal Pavilion — The United States 
Life-Saving Station— The Elevated Kail way— The Windmills 596 

CHAPTER XX. 

BIOGEAPHICAL. 

General Joseph R. Hawley, President of the United States Centennial 
Commission — John Welsh, Chairman of the Centennial Board of Fi- 
nance — Alfred T. Goshorn, Director-General of the Exhibition — Pro- 
fessor John L. Campbell, Secretary of the United States Centennial 
Commission — General Charles B. Norton, Secretary of the Centennial 
Bureau of Revenue 649 

CHAPTER XXI. 

THE CELEBRATION OF THE FOUKTH OF JULY, 1876, 

AT PHILADELPHIA. 

Arrangements for the Great Celebration — Independence Hall Decorated 
— The Centennial Legion — The Blue and the Gray — Ceremonies of 
July 1st — Congress of Authors — Tlie Great Civic Parade of July 3d — 
The Midnight Celebration — Dawn of the Fourth — The Military Parade 
— The Exercises in Independence Square — Illumination and Fireworks. 661 

CHAPTER XXII. 

THE INTERNATIONAL REGATTA. 

Arrangements for the Regatta- The Prizes— Sketch of the Schuylkill 
Navy— Programme of the Races— Biographical Sketch of Commodore 
James M. Ferguson — Description of the Races— The Winners 673 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

THE LIVE-STOCK DISPLAYS. 

Arrangements for the Display of Live-stock— Description of the Grounds 
—The Horse Show— The Noted Animals— The Dog Show— The Cattle 
Show— A Superb Exhibit— Display of Sheep, Swine and Goats— The 
Poultry Show 697 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

THE STATE DAYS. 

Arrangements for the State Celebrations — New Jersey Day — An Inspirit- 
ing Spectacle — Connecticut Day — Massachusetts Day — New York Day 
— A Grand Ovation to the Governor of the Empire State — Pennsylvania 
Day — The Grandest Celebration of All — A Gala Dav at the Exhibition 



24 CONTENTS. 

—The Fireworks—Rhode Island Day— The Italian Day— Inaugura- 
tion of the Columbus Monument— New Hampshire Day— Delaware,. 
Maryland, and Virginia Day— The Fireworks— The Delaware Celebra- 
tion — Eeception by the Governor of Maryland— The Virginia Celebra- 
tion — The Tournament— The Ball— Crowning the Queen of Love and 
Beauty— Ohio Day — The Merchants' Reunion— Vermont Day 725 

CHAPTER XXV 

THE RECORD OF THE EXHIBITION. 

Statement of Leading Events Connected With and Growing Out of the 
Exhibition 782 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE AWARDS. 

Ceremonies at Judges' Hall — Announcement of the Awards granted by 
the Commission— Character of the Awards — Description of the Medals 
— List of the Principal Awards in Each Class 791 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

THE CLOSE OF THE EXHIBITION. 

The Fireworks on the 9th of November— The Closing Day— Unfavorable 
Weather— The Attendance at the Exhibition— Ceremonies in Judges' 
Hall— The Music— Address of Hon. D. J. Morrell— The Te Deum— 
Remarks of President John Welsh— Address of Director-General 
Goshorn— Speech of General Hawley— President Grant Declares the 
Exhibition Closed— Stopping the Machinery— Scene in Machinery Hall. 819 

CHAPTER XXViil. 

STATISTICS OF ATTENDANCE. 

Causes of the Early Indifference of the People Towards the Exhibition- 
Gradual Increase in the Attendance— Statement of Admissions— The 

. Receipts— The State Days— Other Noted Days— Comparison of the 
" Centennial" with Other Exhibitions— Statement of Exhibitors 845 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

WHAT WAS ACCOMPLISHED. 

Benefits conferred upon the American People by the Exhibition— Views 
of General Hawley— What General Goshorn Thinks the Exhibition 
has Accomplished— Views of President John Welsh, Mr. John Sartain, 
Captain Albert, Mr. Burnett Landreth, Mr. Miller, and General Francis 

* A. Walker Concerning their Respective Departments 852 



THE 

ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

OF THE 

CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE CITY OF PHILADELPHIA. — HISTORICAL. 

Pounding of Philadelphia by William Penn — His Treaty with the Indians — 
Original Plan of the City — Growth of the City — The Revolution — Occupa- 
tion by the British — Commercial Prosperity of Philadelphia — Its Banking 
Interests — Consolidation of the Suburbs with the City — The Centennial 
Census — Population of Philadelphia. 

'^flmk HEN it was proposed to celebrate the close of the first 
century of the independence of the United States by an 
International Exposition, it was admitted that the 
^^&^ proper place for the holding of such an exhibition was 
the city of Philadelphia, in which occurred the decisive 
event which placed the United States among the nations of the 
world, and which the exhibition is designed to commemorate. 
Before proceeding to speak of the exhibition, it will be best to 
introduce the reader to the great city in which it is held. 

The city of Philadelphia, in the county of the same Dame, is 
the metropolis of the State of Pennsylvania. It is the second 
€ity in the Union, and is classed as the sixth great city of the 
world. 

The city of Philadelphia was founded by William Penn 
2 17 



^f (^ 



18 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



ini mediately after taking possession of the province of Pennsyl- 
vania granted to him by Charles II. He sent over a body of 
colonists in August, 1681, and in 1682 came over himself and 
superintended the surveys of the new city. The land was 
chosen by him because, he declared, " It seemed appointed for a 
town, because of its coves, docks, springs, and lofty land." All 
these features have long since disappeared before the rapid 




WILLIAM PENN. 



growth of his city. During the year 1682 a large number of 
colonists arrived, the majority of whom were Friends or 
Quakers, and persons of respectability and wealth. 

The place at which William Penn first set foot on the soil of 
his new city was long known as the "Blue Anchor Landing," 
from a tavern of that name, the first house built within the 
limits of the city. A little later, under a spreading elm at 



OF THE CEi^TENKIAL EXHIBITION. 



19 



ShackamJaxon, now Kensington, Penn met the chiefs of the 
neighboring Indian tribes, and entered into a treaty of peace 
and friendship with them. This treaty was confirmed by no 
oath, but it remained unbroken for fifty years, and as neither 
side sought to evade its obligations, whicli were simply of peace 
iud good will, the colony of Pennsylvania escaped in its earlier 
years the horrors of a savage warfare from which the other 
settlers sufiered. " We will live," said the Indian sachems, 
"in love with William Penn and his children as Ions: as the 
moon and the sun shall endure." They kept their word. 
" Penn came without arms ; he declared his purpose to abstain 




penn's treaty monument. 

from violence ; he had no message but peace ; and not a drop of 
Quaker blood was ever shed by an Indian." 

The venerable elm tree which witnessed " the only treaty ever 
ratified without an oath, and the only one never broken," stood 
unharmed until 1810, when it was blown down by a furious 
gale. Its site is now marked by a small obelisk of granite, 
which stands on the east side of Beach street, a few steps north 
of Hanover. The Second and Third street cars will convey the 
visitor to Hanover street, from which he will have but a square 
to walk ; but the monument is so surrounded by piles of stone 
and lumber that it will require a sharp eye to detect it. 

On the pleasant tract lying between the Delaware and the 



20 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Scliuylkill, A^hich was purchased from the Swedes, who had on 
their part purchased it from the Indians, Penn in 1683 laid out 
the capital of his province, which he named Philadelphia, 
the city of Brotherly Love, in token of the principles which he 
meant should constitute the common law of his possessions. It 
was abundantly supplied with streams of pure water, and was 
admirably situated for purposes of trade. He did not wish it to 
be built after the manner of European cities, but designed it to 
be a " greene country town, gardens round each house, that it 
might never be burned, and always be wholesome." The streets 
were laid off by marking their course through the primitive 
forest by blazing the trees, and the building of dwellings was 
begun. In the first year of Penn's arrival in the colony, twenty- 
three ships with emigrants arrived in Pennsylvania. In three 
years after its foundation Philadelphia contained upwards of 
six hundred houses. The Indians proved the firm friends of 
the colonists, and supplied them with wild fowl and venison in 
return for articles of European manufacture. 

The original plan of the city was a parallelogram, two miles 
long, from the Delaware to the Schuylkill, by one mile wide. 
It contained nine streets, running from river to river, crossed 
by twenty-one running north and south. A grand square of 
ten acres was laid off in the heart of the city, and in each of the 
four quarters was a square of eight acres, all for pleasure 
grounds and promenades. In the main the original plan is 
still adhered to. 

The streets running from river to river, with the exception 
of High street, were named after the native forest trees. They 
were called Vine, Sassafras, Mulberry, High, Chestnut, Walnut, 
Spruce, Pine, and Cedar. Nearly all of these names remain. 
Sassafras is now called Race ; Mulberry is Arch ; High is 
Market ; and Cedar is South street. The streets intersecting 
these were numbered. 

Philadelphia grew rapidly, and t)y the early part of the eigh- 
teenth century was the largest and most flourishing city in 
America. Its commerce was important, and it increased steadily 
in wealth. 



I 



20 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Schuylkill, which was purchased from the Swedes, who had on 
their part purchased it from the Indians, Penn in 1683 laid out 
the capital of his province, which he named Philadelphia, 
the city of Brotherly Love, in token of the principles which he 
meant should constitute the common law of his possessions. It 
was abundantly supplied with streams of pure water, and was 
admirably situated for purposes of trade. He did not wish it to 
be built after the manner of European cities, but designed it to 
be a "greene country town, gardens round each house, that it 
might never be burned, and always be wholesome." The streets 
were laid off by marking their course through the primitive 
forest by blazing the trees, and the building of dwellings was 
begun. In the first year of Penn's arrival in the colony, twenty- 
three ships with emigrants arrived in Pennsylvania. In three 
vears after its foundation Philadeli)hia contained upwards of 
six hundred houses. The Indians proved the firm friends of 
the colonists, and supplied them with wild fowl and venison in 
return for articles of European manufacture. 

The original plan of the city ^vas a parallelogram, two miles 
long, from the Delaware to the Schuylkill, by one mile wide. 
It contained nine streets, running from river to river, crossed 
by twenty-one running north and south. A grand square of 
ten acres was laid off in the heart of the city, and in each of the 
four quarters was a square of eight acres, all for pleasure 
grounds and promenades. In the main the original plan is 
still adhered to. 

The streets running from river to river, with the exception 
of High street, were named after the native forest trees. They 
were called Vine, Sassafras, Mulberry, High, Chestnut, Walnut, 
Spruce, Pine, and Cedar. Nearly all of these names remain. 
Sassafras is now called Race ; Mulberry is Arch ; High is 
Market ; and Cedar is South street. The streets intersecting 
these were numbered. 

Philadelphia grew rapidly, and dt the early part of the eigh- 
teenth century was the largest and most flourishing city in 
America. Its commerce was important, and it increased steadily 
in wealth. 




VIEW IN AGtKICULTCTEAL HALL, SHOWING THE BRAZILIAN F.X II [lUTs. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



21 



" In 1711 the city was divided into ten wards. In December, 
1719, a printing press was set np, and Andrew Bradtord began 
to publish the American Weekly Mercfiiry, which was continued 
until 1746. In 1728 the Gazette was begun, which fell to 
Franklin to conduct in 1729. In the latter year the building 
of a State House was authorized, the site was selected in 1730, 
and the building begun in 1732, and completed in 1735. The 
bell tower was not erected until 1750, and on June 7th, 1753, 
the new ' great bell,' cast here, weighing 2080 pounds, with the 
motto, ^ Proclaim liberty throughout all the land, unto all the 
inhabitants thereof,^' was raised to its place. This is the bell 
celebrated in connection with the Declaration of Independence, 




pt:nn laying out the plan of Philadelphia. 



and now in Independence Hall. The first Colonial Congress 
met in Philadelphia at Carpenter's Hall, a building still in use 
as a hall, September 4th, 1774. Congress held its sessions at 
the State House in 1776, and here adopted and signed the 
Declaration of Independence. The British forces occupied the 
city from September, 1777, to June, 1778." 

During the British occupation a census of the city was taken 
by order of Lord Cornwallis, and showed a population of 21,767 
inhabitants and 5470 houses. After the evacuation of the city 
by the enemy, Congress resumed its sessions at the State House, 
which remained the seat of government of the Union until the 
close of the war. The Convention which framed the Constitu- 
tion of the United States met in Philadelphia in 1787, and that 



22 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

great instrument was adopted in the same building that had 
witnessed the signing of the Declaration of Independence. 
Upon the inauguration of the Federal government, the national 
capital was removed to New York, but in 1790 was restored to 
Philadelphia, which remained the seat of government until 
1800, when the new city of Washington became the capital. 
In 1800 Philadelphia also ceased to be the capital of the State, 
which was located at Harrisburg. 

The foreign commerce of Philadelphia grew with great 
rapidity between the close of the Revolution and the year 1812. 
The second war with England almost destroyed this commerce, 
which did not return with the peace of 1815, and the completion 
of the Erie canal a few years after the close of the war, gave to 
New York an advantage which reduced Philadelphia to a 
secondary place in our foreign trade. 

"Previous to 1839^ the banking capital of Philadelphia waa 
large, and for the most of the period previous to 1836, it was 
the monetary centre of the country. The first Bank of the 
United States, established by Act of Congress, in 1791, with a 
capital of $10,000,000, was located here, and the second Bank 
of the United States was established here in 1816, with a capital 
of $35,000,000. The subsequent failure of the bank under its 
State charter in 1839, and the loss of its large capital, greatly 
weakened the financial strength of the city, and the monetary 
centre was permanently transferred to New York. The revul- 
sion of 1837, and the subsequent financial depression, fell heavily 
on the city and State, the recovery from them not being apparent 
until 1844." 

The city retained its original limits until 1854. In the mean- 
time the thriving suburbs of Kensington, Germautown, West 
Philadelphia, Northern Liberties, Spring Garden, Richmond, 
Penn, Southwark, Moyamensing, and Passyunk, had sprung up 
around it, making in the aggregate a city much larger than the 
parent town, and causing no little confusion and trouble by the 
number of adjacent and independent municipal jurisdictions. 
In 1854 the State Legislature consolidated the parent town 
and all its suburbs in one city under the general name of 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



23 



Philadelphia. By the same enactment the corporate limits 
of the city were made to embrace the entire county q£ 
Philadelphia. 




MONKEY HOUSE, ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS. 



Since the consolidation the city has grown with marked 
rapidity. In 1860 the population was 565,529; in 1870, 
674,022; and by the municipal census of the 1st of April, 1876, 
was 817,448, showing an increase of 21 J per cent, in the six 
years that have elapsed since the last Federal census. 



CHAPTEE II. 

PHILADELPHIA IN 1876. 

Location of Philadelphia — Size of the City — Its Regularity — Materials used in 
Building the Houses — " The City of Homes " — Philadelphia Houses — Mr. 
Kortwright's Statistics — The Public Squares — Market Street — The House in 
which the Declaration of Independence was written — The National Pub- 
lishing Company's Building — Second Street — Christ Church — Chestnut Street 
— A Splendid Thoroughfare — Carpenter's Hall — The Continental Congress 
— The First Prayer in Congress — The Custom House — The Post-Office — 
Independence Hall — The Fashionable Promenade — Noted Buildings — The 
Hotels—The Continental— The United States Mint— Walnut Street— The 
Merchants' Exchange — The Commercial Exchange — An Interesting Site- 
Pennsylvania and Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Buildings— Offices of 
the Centennial Commission — The Abode of Wealth and Fashion — Arch 
Street — The Grave of Franklin — Handsome Churches — Broad Street — The 
Baltimore Depot — Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb — Acad- 
emy of Music — The Colosseum — Union League Club House — The Public 
Buildings — The Masonic Temple — Academy of Fine Arts — Reading Rail- 
road Depot— Third Street— The Financial Centre— The Girafd Bank— Old 
Churches. 

HE city of Philadelphia lies between the Delaware and 
Schuylkill rivers, at a distance of nearly one hundred 
miles fr^m the Atlantic ocean, following the course of 
the Delaware bay and river. It is one hundred and 
thirty-six miles northeast of Washington City, and 
eighty-seven miles southwest of New York. The old city is 
located in a nearly level plain, elevated above the Delaware and 
Schuylkill, but the recent additions, especially those on the 
northwest, are built on a fine rolling country, which abounds in 
picturesque views that offer a striking contrast to the uniform 
flatness of the old city. The corporate limits cover an area of 
one hundred and twenty square miles. Its greatest length from 
north to south is twenty miles, and its greatest breadth from 
24 




CHAPTER II. 

PHILADELPHIA IN 1876. 

Location of Philadelphia — Size of the City — Its Regularity — Materials used in 
Building the Houses — " The City of Homes " — Philadelphia Houses — Mr. 
Kortwright's Statistics — The Public Squares — Market Street — The House in 
which the Declaration of Independence was written — The National Pub- 
lishing Company's Building — Second Street — Christ Church — Chestnut Street 
— A Splendid Thoroughfare — Carpenter^s Hall — The Continental Congress 
— The First Prayer in Congress — The Custom House — The Post-Office — 
Independence Hall — The Fashionable Promenade— Noted Buildings— The 
Hotels — The Continental— The United States Mint— Walnut Street— The 
Merchants' Exchange— The Commercial Exchange— An Interesting Site- 
Pennsylvania and Philadelphia & Eeading Eailroad BuildingST— Offices of 
the Centennial Commission— The Abode of Wealth and Fashion — Arch 
Street— The Grave of Franklin — Handsome Churches— Broad Street— The 
Baltimore Depot — Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb — Acad- 
emy of Music — The Colosseum — Union League Club House — The Public 
Buildings — The Masonic Temple—Academy of Fine Arts — Reading Rail-^ 
road Depot — Third Street— The Financial Centre— The Girard - Bank— Old 
Churches. 

HE city of Philadelphia lies between the Delaware and 
Schuylkill rivers, at a distance of nearly one hundred 
miles fr^m the Atlantic ocean, following the course of 
the Delaware bay and river. It is one hundred and 
thirty-six miles northeast of Washington City, and 
eighty-seven miles southwest of New York. The old city is 
located in a nearly level plain, elevated above the Delaware and 
Schuylkill, but the recent additions, especially those on the 
northwest, are built on a fine rolling country, which abounds in 
picturesque views that offer a striking contrast to the uniform 
flatness of the old city. The corporate limits cover an area of 
one hundred and twenty square miles. Its greatest length from 
north to south is twenty miles, and its greatest breadth from 
24 





SCJEN'E IN THE ART GALLERY— CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION: 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHlBmON. 25 

east to west, eight miles. The densely inhabited portion of the 
city covers an area of about nine square miles, extending for 
about five miles along the Delaware, and two miles along the 
Schuylkill. The greater part of the business of the city is trans- 
acted between Vine and Spruce streets, east of Twelfth street. 
The wealthiest private section, that inhabited by " the fashion,'' 
is south of Chestnut, and west of Seventh street. Walnut above 
Tenth is considered the most desirable street in the city, and 
contains many of the most costly and beautiful residences in the 
Union. Arch street above Broad, and Broad along its northern 
portion, are handsome residence streets. Market street is entirely 
devoted to business, and Chestnut street is the principal retail 
thoroughfare, and one of the handsomest streets in the Union. 

The suburbs of Philadelphia are noted for their beauty, and 
Are tHckly built up with handsome country seats, villas, and 
cottages. They abound in exquisite scenery, especially in the 
vicinity of the Wissahickon. 

Philadelphia is laid out with great regularity. As we have 
stated, the original plan of Penn contemplated a city of ten 
streets running from river to river, and crossed by twenty-five 
others at right angles. Broad and Market streets were to divide 
this city into four nearly equal portions, a considerable area 
being reserved at the intersection of these streets for a large 
public square. This was the famous Penn Square, now the site 
of the magnificent City Hall, in course of erection. The streets 
are usually from fifty to sixty-six feet in width, with a few of 
greater breadth. Those running from north to south are num- 
bered, beginning at the Delaware river ; those from east to west 
are named. In the older sections of the city the sewage is 
defective in consequence of the flatness of the land, but the 
higher portions have nothing to complain of in this respect. 
Considering its size and importance, Philadelphia is remarkably 
deficient in good pavements. The streets are generally paved 
with cobble stones, but Belgian and wooden pavements are now 
superseding these in the more important thoroughfares. The 
general aspect of the city is bright and pleasing, mingled with a 
certain degree of primness, due to its Quaker origin. Except 




26 



MAKKKi' STREET BELOW SEVENTH. 




ORNAMENTAL VASE AND FLOWERS, EXHIBITED IN 



MAIN BUILDING. 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



27 



in those portions along the rivers it is clean and healthy. 
Market street divides it into two portions, called North and 
South. The houses are numbered according to a peculiar plan, 
one hundred numbers being assigned to each block or square. 
Thus 950 would be located between Ninth and Tenth streets. 
This system renders it easy to find a building in any part of the 
city between the numbered streets. The portion of the city 
lying beyond the Schuylkill still retains its old name of West 




NINTH AND MARKET STREETS. 



Pliiladelphia. It is in this section that the exhibition groundu 
are situated. 

As a rule the city is built of brick, but of late years many 
edifices of brown and free stone, iron, and marble have been 
erected, which give to the city a more varied as well as a hand- 
somer and more substantial appearance. Philadelphia is 
emphatically a "city of homes.'' Of its 140,000 buildings, 
130,000 are dwelling-houses, a number greater than the whole 



28 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



number of dwellings in Baltimore, St. Louis, Boston and Louis- 
ville in 1870. Of these 60,000 are tlie homes of mechanics. 
It is the boast of Philadelphia that her working classes are 
better housed, better fed, and better clothed than those of any- 
city in the world. The expenses of living are moderate as com- 
pared with JN^ew York, Boston, Chicago, or St. Louis; Baltimore 
alone, of all the large cities of the Union, surpassing Philadel- 
phia in cheapness of living. The houses of Philadelphia are as a 
rule constructed upon a uniform plan, and are admitted to be the 
best arranged internally of any dwellings in this country. They 
are generally three stories in height, with pressed brick fronts, 
and white marble steps and trimmings. They have, solid white 




DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE PROCLAIMED IN PHILADELPHIA. 



wooden shutters which greatly disfigure them. On the first 
floor there is a wide hall, a parlor, dining-room, kitchen, and 
usually a summer kitchen. On the second floor are two cham- 
bers, a bath, and a sitting-room, and on the third floor, two 
spare chambers, and one or more servants' rooms. They are 
lighted with gas, heated by furnaces in the cellar, and supplied 
with hot and cold water. About six thousand new buildings 
are erected every year. 

A year ago, Mr. Kortwright, the British Consul at Philadel- 
phia, thus summed up the leading features of the city, in one of 
his official reports to his government: 

"Philadelphia has a population of nearly 800,000, and it 



28 



THE ILLUSTKATED HISTORY 



number of dwellings in Baltimore, St. Louis, Boston and Louis- 
ville in 1870. Of these 60,000 are tlie homes of mechanics. 
It is the boast of Philadelphia that her working classes are 
better housed, better fed, and better clothed than those of any 
city in the world. The expenses of living are moderate as cx)m- 
pared with New York, Boston, Chicago, or St. Louis ; Baltimore 
alone, of all the large cities of the Union, surpassing Philadel- 
phia in cheapness of living. The houses of Philadelphia are as a 
rule constructed upon a uniform plan, and are admitted to be the 
best arranged internally of any dwellings in this country. They 
are generally three stories in height, with pressed brick fronts, 
and white marble steps and trimmings. They have .solid w^hite 




DECLARATION OF IIsDEPENDENCE PROCLAIMED IN PHILADELPHIA. 



wooden shutters which greatly disfigure them. On the first 
floor there is a wide hall, a parlor, dining-room, kitchen, and 
usually a summer kitchen. On the second floor are two cham- 
bers, a bath, and a sitting-room, and on the third floor, two 
spare chambers, and one or more servants'" rooms. They are 
lighted wnth gas, heated by furnaces in the cellar, and supplied 
with hot and cold water. About six thousand new buildings 
are erected every year. 

A year ago, Mr. Kortwright, the British Consul at Philadel- 
phia, thus summed up the leading features of the city, in one of 
his official reports to his government: 

"Philadelphia has a population of nearly 800,000, and it 




THE JAPANESE BAZAAR— CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



29 



lives in an area of 129 J square miles. The city has 1000 miles 
of streets and roads opened for use, and over 500 of these are 
paved. It is lighted by nearly 10,000 gas lamps. The earth 
beneath conceals and is penetrated by 134 miles of sewers, over 
600 miles of gas mains, and 546 miles of water pipes. It has 
over 212 miles of city railways and nearly 1794 city railroad 




lilPPINCOTT S BUILDING. 



cars passing over these railroads daily ; 3025 steam boilers ; over 
400 public schools, with suitable buildings, and over 1600 
school-teachers and over 80,000 pupils. It has over 34,000 
bath-rooms, most of which are supplied with hot water, and for 
the use of the water at low rates the citizens pay more than a 
half million of dollars; it has over 400 placesof public worship, 
and accommodation in them for 300,000 persons ; it has nearly 



30 



THE ILLU.STKATED HISTORY 



9000 manufactorieSj with a capital of $185,000,000, employing 
145,000 hands, the annual product of whose labor is over 
384,000,000. It exported in 1873 in value over $24,000,000, 
and imported in value over $26,000,000; the amount for duties 
in gold was nearly $8,500,000 ; the real estate, as assessed for 




MARKET STREET ABOVE EIGHTH. 



taxation, was over $458,000,000, and there was collected nearly 
$9,000,000 for taxes." 

Public Squares. 

Penn's original plan, as we have said, contemplated a public 
square in each of the four quarters of the city. These still 
remain, and others have been added. 




THE CHINESE COURT, IN THE MAIN BUILDING. 




EXHIBIT OF GARDEN SEED, IN AGRICULTURAL, HALL. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 31 

Independence Square, or, as it was formerly called, The State 
House Yard, lies immediately back of iDdependence Hall, ex- 
tending back to Walnut street, and from Fifth to Sixth streets. 
It has been put in order for the centennial year, and is now a 
neat and tasteful ground. The lampposts recently set up at the 
entrances to the square are not only quite pretty, but appropriate 
also. On the base of the posts appear the names of the original 
thirteen States, and above them, on a part made in imitation of 
the Independence Bell, is the inscription, " Proclaim liberty 
throughout the land," etc. Each lamp, of very beautiful 
design, has four representations of the bell upon it, surrounded 
by thirteen stars. They add much to the appearance of the 
square. 

Washington Square lies diagonally opposite Independence 
Square, and extends from \Yalnut almost back to Spruce street, 
and from Sixth to above Seventh street. It is shaded by fine 
old trees, and is a pleasant lounging-place in summer. This 
square was once a ^^ Potter's field,'' and here were buried many 
soldiers who died from the small-pox, camp fever, and prison 
diseases of the Revolution. 

Rittenhouse Square lies between Walnut and Locust streets, 
and extends from Eighteenth to above Nineteenth street. It is 
a handsome enclosure, provided with walks, seats, and a tasteful 
fountain, and is a favorite resort for the nurses and children of 
the aristocratic neighborhood in which it is located. It is sur- 
rounded by elegant and substantial dwellings, some of which 
are among the handsomest in the Union. 

Logan Square lies between Race and Vine and between 
Eighteenth and Twentieth streets. It is the handsomest square 
in the city, and a favorite resort. In 1864 the great Sanitary 
Fair for the benefit of the Union army was held here. The 
entire square was roofed over and the ground covered with 
flooring. The trunks of the trees served as so many pillars for 
the roof, above which waved the branches of the trees. 

Franklin Square lies between Race and Vine streets, and ex- 
tends from Sixth to above Seventh street. It is a fine old 
square, the principal attraction of which lies in its fine old trees. 



32 



THE ILLUSTRATED HLSTOKY 



It was originally a biiryiiig-groiiiKl, and was used as such for 
many years. 

Norris Square, in Kensington, and Jefferson Square, at Third 
street and Washington avenue, are very handsome. ' They are 
new ; the first four named above constituting the squares de- 
signed by Penn. 

The streets of Philadelphia are among the most attractive in 
the world, and the business streets have few equals. 

Market Street 

Market street is the great thoroughfare of the city. It is the 
grand entrepot of the domestic and foreign commerce of Phila- 
delphia, and extends 
in an unbroken line 
from the Delaware to 
the Schuylkill, cros- 
ses that river, and 
continues its course 
to the city line. It 
was the High street 
of William Penn, 
and has .always en- 
joyed the pre-emi- 
nence it now holds. 
It is one hundred 
feet wide, and is lined 
with magnificent 
warehouses from the 
Delaware almost to 
the Schuylkill. 
Some of these are 
superb edifices, built 
in the handsomest and most massive manner, and are provided 
with every convenience for the business transacted within them. 
Prominent among these are the splendid buildings occupied by 
the great publishing houses of Lippincott & Co., and Claxton, 
Rem sen & Haffelfinger ; the mammoth warehouse of Hood, 




CORNER OF MARKET AND SIXTH STREETS. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 33 

Bonbright & Co., dry-goods merchants ; the vast clothing ware- 
house of John Wanamaker & Co., at Sixth and Market, on the 
site of the presidential mansion of Washington and Adams 
perhaps the largest and most complete clothing establishment 
in the world. The Bingham House, at the corner of Market 
and Eleventh streets, is an excellent hotel, and a tasteful 
structure. 

The great width of Market street allows an immense amount 



BINGHAM HOUSE. 

of traffic to be done upon it. In addition to the lines of the 
street railways, tracks are laid from West Philadelphia down 
the greater part of the street, connecting with the principal 
steam railway lines, and merchants are thus enabled to run the 
cars consigned to them directly into their warehouses. The 
various railways have branch depots, and the Adams Express 
Company has its main depot on this street. 

The scene on Market street is always bright and animated, 



34 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



and viewed from any point at any hour of the day the street is 
thronged with an eager, hurrying crowd of vehicles and 
pedestrians. 

Adjoining the southwest corner of Market and Seventh 
streets is a plain, modest-looking building of brick, now used 
as a business house. A stranger would pass it by a dozen times 
without notice, but it is among the most noted edifices in the 
city, and should be dear to every American heart. It is the 

House in which the Declaralion of Independence was written. 

In 1776 this building stood beyond the thickly settled por- 




COPTEIGBT BLCUBM^ 

THE HOUSE IN WHICH THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE WAS WRITTEN. 

tion of the city, and in what. was. known as " The Fields." A 
garden, enclosed by a brick wall, occupied the site of the house 
which now stands on the corner. The house was new, and the 
situation was so pleasant, that it at once attracted the attention 
of that dear lover of nature, Thomas Jefferson, when he came 
to Philadelphia to take his seat in the Continental Congress. 
" I rented the second floor," he tells us, " consisting of a parlor 




INTERIOR OF THE BRAZILIAN COURT, IN THE MAIN BUILDING. 




GENERAL, VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF HORTICULTURAL HALL. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



35 



and bedroom, ready furnished." He paid thirty-five shillings 
a week for his rooms, and in the parlor he wrote the Declara- 
tion of Independence upon a little writing-desk three inches 
high, which still exists. 




MARKET STREET ABOVE SEVENTH. 

The desk was bequeathed by him to a friend, and was ac- 
companied by a certificate in Mr. Jefferson's own handwriting, 
setting forth the place and time of its purchase by him, and the 
fact that he had used it in the preparation of the .great and 
glorious document with which his name and fame are insepara- 
bly connected. 




NATIONAI. PUBLISHING COMPANY'S BULLDING. 



On Seventh street, just north of Market, is the splendid iron- 
front building of the 

Naiionai Publishing Company. 

The offices, store-rooms, packing-rooms, etc., of the Company 
rare in the building shown in the accompanying engraving. 
Their extensive printing office and bindery are located in two 
36 




PAGODA AND GROUP OF VASES, IN THE CHINESE SECTION. 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



37 



adjoining buildings in the rear of this one. They are fitted up 
with every convenience for the manufacture of books, and with 
the latest and most improved labor-saving machinery. Every 
appointment is perfect in its way, and the work of this immense 
establishment goes on from day to day with regularity and 
precision. The unusual facilities enjoyed by the Company enable 
them to supply large editions of their books with a rapidity 
which only a great publishing house can command, and to 
supply their agents with promptness and regularity. 

The Company was organized in 1863, under the presidency 




CHRIST CHURCH IN 1776. 

of Mr. J. R. Jones, who remains at its head. Under his able 
management it has enjoyed thirteen years of remarkable pros- 
perity, and has taken rank as the largest and most successful 
subscription book house in the world. 

Second Street 

Second street is one of the most peculiar features of the city. 
It extends in an almost unbroken straight line from the northern 
to the southern limit of the city, and is to Philadelphia very 



38 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

much what the Bowery is to New York. It is lined for miles 
with retail stores of every description, the customers of which 
are almost entirely of the humbler class, and it would be hard 
to surpass the confusion and the utter disregard of "the eternal 
fitness of things" with which these are thrown together. It is 
a street which the visitor must see in order to appreciate it 
thoroughly. 

The most prominent object on Second street is 

Christ Church, 

Situated north of Market. It stands on the site of the first 
church erected by the followers of William Penn. It was 
begun in 1727, and was completed in 1754. It is built of 
brick, in the old style, and is surmounted by a tall spire, from 
which he who has the courage to ascend it will be rewarded 
with a noble view over the city, the Delaware, and the sur- 
rounding country. The steeple is 196 feet in height, and con- 
tains a chime of eight bells, said to be the oldest in America. 
They rang out merrily upon the Proclamation of Independence 
one hundred years ago, and will join their voices to the glad 
chorus of rejoicing that will go up from the great city on the 
4th of July, 1876. They were cast in London, and on the 
tenor bell is inscribed this legend : " Christ Church, Philadel- 
phia, 1754. Thomas Lester and Thomas Peck, of London, 
made us all." The interior of the church is tasteful, but is 
finished in the style of the early part of the eighteenth century, 
except that the old high-back pews are gone, and the sitting 
arrangements are altered to suit the needs of a modern congre- 
gation. In the aisles of the church are buried John Penn, the 
first member of the Penn family born in America, Dr. Richard 
Peters, Robert Asheton, and many others who were noted men 
in their day, but are now remembered only by the scholar. 
Washington attended divine service regularly in this church, 
while in the city, during the Revolution, and during his resi- 
dence in Philadelphia as President of the United States, and 
the feet of many of the greatest men of our history have trod 
the hallowed aisles of this venerable edifice. Christ Church is 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



39 



the property of the Episcopal Church. In 1772 the Rev. 
William White, afterwards the first Bishop of the Episcopal 
Church in Pennsylvania, was made Assistant Rector, and in 
1789 the first general convention, which adopted the Constitu- 




YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING 



tion of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, 
met here. 

The church is opened. twice -for service on Sunday, and for 
prayers on AYednesday and Friday mornings, at wliich time it 
may be visited. 




40 




SiaiTh BfiOS, /'/^.l 



"exhibition vase," exhibited by GALIiOWAY & GEAFF, IN THE 

MAIN BUILDING. 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION, 41 

Chestnut Street. 

Chestnut street is the Philadelphia Broadway. It extends 
from the Delaware to the Schuylkill, crosses it by means of a 
magnificent bridge, and continues its course through West 
Philadelphia to the corporate limits. From the Delaware to 
Fifteenth street, it is lined with long blocks of lofty and elegant 
stores, and beyond this, to within a few squares of the Schuyl- 
kill, the street is built up with handsome residences. 

Some of the most noted buildings in Philadelphia are located 
on this street. Commencing at the Delaware, we find the 
wharf at the lower end of the street lined with river steamers, 
and the busy crowded Delaware avenue, which lies along the 
river's bank, is noisy with the constant roar of the immense 
torrent of business that pours along it. Climbing the hill 
which leads up from the river. Front street is reached, "the 
high and dry bank '^ that rose above the river in the days of 
William Penn. From Front to Third street, the buildings are 
massive, very tall, and below Second street are almost entirely 
constructed of brick. Above Second street marble and other 
stores relieve the monotony of the brick fronts. This part of 
the street is devoted to the wholesale dry-goods trade. 

On the southeast corner of Third street is the five-story brick 
building of the Western Union Telegraph Company, with long 
lines of wires radiating from it in every direction. Third is the 
Wall street of Philadelphia, and we shall refer to it again. On 
the south side of Chestnut, above Third, is the handsome brown- 
stone building of the Bank of North America. This was the 
first bank established in the United States. It was chartered in 
1781, at a time of great financial distress, and one of its prin- 
cipal originators was Robert Morris. This able financier made 
a good use of the bank- in behalf of the Federal government, 
and restored the national credit by its aid. Immediately above 
the bank, and separated from it by an alley, is the new build- 
ing of the Guarantee Trust and Safe Deposit Company. It is 
one of the handsomest structures in Philadelphia, and its two 
banking rooms are among the most beautiful and convenient in 



42 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



the Union. The safe deposit vaults are burglar-proof in every 

sense of the word. 

A little above this building, and standing back from the street 
in a court, is a quaint, venerable-looking edifice. This is 

Carpenters' Hall. 

The Carpenters' Company of Philadelphia was organized in 
1724 and in 1770 began the erection of this structure as a 
place of meeting. It was finished in 1771. On the 5th of 
September, 1774, the Continental Congress, the great Congress 




carpenters' hatll,. 

of the Revolution, composed of delegates from all the colonies 
except Georgia, assembled in this building. It numbered fifty- 
five members, consisting of delegates from every colony save 
Georgia, whose governor had prevented the election of delegates. 
Among the members were many of the most eminent men in 
the land. From Virginia came George Washington, Patrick 
Henry and Richard Henry Lee; from Massachusetts, Samuel 
Adams and John Adams; from New York, Philip Livingston, 
John Jay and William Livingston; from Rhode Island, the 



OF IHE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



43 



venerable Stephen Hopkins; from Connecticut, Koger Sherman ; 
from South Carolina, Edward and John Rutedge and Christo- 
pher Gadsden ; and from ^ew Jersey, the Rev. John AYitherspoon, 
the President of Princeton College. The members of this 
illustrious body were not strangers to each other, though the 
majority of them met now for the first time. They had corre- 
sponded with each other, and had discussed their wrongs so 




INDEPENDENCE HALL IX 1 / / 6. 

thoroughly, that each was well acquainted with the sentiments 
of his colleagues, and all were bound together by a common 
sympathy. ^ 

The Congress was organized by the election of Peyton Ran- 
dolph, of Virginia, as Speaker. Charles Thomson, of Penn- 
sylvania, an Irishman by birth, and the principal of the Quaker 
High School in Philadelphia, was then chosen secretary. It 



44 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



was proposed to open the sessions with prayer. Some of the 
members thought this might be inexpedient, as all the delegates 
might not be able to join in the same form of worship. Up 




PROVIDENT LITE AND TBXJST COMPANY. 

rose Samuel Adams, in whose great soul there was not a gram 
of sham. He was a strict Congregationalist. " I am no bigot," 
he said. " I can hear a prayer from a man of piety and virtue, 
whatever may be his cloth, provided he is at the same time a 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



45 



friend to his country." On his motion the Kev. Mr. Duch^, an 
Episcopal clergyman of Philadelphia, was invited to act as 
chaplain. Mr. Duch6 accepted the invitation. 




CHESTNUT STEEET BELOW THIRD. 



"When the Congress assembled the next morning all was anx- 
iety and apprehension, for the rumor of fbe attack upon Boston, 
which had reached Putman and aroused Connecticut, had gotten 



46 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



as far as Philadelphia. The chaplain opened the session by 
reading the thirty-fifth psalm, which seemed, as John Adams 
said, ordained by Heaven to be read that morning, and then 
broke forth into an extempore prayer of great fervor and elo- 
quence. At the close of the prayer a deep silence prevailed in 
the hall. It was broken by Patrick Henry, who rose to open 




CHESTNUT STREET ABOVE SIXTH. 



the day's proceedings. He began slowly and hesitatingly at 
first, "as if borne down by the weight of his subject," but as 
lie proceeded he rose grandly to the duty of the occasion, and 
in a speech of masterly eloquence he recited the wrongs of the 
American colonies at the hands of Great Britain, and declared 
that all government in America was dissolved, and urged upon 




VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE WOMEN'S PAVILION. 




INTERIOR OF THE UNITEF STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDING. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 47 

the Congress the necessity of forming a new government for the 
colonies. Toward the close of his speech he struck a chord 
which answered in every heart. " British oppression/' he ex- 
claimed, " has effaced the boundaries of the several colonies ; 
the distinctions between Virginians, Pennsylvanians, New 
Yorkers and New Englanders are no more. I am not a Vir- 
ginian, but an American." The deputies were astonished at his 
eloquence, as well as at the magnitude of the interests with which 
they were intrusted. 

Opposite Carpenters' Hall, on the north side of Chestnut 
street, is the elegant white marble building of the Fidelity Safe 
Deposit and Insurance Company. It is built in the Italian 
style, is one of the principal ornaments of the street, and is the 
most extensive establishment of its kind in the country. Its 
vaults are burglar and fire-proof Its immense safe weighs one 
hundred and fifty tons, and was constructed at a cost of §60,000. 
A handsome iron building, used by the Provident Life and 
Trust Company, stands in Fourth street just below Chestnut. 
The massive granite buildings of the Jayne estate front on 
Chestnut street, east of Third. The central one is eight stories 
in height. 

On the south side of Chestnut, between Fourth and Fifth, is 
the 

United States Custom House. 

This noble structure was originally built for the second Bank 
of the United States. It was begun in 1819, and was finished 
in 1824, at a cost of nearly $600,000. The bank was char- 
tered by Congress in 1816, after the close of the second war 
with England. Its capital was $35,000,000, of which the 
United States took $7,000,000. It began operations in Jan- 
uary, 1817. This was the bank at which Andrew Jackson 
struck such hard blows. In 1833 he removed the government 
funds from its keeping, and as he steadily vetoed the acts of 
C^ongress for a renewal of its charter, the bank passed out of 
existence at the expiration of its charter, in 1836. A few years 
later the building was purchased by the Federal governmenl 
for about half of .*its original cost, and was converted into a 



48 



THE ILLUSTEATED HISTORY 



Custom House. It is constructed of white marble, and stands 
upon a platform or dais of stone, isolated from all the surround- 
ins: houses. It is an imitation of the Parthenon at Athens, and 
is one of the purest specimens of Doric architecture in America. 
It has a front of eighty-seven feet and a depth of one hundred 




--'"^Sl^iii^ni.nr:.;^:;^:: 



POST-OFFICE. 



and sixty-one feet. It has two massive fagades, one on Chest- 
nut street and the other on Library street. Each front consists 
of a heavy entablature and pediment, resting upon eight large 
fluted Doric columns. The building contains the offices of the 
Custom House and the United States Sub-'^easury. 



48 



THE ILLUSTEATED HISTOEY 



Custom House. It is constructed of white marble, and stands 
upon a platform or dais of stone, isolated from all the surround- 
ing houses. It is an imitation of the Parthenon at Athens, and 
is one of the purest specimens of Doric architecture in America. 
It has a front of eightj-seven feet and a depth of one hundred 










POST-OFFICE. 



and sixty-one feet. It has two massive fagades, one on Chest- 
nut street and the other on Library street. Each front consists 
of a heavy entablature and pediment, resting upon eight large 
fluted Doric columns. The building contains the offices of the 
Custom House and the United States Sub-^easury. 




ftfAIN AISLE IN AGRTCULTTJRAI^ HALT,, SHOWING THE OLD WINDJIILL, ETC,. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 49 

4 

The Post-Office 

Is situated immediately above the Custom House. It is built 
of a bluish white marble, in the French style, with a mansard 
roof. The business of the Post-Office has long since outgrown 
its present contracted quarters, and a new building for its use is 
in course of construction higher up Chestnut street. The pres- 
ent edifice contains, in addition to the Post-Office, the rooms of 
the United States District and Circuit Courts and the office of 
Ihe United States Marshal. 

On the north side of Chestnut street, opposite the Custom 
House, is the substantial granite building of the Bank of Phil- 
adelphia. Just above it is the Farmers^ and MechaiiM Banhy 
a white marble structure. This bank is one of the oldest in the 
Union, its charter dating from 1807. The present banking- 
house w^as built in 1855. It stands on the site of a spacious 
old-time mansion, which was the head -quarters of Admiral 
Lord Howe during the occupation of the city by the British in 
the Revolution. The bank is the financial agent of the State 
of Pennsylvania and of the city of Philadelphia, and is the 
depository of the ^'Philadelphia Clearing House." The Clearing 
House occupies a portion of the building. Here the banks of 
the city make their daily settlements. 

Immediately above the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank is the 
building occupied by the Pennsylvania Life Insurance and 
Trust Company. This company was established in 1812. It 
<loes an immense business as an executor, and is said to hold 
nearly $100,000,000 in trust. In the same block are the Peo- 
ples^ Bank and the Philadelphia Trust and Safe Deposit Com- 
pany , both handsome structures. On the south side of Chest- 
nut street, occupying the entire square from Fifth to Sixth, are 
the venerable buildings of 

Independence Hall. 

This building is decidedly the most interesting of any in the 
<aty. It was designed by Dr. Kearsley, who also planned 
Ohrist Church, was commenced in 1729 and completed in 1734. 
4 




INDEPENDENCE HALD, PHILADELPHIA, IN 1876. 



50 



THE CENTENNIAL. EXHIBITION. 



51 



The builder was Edmund Wooley ; the wings were not added 
until 1740. The glaztng of the windows was done by Thomas 
Godfrey, since known to fame as the inventor of the quadrant. 
The original cost of the building was £5,600. The building is 
of brick, with marble trimmings, and has an air of stately 
dignity and repose, which offers a striking contrast to the hurry 
and bustle of the busy street. The central building is the 
handsomest, the wings being much plainer as well as smaller. 
A tasteful steeple, ornamented with a clock, rises from the cen- 
tre of the main building. It was erected in 1828, in place of 
the original steeple, which was taken down in consequence of 




INTERIOR OF INDEPENDENCE HALL. 



being decayed in the latter part of the last century. In front 
of the Chestnut street entrance stands a handsome statue of 
Washington of white marble, the gift to the city of the children 
of the public schools. 

The building was erected by the province of Pennsylvania 
for the purposes of a State House. The Continental Congress, 
composed, of delegates from the thirteen colonies, assembled here 



52 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

at the opening of its adjourned session on the 10th of May, 
1775; and here was signed the Declaration of Independence, 
which has made this venerable edifice for all time the very 
shrine of American patriotism. 

The interior decorations remain as originally designed by the 
architect. Over the doors of the main halls on the first floor 
are medallions containing the head of one of the Georges. 
The eastern hall — the one on the left of the visitor as he enters' 
from Chestnut street — is "Independence Hall.'^ It was in 
this chamber that the Continental Congress held its sessions, 
and that the Declaration of Independence was signed. The 
hall is substantially unchanged, the only repairs that have been 
made being such as were necessary for its preservation. The 
old chandelier used by the Congress of the Revolution still hangs 
from the ceiling. The walls of the room are adorned with 
portraits of the Signers of the Declaration, by Peale, Stuart, 
Inman and Sully, and in the northwest corner stands Rush's 
statue of Washington. On a dais at the eastern end stands the 
chair used by John Hancock, as President of the Congress, and 
the table on which the Declaration was signed. 

At the opposite or western end of the building is the hall 
formerly used by the Court of Common Pleas. It is now a 
Museum of National Relics, and contains many rare and 
curious articles of historical interest. The collection is being 
constantly enlarged. 

On the ground-floor of the steeple stands the old bell w^hich, 
in 1776, hung in the State House steeple, and proclaimed 
liberty to the people of America. It was . cast in England, 
especially for the State House, in 1752, but was cracked in 
testing it. It was then recast by Isaac Norris, of Philadelphia, 
who inscribed upon it the strangely prophetic words, '^Pro- 
claim liberty throughout all the land, unto all the inhabitants 
thereof.^' On the morning of the 4th of July, 1776, vast 
crowds assembled around the State House, as it was known 
that the Congress would on that day take definite action upon 
the Declaration. The bell-ringer stationed himself in the tow^er 
ready to proclaim the good news the moment it should be an- 



AA 



an( 



52 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

at the opening of its adjourned session on the lOtli of May, 
1775; and here was signed the Declaration of Independence, 
which has made this venerable edifice for all time the very 
shrine of American patriotism. 

The interior decorations remain as originally designed by the 
architect. Over the doors of the main halls on the first floor 
are medallions containing the head of one of the Georges. 
The eastern hall — the one on the left of the visitor as he enters 
from Chestnut street — is "Independence Hall.'' It was in 
this chamber that the Continental Congress held its sessions, 
and that the Declaration of Independence was signed. The 
hall is substantially unchanged, the only repairs that have been 
made being such as were necessary for its preservation. The 
old chandelier used by the Congress of the Revolution still hangs 
from the ceiling. The walls of the room are adorned with 
portraits of the Signers of the Declaration, by Peale, Stuart, 
Inman and Sully, and in the northwest corner stands Rush's 
statue of Washington. On a dais at the eastern end stands the 
chair used by John Hancock, as President of the Congress, and 
the table on which the Declaration was signed. 

At the opposite or western end of the building is the hall 
formerly used by the Court of Common Pleas. It is now a 
Museum of National Relics, and contains many rare and 
curious articles of historical interest. The collection is being 
constantly enlarged. 

On the ground-floor of the steeple stands the old bell which, 
in 1776, hung in the State House steeple, and proclaimed 
liberty to the people of America. It was cast in England, 
especially for the State House, in 1752, but was cracked in 
testing it. It was then recast by Isaac Norris, of Philadelphia, 
who inscribed upon it the strangely prophetic words, '^Pro- 
claim liberty throughout all the land, unto all the inhabitants 
thereof." On the morning of the 4th of July, 1776, vast 
crowds assembled around the State House, as it was known 
that the Congress would on that day take definite action upon 
the Declaration. The bell-ringer stationed himself in the tower 
ready to proclaim the good news the moment it should be an- 




MEMOKIAL BUILDING' OR ART GAI.LE;JRY — -INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. 
365 feet in length andl210 feet in width. 



OF THE CENTENNIAI. EXHIBITION. 



53 



nounced to him, and had posted his little son at the door of the 
hall to await the signal of the door-keeper. "When the an- 
nouncement of the vote was made, the door-keeper gave the 
signal and the boy ran quickly to the tower. The old man 
heard him coming, and clutched the bell-rope with a firm 
grasp. The next instant the glad cry of the boy's voice was 
heard. "Ring! ring!'' he cried; and then the deep, sonorous 
tones of the bell went rolling out of the tower, and were 
answered with a mighty 
shout from the assembled 
throng without. 

A few days later the 
Declaration of Independ- 
ence was formally read by 
order of Congress, from the 
doorway of Independence 
Hall to the people assembled 
in the square in the rear of 
the hall, and was received 
by them with overwhelming 
enthusiasm. At the close 
of the readino; the crowd 
tore the royal decorations 
from the hall, and carried 
them into the square and 
made bonfires of them. 

A broad stairway leads 
to the second floor, on which are located the chambers used by 
the Select and Common Councils of the City of Philadelphia. 
The hall at the western end was used as the Senate chamber 
during a part of the sessions of the First Congress. At the time 
of the Revolution, the lobby extended from this hall to the 
eastern end of the building. The American officers captured 
by the British at the battle of Germantown were confined here. 

The eastern wing is now occupied by the Municipal Govern- 
ment, and contains the offices of the Mayor of the city, and the 
Police Department. The western wing is known as " Congress 




OLD BKLL OF INDEPENDENCE HALL. 



54 



THE ILLUSTKAIliiD HISTORY 



Hall/' On the eastern wall of this wing is a marble tablet 
bearing this inscription ; 

" In this building met the 

First Senate 

and the 

First House of Representatives , 

of the United States of America ; 

and herein George Washington was inaugurated 

President, March 4, 1793, 

and closed his official career; 

where, herein also, 

John Adams was inaugurated the 

Second President of the United States, 

March 4, 1797." 

The House of Representatives occupied the first^oor, now 
used by the Court of Quarter Sessions and the Highway 




public ledger building. 



Department, and the Senate, upper floor, at present devoted to 
District Courts No. 1 and No. 2. Thomas Jefferson, as Vice- 
President, presided over the Senate during Mr. Adams' ad- 
ministration. Congress sat here from 1792 to 1799. 

Immediately opposite Independence Hall are the Americuii 



54 



THE ILLUSTKATtID HISTOKY 



Hall." On the eastern wall of this wing is a marble tablet 
bearing this inscription : 

" In this building met the 

First Senate 

and the 

First House of Kepresentativi^ , 

of the United States of America ; 

and herein George Washington was inaugurated 

President, March 4, 1793, 

and closed his official career; 

where, herein also, 

John Adams was inaugurated the 

Second President of the United States, 

March 4, 1797." 

The House of Representatives occupied the first^oor, now 
used by the Court of Quarter Sessions and the Highway 




PUBLIC LEDGER "BUILDING. 



Department, and the Senate, upper floor, at present devoted to 
District Courts No. 1 and No. 2. Thomas Jefferson, as Vice- 
President, presided over the Senate during Mr. Adams' ad- 
ministration. Congress sat here from 1792 to 1799. 

Immediately opposite Independence Hall are the American 




\ 



SCENE IN AGRICULTURAL HALL, SHOWING THE TOBACCO AND OTHER EXHIBITS 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



55 



Motel, the rooms of the Philadelphia Press Cluhy and the office 
of the Adams Express Company. 

At the southwest corner of Chestnut and Sixth streets is the 
splendid brown-stone building of the Public Ledger. It is one 
•of the most perfectly appointed newspaper offices in the world, 
and is a noble monument to the energy and ability of Mr, 
■George W. Childs, its proprietor, who has made the Ledger one 
of the most useful as well as one of the most successful journals 
in the Union. On the 
northwest corner is the 
office of The Day, and a few 
<doors above is the office of 
the Evening Bulletin, the 
oldest afternoon paper in 
the city. Almost immedi- 
ately opposite the Bulletin 
is the office of the German 
Democrat, a showy build- 
ino; : and on the southwest 



corner of Seventh and 
Chestnut is the office of The 
Press. A few doors above 
Seventh, on the north side 
of Chestnut, is the office of 
The Times. 

At the northeast corner 
of Seventh is Guy's Hotel, 
a handsome building of 
white marble. The hotel 
is conducted on the European plan, and is an excellent house. 

The heavy business of the street may be said to end at 
Seventh street, at which point the fashionable promenade 
begins. Above this, the stores are chiefly retail establishments, 
and in the next eight squares are collected the handsomest and 
most extensive dry-goods, clothing, jewelry, house-furnishing, 
carpet, book, and fancy stores of the city. Many of these are 
palatial structures, and in the majority the display of goods i? 




GEEMAN DEMOCRAT BUILDING. 



66 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 



rich and beautiful. The windows are dressed with great taste^ 
and afford a constantly changing series of pictures unsurpassed 
by any street in the world. The scene on the street is always 
brilliant. The whole fashionable world turns out here to see 
and be seen in fine weather, and from two to six in the after- 
noon the street is thronged with elegantly dressed people, and 
showy carriages and other vehicles. 

On the north side, above Seventh, is the elegant front of the 




Grr's HOTEL. 

Old Masonic. Temple. It is a conspicuous object on the street^, 
and at the time of its erection was considered the most elegant 
structure of its kind in the country. It is now eclipsed by the 
new Temple on Broad street, and having been deserted by the 
brethren, is being converted into a hotel. 

At the southeast corner of Ninth and Chestnut is the Conti- 
nental Hotel, the largest in the city, and esteemed by experi- 
enced travellers the best in the Union. It is six stories in 
height, and covers an area of 41,536 square feet of grounds 




OLD MAPONTC TEMPT.E, CHEPTNFT STREET. 



68 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



The Chestnut street front is built of Albert and Pictou sand- 
stone, and is elegant and tasteful in design. The Ninth and 
Sansom street fronts are of a fine quality of pressed brick. 
The hotel was opened in February, 1860, and has done a steady 
and prosperous business ever since. It has accommodations for 
1000 guests, and is famous as setting a better table than any 
American hotel. All of its appointments are elegant and sub- 
stantial, and combine solid comfort with beauty. Elevators 
convey guests and thei^ luggage from the ground-floor to the 




continentatj hotel. 



sixth story ; telegraph wires radiate from the hotel to all parts 
of the world ; the traveller may purchase his ticket to his 
destination and check his bagg-age before leaving the house; 
and most of the necessities and many of the luxuries of life 
may be had from the stores under the same roof. The cost of 
the building was $1,000,000. 

Immediately opposite the Continental is the Girard House, 
a stately edifice of brown-stone, erected at a cost of $500,000. 
It is considered the second hotel in Philadelphia, and is a for- 




GROUP OF VASES, EXHIBITED IN THE CHINESE SECTION, MAIN BUILDING. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



59 



midable rival to the Continental. It has accommodations for 
300 guests. 

The eastern half of the square, bounded by Chestnut, Market, 
and Ninth streets, is the site on which the new Post- Office is 
being erected. An appropriation of $3,000,000 has been made 
for this work, and the Post-Office will be a splendid and per- 
fectly arranged building. It will be constructed of granite, 
and it is estimated that its cost will not fall short of $6,000,000. 

At the southwest corner of Chestnut and Ninth is the " Burd 
Block,^' built of white marble, and consisting of three beautiful 
and magnificent stores — the handsomest on the street. 

At the northwest corner of Tenth street is the building of the 




GIRARD HOUSE. 



iVew? Yo7^k Mutual Life Insurance Company. It stands on the 
site of the old Keene mansion, and is a magnificent structure 
of light Rhode Island granite, in the Renaissance style. It is 
one of the principal ornaments of the city, and one of the 
handsomest business edifices in the world. Its cost was 
11,000,000. 

On the north side of Chestnut, above Tenth, is the American 
Theatre, better known as Fox's. It is a gaudy structure, stands 
on the site of the old Academy of Fine Arts, and will seat 
2800 people. On the opposite side of the street are a number 
of elegant stores. 

The American Sunday-School Union occupies a handsome 
granite edifice on the south side of the street, between Eleventh 



60 



THE ILLUSTRATED HLSTORY 



and Twelfth. It was erected in 1854, and is the head-quarters 
and central office of this vast organization. Girard Row, on 
the opposite side of the street, contains a number of handsome 
stores. One of these is occupied by the art galleries of C. F. 

iHaseltine, a place which no lover of art should fail to visit. 

f Bailey's Jewelry ^tore, at the southeast corner of Chestnut 
and Twelfth, is a superb edifice of white marble. It is the 
largest establishment of its kind in the city, and is rl^-hly worth 




CHESTNUT STREET AT TWELFTH. 

a visit. The building is owned by Dr. S. S. White, manufac- 
turer of dental materials, who occupies all the upper floors. 

On the north side of the street, above Twelfth, are the 
Chestnut Street TheatrCj the leading society theatre of the city, 
and Concert Hall. 

The United States Mint 

Stands on the north side of Chestnut street, above Thirteenth. 
The building is principally of brick, faced in front with white 
marble ashler. It is in the Ionic order, and the front is orna- 
mented with a wide portico of beautiful design, supported by 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



61 



six large pillars, and approached by a flight of wide steps. 
The United States Mint was established by Act of Congress, in 
April, 1792, and in 1794 David Kittenhouse was appointed by 
President Washington its first Director. A building on Seventh 
street, near Market, was first used, and there copper cents were 




A CHESTNUT STREET DRY-GOODS STORE. 

coined in 1793. Silver dollars were coined the next year, and 
gold eagles in 1795. Until 1826 all the work of coining was 
done by hand, but in that year steam machinery was introduced. 
The present structure was begun in 1829, and was finished in 
1833. It is the principal mint of the country, all the others 



62 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

being merely branches of this establishment. It is one of the 
most complete and perfectly equipped institutions of its kind. 
The steam-engine and the coining aiid milling machinery are 
exceedingly intricate and costly. The steam-engine used for 
driving the coining machinery is one of the most perfect and 
beautiful pieces of machinery in existence. The largest scale 
used in the mint will weigh 6000 ounces of metal, and the 
smallest one-thirteenth-hundredth part of a grain. Of late 
years the mint has been largely engaged in coining monev for 
China and Japan. The probable resumption of specie pay- 
ments at an early day will no doubt restore to this institution 
its old time activity. The operations of the mint are con- 
ducted with the most scrupulous integrity. The government 
has never lost a cent's worth by the dishonesty of any of the 
officials or employes since the institution was established. 
Visitors are admitted from 9 to 12 each day, and the officers 
of the mint take pleasure in explain ii>g the coining and other 
processes. There is a valuable and extensive cabinet of rare 
and curious coins attached to the mint. Some of the coins are 
of a date 700 years before the Christian era. 

Nearly opposite the mint is the new building of the Presby- 
terian Board of 'Publicaiion. It is built of white granite, with 
trimmings of polished Aberdeen stone. 

At the southeast corner of Chestnut and Fifteenth streets is 
the magnificent new building of the Young Men^H Christian 
Association. The ground-floor is devoted to stores, but the 
upper floors are used by the Association. It is the handsomest 
building owned by this society in the United States. 

At the southwest corner of Fifteenth street is the Colonnade 
Hotels a handsome structure of white marble, seven stories in 
height. It is a first-class hotel, and has accommodations for 
700 guests. 

At the northwest corner is the Episcopal Church of the 
Epiphany. 

Immediately above the Colonnade Hotel is the Reform Club 
House^ a marble building, pleasantly situated, and fitted up in 
superb style. 




THE STARCH PAVILION, IN AGRICULTLKAL HALL. 




GENERAL VIEW OP THE INTERIOR OF AGRICULTUEAL HALL. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



63 



Beyond Fifteenth, Chestnut street is lined with handsome 
residences, to within a short distance of the Schuylkill. The 
most beautiful and costly of these is the mansion built by the 
late Dr. Jayne, at the southeast corner of Nineteenth street. 
On the north side of Chestnut, above Eighteenth, is the Taber- 
nacle Baptist Church. 

The Schuylkill is crossed by means of a handsome bridge 
of iron, with stone piers. Beyond the river the street is built 




COLONI^'ADE HOTEL. 



up regularly for a few squares, but then gives way to a series 
of elegant villas. 

Walnut street 

The lower part of Walnut street is devoted entirely to business. 
At the corner of Second and Walnut is a large four-story brown- 
stone building known as "Anthracite Block,'^ as it is occupied 
entirely by persons engaged in the coal trade. This part of the 
street is principally devoted to the same interest. 

Just above Second street. Dock street intersects Walnut 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



65 



obliquely, and in the triangle bounded by Third, Dock, and 
Walnut streets stands 

77?^ Merchants' Exchange. 

This is the most conspicuous feature of this portion of Phila- 
delphia. It is a splendid edifice, constructed of Pennsylvania 
marble. It is used for the purposes indicated by its name; and 
the large rotunda on its eastern side has lately been fitted up at 




merchants' exchange. 

great expense for the daily sessions of the Philadelphia Board 
of Brokers. Dock street, upon which the eastern side of the 
building fronts, is said to have been once the course of a stream 
of running water. 

In Second street below Chestnut, and almost within sight of 
the Exchange, is the Commercial Exchange. It is a handsome 
building of brick and brown-stone, with a tower. The lower 
hall is used by the grain and flour merchants for their daily 
meetings, and the tower by the Philadelphia branch of the 
5 



66 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

United States Signal Service. The building stands on the site 
of the " Old Slate Roof House," which was so called because 
it was at that time the only house in Philadelphia provided 
with such a roof. It was built at a very early day by Samuel 
Carpenter. William Penn occupied it during his second visit 
to Philadelphia, in 1700, when he brought his family with him, 
and John Penn, the only native American of the family, was 
born here. General Forbes, Braddock's successor, died here, 
and General Henry Lee, the famous "Light-Horse Harry" of 
the Revolution, was buried from here. John Adams, John 
Hancock, and the Baron de Kalb also resided here for a while. 
Washington was a frequent visitor to the house. 

At the southeast corner of Walnut and Third streets is the 
building of the Delaware Mutual Safety Insurance Companyy 
one of the handsomest in the city. On the opposite corner of 
Third street is the office of the Sunday Dispatch. Between 
Third and Fourth the street is occupied almost entirely by coal 
offices. 

On Fourth street below Walnut are the offices of the Penn- 
sylvania and the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Companies, 
The Pennsylvania Company controls more miles of railway 
than any other organization in the world. The building of 
this company is of brick, with a handsome front of Quincy 
granite. The Reading Railroad is the second corporation in 
the State, and controls the bulk of the transportation from the 
rich coal-fields of Pennsylvania to the seaboard. 

Independence Square lies on the north side of Walnut street, 
between Fifth and Sixth ; and diagonally opposite, at the corner 
of Sixth, is Washington Square, both of which have been 
already described. This is a region of lawyers' and real estate 
agents' offices ; a number of insurance offices are also located 
here. On the corner of Walnut street and West Washington 
Square is the handsome bank building of the Philadelphia Sav- 
ings Fund Society, the first savings bank established in America. 
It began in a small way in 1816^ and its depositors now num- 
ber 39,000, while its deposits amount to more than ^10,000,000. 

On the northeast corner of Walnut and Ninth streets is the 



66 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

United States Signal Service. The building stands on the site 
of the " Old Slate Roof House," which was so called because 
it was at that time the only house in Philadelphia provided 
with such a roof. It was built at a very early day by Samuel 
Carpenter. William Penn occupied it during his second visit 
to Philadelphia, in 1700, when he brought his family with him, 
and John Penn, the only native American of the family, was 
born here. General Forbes, Braddock's successor, died here, 
and General Henry Lee, the famous "Light-Horse Harry" of 
the Revolution, was buried from here. John Adams, John 
Hancock, and the Baron de Kalb also resided here for a while. 
Washington was a frequent visitor to the house. 

At the southeast corner of Walnut and Third streets is the 
building of the Delaware Mutual Safety Insurance Company^ 
one of the handsomest in the city. On the opposite corner of 
Third street is the ofl&ce of the Sunday Dispatch. Between 
Third and Fourth the street is occupied almost entirely by coal 
offices. 

On Fourth street below Walnut are the offices of the Penn- 
sylvania and the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Companies. 
The Pennsylvania Company controls more miles of railway 
than any other organization in the world. The building of 
this company is of brick, with a handsome front of Quincy 
granite. The Reading Railroad is the second corporation in 
the State, and controls the bulk of the transportation from the 
rich coal-fields of Pennsylvania to the seaboard. 

Independence Square lies on the north side of Walnut street, 
between Fifth and Sixth ; and diagonally opposite, at the corner 
of Sixth, is AVashington Square, both of which have been 
already described. This is a region of lawyers' and real estate 
agents' offices ; a number of insurance offices are also located 
here. On the corner of Walnut street and West Washington 
Square is the handsome bank building of the Philadelphia Sav- 
ings Fund Society, the first savings bank established in America. 
It began in a small way in 1816, and its depositors now num- 
ber 39,000, while its deposits amount to more than $10,000,000. 

On the northeast corner of Walnut and Ninth streets is the 



I 





AtiRICUI,TURAI. HALL — INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. 
830 feet in length and 540 feet in wi(Ul) 



I 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



67 



Walnut Street Theatre, once the leading theatre of the Union. 
It was the scene of many of the most memorable triumphs of 
Kean, Kemble, Forrest, Macready, and the elder and younger 
Booth. 

Adjoining the northwest corner of Walnut and Ninth is the 




RESIDENCE OF GEO. W. CHILDS, WALNUT STREET. 

building occupied by city offices of the United States Centennial 
Commission. Immediately opposite is the office of the Cen- 
tennial Board of Finance. On the north side of the street, just 
below Tenth street, is the Irving House, a fashionable hotel, with 
accommodations for 200 guests. 

The business portion of Walnut street may be said to end 



68 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

at Tenth street. Beyond this the street is occupied by dwell- 
ings, which, above Twelfth street, are among the handsomest 
in the country. Marble, brown-stone, granite, and free-stone 
alternate with brick, and give to the street an appearance more 
varied than that of Fifth Avenue, and almost as handsome. 

Rittenhouse Square, already described, is at the intersection 
of Eighteenth and Walnut streets. The residences surrounding 
it are especially attractive, and afford a fair sample of the 
higher class of the domestic architecture of the city. At the 
upper end of Jlittenhouse Square is the Church of the Holy 
Trinity, a handsome brown-stone edifice with a square tower 
and pinnacles of the same material. At the southeast corner of 
Twenty-first and Walnut is one of the most beautiful specimens 
of church architecture in Philadelphia. It is the property of 
the Presbyterian denomination, and is known as the Second 
Presbyterian Church, 

The line of residences ceases abruptly about a square from 
the river. Beyond the Schuylkill it is taken up again, and 
Walnut street forms one of the most beautiful thoroughfares of 
West Philadelphia. At Thirty-ninth and Walnut is the pala- 
tial residence of Anthony J. Drexel, the well-known banker, 
and one of Philadelphia's most useful citizens. It is a splen- 
did specimen of villa architecture. 

Arch Street 

Arch street is the next great thoroughfare north of Market 
street, and extends from the Delaware to the Schuylkill. It is a 
wide and handsome avenue, the lower part of which is given to 
business. It is a street which retains more traces of the Phila- 
delphia of half a century ago than any of the great highways 
of the city, and is quieter and more staid than either Market or 
Chestnut. It is one of the brightest and most attractive of the 
city thoroughfares, and forms a pleasing contrast to either of 
those just mentioned. 

At the corner of Fourth and Arch, surrounded by a high 
brick wall, is the Meeting House of the Orthodox Friends. 
Philadelphia owes her prosperity to-day, in a great measure, to 




SILVER PITCHER, EXHIBITED BY THE GORHAM IMANUFACTURING CO. 




SOLID SILVER SALVER, EXHIBITED BY THE GORHAM MANUFACTURING CO. VALUE S3.000. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



69 



the people of this society, and in this city at least, the sincere 
and modest virtues of the Quaker will always command the 
gratefu] reverence of the people. 

At the southeast corner of Fifth and Arch streets is 

Old Christ Church Graveyard. 

It is enclosed by a high brick wall. It was purchased at the 
same time the ground on which Christ Church stands was ac- 
quired, and the first in- 
terment was made here 
in 1700, five years after- 
wards. Many prominent 
men are buried here. 
Here lie the bones of 
Peyton Randolph, the 
President of the first Con- 
tinental Congress ; Fran- 
cis Hopkinson, a signer 
of the Declaration of In- 
dependence ; and Major- 
General Charles Lee. 
Close by the Arch street 
wall, at the upper end of 
the cemetery, are the 
graves of Benjamin 
Franklin, and Deborah, 

his wife. In 1858, a portion of the wall was removed, and an iron 
railing was set in its place. The passer-by can now look in from 
the street and behold the graves of the philosopher and states- 
man, and his wife. A plain slab of marble marks their last 
resting-place, bearing an inscription dictated by Franklin him- 
self, with the exception of the date. It reads thus : 

" Benjamin '\ 

and V Franklin. 
Deborah J 

1790." 




CORNER OF ARCH AND SIXTH STREETS. 



What a contrast between this modest legend and the pompous 



70 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

inscriptions in Laurel Hill ! Franklin needed no monument 
over his tomb, no epitaph, to keep his memory green in Phila- 
delphia. His monuments lie all over the city. Among the 
most prominent are the Philadelphia Library, the American 
Philosophical Society, the Pennsylvania Hospital, the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, and Christ Church. 

Adjoining the grave of Franklin is that of his daughter 




BEN J A MIX FRANKLIN. 



Sarah, and her husband, Richard Bache. It is marked by a 
similar slab. 

At the southwest corner of Fifth and Arch is an ancient 
building, erected during the latter part of the last century for 
the use of the Free Quakers. " It is now occupied by the Appren- 
tices' Library Company, which was established in 1820, "for the 
use of apprentices and other young persons, without charge of 
any kind, for the use of books.'' 

On the north side of Arch street, above Sixth, is the Arch 
Street Theatre, a handsome marble front buikling. The interior 
is one of the best arranged and most comfortable in the city. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



71 



On the same side, above Seventh, is the St. Cloud Hotel, a 
handsome building, with a brown-stone front, with accommoda- 
tions for 400 guests. 

At the northwest corner of Arch and Ninth streets is Colonel 
Wood's Museum, a popular place of amusement. Adjoining the 
northwest corner of Tenth and Arch is Simmons^ and Slocuni's 
Opera House. 




ST. CLOUD HOTEIi. 



On Arch above Tenth, on the south side, are the Methodist 
Book Rooms. 

At the southeast corner of Arch and Broad streets is the Arch 
Street Methodist Episcopal Church, one of the stateliest church 
edifices in the city. It was completed in 1873, is constructed 
entirely of white marble, and is built in the pure Gothic style, 



72 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



with a spire rising to a height of 233 feet. Its cost was over 
5250,000. At the northwestern corner is St. John\ Lutheran 
Church, It is built of serpentine stone, with gray sandstone 
and Hummel-stone dressings. The tower, which is not yet 
completed, will be massive in its proportions, and very beauti- 




ARCH STREET METHODIST CHURCH. 

ful. The interior decorations are very rich, and the altar is one 
of the handsomest in this country. The church is built in the 
florid German Gothic style, and will cost when completed about 
$300,000. At the northwest corner of Arch and Broad is the 
First Baptist Church, one of the oldest organizations of that de- 




SHOW-CASES IN THE CHINESE DEPARTMENT, MAIN BUILDING. 



OP THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 73 

nomination in this country. The congregation was formed in 
1684. The present edifice was erected in 1854. The church 
is a substantial brown-stone structure, with a spire 225 feet in 
height. The interior is very handsome. 

Above Broad, Arch street is entirely devoted to residences, 
many of which are very handsome. Many of the "solid men^' 
of the city live in this quarter, and their residences, while often 
plain and unassuming without, are sumptuously and beautifully 
furnished within, and are arranged with every convenience. At 
the corner of Arch and Eighteenth is tlie West Arch Street Pres- 
byterian Church, a splendid edifice, much admired by the people 
of the city. 

Broad Street 

Broad street is the longest in the city. It extends in an un- 
broken line from the Delaware to Germantown, a distance of 
about fifteen miles, and preserves a uniform width of 120 feet 
along this entire length. 

The southern terminus of the street is at League Island, a 
low tract of land at the junction of the Delaware and the 
Schuylkill. This island was presented to the United States by 
the city of Philadelphia a few years ago, for a Navy Yard. 
"Work was begun upon it almost immediately, and about a year 
ago the Kavy Yard was transferred to it from its old quartet's 
higher up the river. We shall refer to it again in another por- 
tion of this work. For some distance north of League Island, 
Broad street is bordered by truck farms, and is ornamented with 
a double row of trees. Several handsome churches and some 
fine residences are located south of Washington avenue. At 
the northwest corner of Broad street and Washington avenue is 
the Depot of the Fhiladelphiay Wilmington and Baltimore Rail- 
road^ or jSls it is more commonly called, "the Baltimore Depot." 
It is a large and commodious building, well suited to the needs 
of this prosperous road. Diagonally opposite the depot, in the 
square bounded by Broad, Thirteenth, Christian and Carpenter 
streets, is the Ridgway Branch of the Philadelphia Library y to 
which we shall refer again. 

At the corner of Broad and Pine streets is the Pennsylvania 



74 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. This noble charity was or- 
ganized in 1820, by Bishop White, and in 1821 was incor- 
porated by the State. The building presents a front of cut stone, 
with a portico supported by pillars of the Tuscan order. It 
consists of a central portion and two wings, the whole having a 




BETH-EDEN BAPTIST CHURCH. 



frontage of 200 feet. The State of Pennsylvania makes a lib- 
eral appropriation every year towards its support, and the States 
of Maryland, New Jersey, and Delaware also contribute to it, 
and send their deaf and dumb to enjoy its benefits. 

At the northwest corner of Spruce street is Beth-Eden Churchy 
the property of the Baptists. It is a superb edifice, and when 



OF THE CEXTENNIAX. EXHIBITION. 



75 



its spire is completed, will be one of the most perfect specimens 
of church architecture in America. 

On Broad street above I^ocust is Horticultural Hall, the prop- 
erty of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, which was in- 
corporated in 1827. 



^ 




HOETICUIiTURAL TTAT.T. . 

Immediately above Horticultural Hall, and separated from 
it by a space of a few yards, is the 

American Academy of Music, 

The most capacious and elegant opera house in the country. It 
was completed on the 26th of January, 1857, and was opened 
with a notable ball. It is still used for the grand balls of the 
Pliiladelphians, on which occasions a temporary bridge is 
thrown across the space between the Academy and Horticul- 
tural Hall, and the two buildings are used in common. The 
Academy is built of fine pressed brick, with brown-stone trim- 
mings, and has a front of 140 feet on Broad street, and a depth 
of 238 feet on Locust street. The exterior is substantial, but 



76 



THE ILLUSTKATED HISTORY 



plain, and not at all in keeping with the magnificent interior. 
The stage is 90 feet wide, nearly 50 feet high, and nearly 100 
feet deep. The i)roscenium is richly ornamented, and the 
boxes which it contains are situated between six splendid Cor- 
inthian pillars, three on each side, and are sumptuously up- 
holstered. The parquette and its accompanying circle are very 
large, and above them rises the balcony, at the back of which 
are rows of private boxes, the family circle, and the amphitheatre. 




ACADEMY OP MUSIC. 

The galleries are supported by Corinthian pillars, similar to 
those of the proscenium, but smaller. The dome is frescoed to 
represent the sky with its myriads of stars, and from it hangs a 
magnificent crystal chandelier. The upholstering of the house 
is in crimson and gold, and the effect of the whole is dazzling 
and grand. The front doors lead into a large lobby, hand- 
somely frescoed, and provided with retiring-rooms, cloak-rooms, 
etc. On the right and left, grand stairways lead to the balcony, 
which is backed by a smaller lobby opening into the foyer, 



76 



THE ILLUSTKATED HISTORY 



plain, and not at all in keeping with the magnificent interior. 
The stage is 90 feet wide, nearly 50 feet high, and nearly 100 
feet deep. The proscenium is richly ornamented, and the 
boxes which it contains are situated between six splendid Cor- 
inthian pillars, three on each side, and are sumptuously up- 
holstered. The parquette and its accompanying circle are very 
large, and above them rises the balcony, at the back of which 
are rows of private boxes, the family circle, and the amphitheatre. 




ACADEMY OF MUSIC. 



The galleries are supported by Corinthian pillars, similar to 
those of the proscenium, but smaller. The dome is frescoed .to 
represent the sky with its myriads of stars, and from it hangs a 
magnificent crystal chandelier. The upholstering of the house 
is in crimson and gold, and the effect of the whole is dazzling 
and grand. The front doors lead into a large lobby, hand- 
somely frescoed, and provided with retiring-rooms, cloak-rooms, 
etc. On the right and left, grand stairways lead to the balcony, 
which is backed by a smaller lobby opening into the foyer, 




-4efvl0W>^^i<" 



MAIN BUILDING OF THE INTERNATIONAL CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION, PHILADELPHIA, 1876. 
1880 feet in length and 464 feet in width. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 77 

which is located immediately over the main lobby. The build- 
ing will comfortably seat 3000 persons, and has held as many 
as 4000 sitting and standing. Its estimated value, with its 
scenery and other appointments, is $800,000. 

On the southeast corner of Broad and 'Locust streets is The 
Colosseum. It stands directly opposite the Academy of Music, 
and is one of the most noticeable buildings in the city. It was 
originally erected at the corner of Broadway and Thirty-fifth 
street, in New York, but was taken down, transferred to Phila- 
delphia, and rebuilt here in the spring of 1876. As it will 
constitute one of the most prominent places of interest in the 
city during the exhibition, a brief description of it will be of 
service to the reader. The building is cylindrical in form, and 
has a diameter of 129 feet at the base, and 126 feet at the eaves. 
The height from the pavement to the under side of the roof is 
77 feet. The foundations are of masonry, capped with granite 
blocks. The walls are constructed of wrought- iron frame work, 
T irons, 3J by 3J inches, are set upright, 6 feet apart at the 
base, and 3 feet apart at the top, and are connected at in- 
tervals of 7 feet 6 inches by T and angle-irons bolted to 
them, the whole forming a kind of ladder. There are twenty- 
eight of these ladders placed round the circumference, all se- 
curely joined together. Wooden braces are added to the 
panels of the ladders. The outside, 405 feet in circumference, 
and 75 feet high, is covered with corrugated iron. Being 
constructed in this way it can be seen how it was possible to 
take the building down in New York and ship it to Philadel- 
phia, although the undertaking was a laborious one, and at- 
tended by enormous expense. The roof is covered with tin, 
and contains forty-eight skylights. Within the building is a 
promenade 94 feet in diameter, and 300 feet in circumference. 
It is fitted with ornamental columns and pilasters, and has fif- 
teen alcoves containing many objects of interest and beauty. 
The main entrance to the building is at the corner of Broad and 
Locust streets, the faQade of ornamental galvanized iron stand- 
ing diagonally across the corner of the streets. The fagade is 
32 feet wide, and 65 feet high. The whole building is beauti- 



78. THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

fully frescoed in bright colors. The engine for working the 
elevator is in the basement at the centre of the structure, and 
the boiler at the rear of the lot, entirely separated from the 
building. There will be no fire whatever in the Colosseum, 
(the heating being done by steam-pipes), except gaslights, and 
every precaution in the shape of plugs, hose, &c., will be used 
to guard against accident. 

A 2:reat feature of the Colosseum is the tower. This sub- 
structure arises from the ground in the interior of the building, 
around it running the promenade already described. It is 38 
feet 6 inches in diameter at the base, and formerly terminated 
at the roof-line. In reconstructing the building on the Phila- 
delphia site, the tower will run up to a total height of 166 feet, 
with a diameter at the top of 20 feet. The tower has a balcony 
113 feet above the pavement-line, 47 feet in diameter. From 
this point the tower takes a conical form, decreasing in width as 
it rises. At a height of 141 feet from the pavement, a second 
balcony is reached, with a diameter of 33 feet. The balconies 
are each 4 feet wide outside the tower, and protected by substan- 
tial railings. The two balconies will accommodate from 250 to 
300 people at one time. An Otis steam elevator, capable of 
carrying forty persons at a time, will run from the ground to 
the upper balcony, whence there will be an iron stairway on the 
outside of the tower giving access to the summit, twenty-five 
feet above, where fifty or more persons may be accommodated at 
one time. This topmost space is protected by a high and strong 
iron railing. The tower is composed of sixteen "ladders" sim- 
ilar to those used in the construction of the main building. On 
the inside is a heavy framing of timber, extending from the floor 
to the top, and braced to the iron work, within which the ele- 
vator works. In addition to the elevator, a staircase seven feet 
wide runs round the interior of the tower to the top. At some 
appropriate point will be hung a chime of bells. Here it may 
be stated that the cost of the Colosseum in [N^ew York was 
$250,000. The extension of the tower and the cost of tearing 
down, shipping and rebuilding, will bring the total value of the 




BRONZE VASE, EXHIBITED IN THE JAPANESE SECTION, MAIN BUILDING. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 79 

investment at Broad and Locust streets, apart from the paint- 
ings, to a sum not far short of half a million. 

It is expected that the tower will prove a great point of at- 
traction to residents and visitors. There is no place in the 
vicinity from which so good a bird^s-eye view of Philadelphia 
can be had, nor under such pleasant circumstances. A few 
steeples in the city have the requisite elevation, but there are no 
accommodations in them for visitors, who are forced to climb 
the whole distance. At the Colosseum tower the visitor will 
be taken up by an elevator, and all the surroundings will be of 
a nature suited to the class of citizens who will be attracted to 
the spot. Arrived at the first balcony, the sight-seer may 
either there satisfy his curiosity, or again entering the elevator, 
may be carried still higher up the shaft to the second balcony. 
If he has yet further aspirations, he may take the outside stair- 
way to the extreme top^ It is probable ladies wall not much 
affect the last stage of the journey, but it will be perfectly safe 
for those who choose it. It is evident that strangers may gain 
a most correct and immediate idea of the topography of Phila- 
delphia through this medium than by any other means at hand 
during the Centennial season. 

The building is designed expressly for the exhibition of the 
magnificent panorama of Paris, which has attracted so much 
attention in that city and in New York. The picture shows 
" Paris by Night," and is the work of Messrs. Danson & Son, 
artists pf eminence. It covers over 40,000 square feet — or 
more than an acre — of canvas, and represents a territory of 
about seven square miles. Every street and every building of 
prominence or interest in all this wide space is depicted on the 
canvas with absolute correctness. The great capital is shown 
in its most magnificent mood, and the painting has a reputation 
among artists higher than that of the "Old London." In its 
illusion "Paris by Night " surpasses all works of this kind ever 
devised. It is almost impossible to escape the impression that 
one is indeed looking down upon an enormous living and 
breathing city. Drawing and perspective are perfect, and 
Paris, absolutely as it was before the Communistic spoilers 



80 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

ravaged it in parts, is practically before the gazer. All persons 
who have been in Paris will take delight in refreshing their 
memories by this means, and it will give the greater number 
who have not been there an excellent idea of the place where 
all "good Americans go when they die." The Cyclorama is. 
arrano-ed by ingenious mechanism around the entire inner sur- 
face of the circular edifice, its lower edge, however, not coming 
to within twenty-five feet of the ground floor, that space being 
filled, as before stated, by the promenade. The spectator ascend- 
ing the tower emerges at a height of about fifty feet upon a 
central platform, looking downward from which he sees the 
sparkling city spread seemingly for miles around him. The 
idea is that the sight-seer is upon some eminence in the city of 
Paris, and there is nothing to break the spell, unless it is the 
queer French spoken by the people around him. 

To further carry out the pleasant fiction the canvas is made 
to extend far up and beyond the platform, and is painted to 
represent the heavens. The stars shine out, and the moon pours 
its full soft light over the scene, harmonizing and contrasting 
'',vith the myriad illuminations which make gay the Boulevards, 
the bridges, and the other busy centres of Parisian life. At 
certain times mechanical means are brought in play by which 
there is a perfect simulation of a storm over the city. The 
moon becomes obscured by clouds and the lights of the city are 
blurred and extinguished by fast driving rain. This scenic 
effect universally excites admiration and astonishment. 

At the southwest corner of Broad and Walnut is the new 
St. George Hold, a first-class house, with accommodations for 
400 guests. 

On the west side of Broad, north of Walnut, is the 

Union League Club House. 

This magnificent edifice is the property of the Club whose 
name it bears. It is built of brick, with brown-stone trimmings, 
in the French Renaissance style, and cost over $200,000. It 
was finished in May, 1865. It is sumptuously and tastefully 
furnished, and has all the appointments of a first-class club 



80 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

ravaged it in parts, is practically before the gazer. All persons 
who have been in Paris will take delight in refreshing their 
memories by this means, and it will give the greater number 
who have not been there an excellent idea of the place where 
all "good Americans go when they die." The Cyclorama is 
arranged by ingenious mechanism around the entire inner sur- 
face of the circular edifice, its lower edge, however, not coming 
to within twenty-five feet of the ground floor, that space being 
filled, as before stated, by the promenade. The spectator ascend- 
ing the tower emerges at a height of about fifty feet upon a 
central platform, looking downward from which he sees the 
sparkling city spread seemingly for miles around him. The 
idea is that the sight-seer is upon some eminence in the city of 
Paris, and there is nothing to break the spell, unless it is the 
queer French spoken by the people around him. 

To further carry out the pleasant fiction the canvas is made 
to extend far up and beyond the platform, and is painted to 
represent the heavens. The stars shine out, and the moon pours 
its full soft light over the scene, harmonizing and contrasting 
with the myriad illuminations which make gay the Boulevards, 
the bridges, and the other busy centres of Parisian life. At 
certain times mechanical means are brought in play by which 
there is a perfect simulation of a storm over the city. The 
moon becomes obscured by clouds and the lights of the city are 
blurred and extinguished by fast driving rain. This scenic 
effect universally excites admiration and astonishment. 

At the southwest corner of Broad and Walnut is the new 
St. George Hold, a first-class house, with accommodations for 
400 guests. 

On the west side of Broad, north of Walnut, is the 

Union League Club House, 

This magnificent edifice is the property of the Club whose 
name it bears. It is built of brick, with brown-stone trimmings, 
in the French Renaissance style, and cost over $200,000. It 
was finished in May, 1865. It is sumptuously and tastefully 
furnished, and has all the appointments of a first-class club 




UOiaiCULrUK\L hall INXERNATiOUAL iiXlULJTlOK. 

383 feet in length and 193 feet in width. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



81 



house. Its restaurant is excellent^ and it contains many valu- 
able paintings, statues, and busts. The club has now a member- 
ship of over two thousand. It was organized in 1862 for the 
avowed purpose of giving to the general government " an un- 
wavering support of its efforts for the suppression of the 
rebellion.^^ 

Immediately above the "League House 'Ms the La Pierre 
House, one of the most elegant hotels of the city, with accommo- 
dations for over 200 guests. 




UNION LEAGUE CLUB HOUSE. 



A Presbyterian church, with a handsome Corinthian portico, 
stands opposite the " League House,'' and immediately above 
Chestnut street is another on the same side of Broad street. 

The line of Broad street is interrupted a little above Chestnut 
street, by the enormous pile of the new 

Public Buildings, 

BOW in course of erection for the use of the municipal govern- 
ment. The building is surrounded by a grand avenue, 135 feet 
wide on the southern, eastern, and western fronts, and 205 feet 



$2 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY, 



wide on the northern front. The plan submitted by Mr. John 
McArthur, Jr., architect, was adopted. It is essentially modern 
in its leading features, and presents a rich example of what is 
known by the generic term of the " Renaissance,'^ modified and 
adapted to the varied and extensive requirements of a great 
American municipality. 

It is designed in the spirit of French art, admirable in its 
ernaraentation, while the whole effect is one of massive dignity, 
worthy of us and our posterity. 

This immense architectural pile covers, exclusive of the court- 
yard, an area of nearly 4J acres, and consists of one buildings 




liA PIERRE HOUSE. 



sarrounding an interior court-yard. The north and south fronts 
measure 470 feet, the east and west 48 6 J feet, in their extreme 
length. The four fronts are similar in their design. In the 
centre of each an entrance pavilion, of 90 feet in width, rises to 
the height of 185 feet, having receding wings of 128 feet eleva- 
tion. The fronts terminate at the four corners with towei^ or 
pavilions of 51 feet square and 145 feet high. 

The whole exterior is bold and effective in outline, and rich 
in detail, being elaborated with highly ornate columns, pilasters, 
pediments, cornices, enriched windows, and other appropriate 
adornment. Archways of 18 feet in width by 36 feet in height, 
opening through each of the four central pavilions, constitute 




THE ]!sEW PrBLTC BUILDUSfGS. 




THE NATIONAL MUSEUM IN INDEPENDENCE HAL,!,. 



99 



84 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

the four principal entrances, and at the same time afford pas- 
sages for pedestrians up and down Broad and Market streets, 
directly through the buildings. The basement is 18 feet in 
height, and stands entirely above the line of the pavement. Its 
exterior is of fine white granite, of massive proportions, forming 
a fitting base for the vast superstructure it supports. The 
exterior, above the basement, embraces a principal story of 36 
feet, and an upper story of 31 feet, with an attic over the central 
pavilions of 30 feet, and over the corner pavilions of 12 feet, all 
of white marble, from the Lee quarries, in Butler county, 
Massachusetts, wrought, in all its adornments, to express 
American ideas and develop American genius. In the centre 
of the group a court-yard of 200 feet square affords light and air 
to all the adjacent portions of the building. From the north 
side of this space rises a grand tower which will gracefully adorn 
the public buildings, and at the same time will be a crowning 
feature of the city, as St. Peter's is of Rome, and St. PauPs of 
London. 

The tower, which is so deeply and strongly founded, is 90 
feet square at the base, falling off at each story until it becomes, 
at the spring of the dome, an octagon of 50 feet in diameter. A 
statue of the founder of Pennsylvania, 20 feet in height, will 
crown the structure and complete the extraordinary altitude of 
450 feet, making it the highest tower in the world. The entire 
structure will contain 520 rooms, giving ample, convenient, and 
stately provision for all the departments of the city government, 
including heat, light, and ventilation, and the whole is to be 
absolutely fire-proof and indestructible. The several stories 
will be reached by four large elevators, placed at the intersections 
of the leading corridors. In addition to these there will be 
large and convenient stairways in the four corner buildings, and 
a grand staircase in each of the centre pavilions, on the north, 
south, and east fronts. It is computed that the entire cost of 
the work will be near ten millions of dollars, and that it will be 
completed in ten years from the day when the first spadeful of 
earth was removed. 

Opposite the northwest corner of the public buildings is the 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



85 



School of Design for Women, the only institution of the kind in 
America. It was founded in 1848 by Mrs. Peter, and the work 
of the school consists in training women gratuitously in the 
business of mechanical drawing, and thus enabling them to 
acquire a pleasant and profitable means of support. 




NEW MASONIC TEMPLE. 



At the northeast corner of Broad and Filbert streets is the 
new 

Masonic Temple, 

A massive edifice of Cape Ann syenite of a grayish white color. 
At the southwestern corner a grand tower rises to a height of 



86 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTOEY 

230 feet. It is built of stone also. At the northwestern coruCT 
there, is another, but a lower, tower. The main entrance is in 
the centre of the western or Broad street front, and is protected 
by a beautiful Norman porch of Quincy granite. The temple 
is 150 feet in length, with a side elevation of 90 feet. Its 
appearance is massive and beautiful. All the stone of which it 
was built was dressed at the quarry, and was brought to the city 
ready to be set up in its place. It may, therefore, be said of 
this temple as it was of Solomon's, that "There was neither 
hammer nor ax, nor any tool of iron heard in the house, while 
it was in building." The temple is devoted entirely to Masonic 
purposes, and its interior decorations are very beautiful and 
costly. It is fitted up with halls for the different branches of 
the Masonic order, each hall representing a distinct school of 
architecture, and each a model of beauty and magnificence. The 
temple was five years in process of erection, and cost $1,300,000. 

The public buildings, the Masonic temple, and the churches 
at the intersection of Broad and Arch streets give to this portion 
of Broad street a magnificence unsurpassed in any city of the 
country, and in striking contrast with the appearance of the 
street north of Arch. 

Crossing Arch street, the visitor enters upon a region of 
warehouses, shops, and lumber yards, which it is to be hoped 
will ere long give place to buildings more suited to this fine 
street. This state of affairs continues as far as Callowhill street. 
The only building of note in this part of the street is the new 
Academy of Fine Arts. The academy was founded in 1805 by 
the subscriptions of private citizens of Philadelphia. For many 
years it was located in a building on the site of the present 
Chestnut Street Theatre. In 1870 it was determined to remove 
to a larger and better building, and the present edifice was 
begun a year or two later. It is an elaborately ornamented 
building with a frontage of 100 feet on Broad street, and a 
depth of 258 feet on Cherry street. The Broad street front is 
two stories in height. The wall is laid in patterns of red and 
white brick, with light stone trimmings, and the ornaments 
consist of encaustic tiles, and statues of terra cotta. The effect 




b 


« 


&4 




^ 


^ 




w« 


S 


?^ 


ci 


.cr 


r» 


^ 






P- 


P 


D 




►O 


m 










S 




5' 


a= 


cr; 


td 






ET 










s 


i 


p 



OP THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 87 

is novel and rich. The Cherry street front is constructed of 
like materials. It is relieved by an elegant colonnade support- 
ing a row of arched windows, back of which rises a transept 
with a pointed gable. The collections of the academy are the 
most valuable in the country, and among them are the master- 
pieces of Stuart, Sully, Neagle, Benjamin West, and other 
eminent artists. These are arranged in handsome galleries. 
The cost of the building was $300,000. The galleries are 
open to the public at stated times. A slight admission fee 
is charged. 

At Broad and Callowhill streets is the Depot of the Philadel- 
phia & Reading Railroad. Tliis road is one of the direct routes 
to the Centennial Exhibition grounds. 

Diagonally opposite, immediately below Spring Garden street, 
are the Baldicin Locomotive Worhsj one of the largest establish- 
ments in the world. Three thousand men are employed here, 
and one locomotive is completed in every eight working hours. 
It is worthy of mention that Oliver Evans, a Philadelphiau, 
was the first to propose the use of a locomotive in America, and 
that M. W. Baldwin, the founder of these works, was the first 
to manufacture one. 

On the east side of Broad, above Spring Garden street, is the 
Boys' Central High School, above which rises an observatory. 
It is considered one of the best schools in the Union. Next 
door to it is the North Broad Street Presbyterian Church, a 
handsome edifice of brown-stone, with a lofty spire. The build- 
ing next beyond it is the Jewish Synagogue of Rodef Shalom, a 
rich and striking specimen of Saracenic architecture. The inte- 
rior is fitted up with great magnificence. 

Above Green street the character of Broad street undergoes a 
change, and the visitor enters a region built up with some of 
the handsomest residences in the city. Some of these are mag- 
nificent, and all are elegant and tasteful. The street is bordered 
on each side with a row of fine trees, which add greatly to its 
beauty. It is a popular drive and promenade, and on Sunday 
afternoons and other fine days presents an animated and attrac- 
tive scene. At the southwest corner of Master street is the 



gg THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

handsome residence formerly occupied by the late Edwin 
Forrest. It was erected by him in 1859. It is now used as a 

hotel. ^ 

Diagonally opposite the Forrest Mansion is the Memoiial 
Baptist Church, built of green-stone, and in the form of an 
amphitheatre. 

Above Columbia avenue the street is more sparsely built up, 
and by degrees the houses become more scattered, until the 
visitor finds himself in the charming suburb that lies between 
the city proper and German town. 

Third Street 

From Market to Walnut, Third street is the " Wall street "^ 
of Philadelphia, and is given up to the bankers and brokers of 
the city. It is lined with banking establishments and brokers' 
offices, and its ways are as dark and its tricks as vain as those 
which have made the financial centre of Xew York famous. 
Fortunes are made and lost quickly here ; and the street has 
witnessed some gigantic operations, and some tremendous fail- 
ures in its day. North of Chestnut is the Moxhants^ Bank, 
with a fine Corinthian portico. Nearer to Chestnut, on the 
east side of the street, is the banking-house of Drexel & Co., the 
leading establishment of its kind in the city. It has branches 
in New York, London, and Paris. At the southeast corner of 
Third and Chestnut is the Vandyke Building, used by the 
Western Union Telegraph Company as its central office. One 
hundred and seventeen lines of telegraph radiate from this 
building to the different parts of the country : fifty-six to New 
York, eighteen to the West, and forty-three to the South. 
Ixjwer down the street is the- Tradesmen's Bank, sl showy build- 
ing ; and at the corner of Dock street is the Penn Building, the 
first iron building erected in the city. 

On the west side of Third street, between Chestnut and 
Walnut, is 

The Girard Bank. 

This is a handsome edifice, and is faced with white marble. 
It is ornamented with an elegant portico with fluted-marble 




JAPANESE TEMPLE IN BRONZE, MAIN BUILDING. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 8^ 

Corinthian columns. On the pediment is an American eagle^ 
The cornice and the pediment are of wood, and the capitals of 
the columns are of lead. The building was erected in 1795, and 
was then considered the handsomest public edifice in the city. 
It was built for and occupied by the First Bank of the United 
States, which had been chartered by Congress in 1791. The 
charter of the bank expired by limitation in 1811, and Congress 
refused to renew it. 

Stephen Girard, the famous Philadelphia merchant, who had 
accumulated a large fortune by his ventures in the East India 
trade, was a warm friend of the bank, which he regarded as the 
cause of a very great part of the prosperity of the country. He 
was so sure that Congress would renew the charter that, in 1810, 
he ordered the Barings, of London, to invest all his funds in 
their hands in shares of the Bank of the United States. This 
was done to the amount of half a million of dollars. When the 
charter expired, he was the principal creditor of the bank. 
Discovering that he could purchase the old bank building and 
the cashier's house for $120,000, he at once secured them, and 
on the 12th of May, 1812, opened the Girard Bank with a 
capital of $1,200,000, which he increased the next year by 
$100,000 more. He retained all the old officers of the Bank of 
the United States, and continued the cashier, Mr. George 
Simpson, in his position. He was greatly indebted to Mr. 
Simpson for the subsequent success of the bank. The break- 
ing out of the second war with England, and the consequent 
suspension of specie payments, soon followed, and subjected 
his new enterprise to a severe strain. It was a matter of 
great doubt with Mr. Girard how he should preserve the 
integrity of his own institution, while the other banks were 
suspending their payments; but the credit of his own bank 
was eifectually secured by the suggestion of his cashier, Mr. 
Simpson, who advised the recalling of his own notes by 
redeeming them with specie, and by paying out the notes of 
the State banks. In this way not a single note of his own 
was suffered to be depreciated, and he was thus enabled^ 



90 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

in 1817, to contribute effectually to the restoration of specie 
payments. 

Mr. Girard was instrumental in securing the establishment 
of the Second Bank of the United States, and was its largest 
stockholder and one of its directors. When the books were 
opened for subscriptions to the stock of the bank, he waited 
until the last moment before the books were to be closed, and 
then came forward, and asked if all had subscribed who wished 
to do so. Being answered affirmatively, he asked how much of 
the capital remained uncalled for. He was told $3,100,000. 
To the surprise of all present, he said he would subscribe for 
that entire amount. At his death the capital of his own bank 
had increased to $4,000,000. By the terms of his will his bank- 
building became the property of the city of Philadelphia. In 
1833 the Girard Bank was chartered by the State, and began 
business in a portion of this building, which it still occupies, 
having, since 1864, become a national bank. The rest of the 
building is now occupied by the offices of the city treasurer and 
city controller. 

Immediately above the bank is the old banking-house of Jay 
Cooke & Co., whose failure a few years ago occasioned a heavy 
loss to the entire country. 

On the east side of Third below Walnut is the handsome light 
stone building of the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company. Almost 
immediately opposite is St. PauVs Episcopal Church, a venerable 
structure, erected in 1760, by a number of the congregation of 
old Christ Church, who had withdrawn from that parish because 
of the dismissal of the Rev. Dr. McClenaghan " without suffi- 
cient cause." The church is rough-cast, and stands in a spacious 
enclosure, in the midst of long ranges of vaults covered with 
marble slabs. Edwin Forrest, the tragedian, is buried in one 
of these. 

At the southwest corner of Third and Pine streets is an old 
grave-yard, in the midst of which stands St, Peter's Episcopal 
Church. It was begun in 1758 and was finished in 1761. It 
was originally designed as, and was for many years, a chapel of 
Christ Church, by the congregation of which it was built. Dur~ 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



91 



ing the Revolution it was occupied by the British when they 
held the city, and was greatly damaged by them. In 1831 St. 
Petei-'s was separated from Christ Church, and was made an inde- 




AVIARY, ZOOLOGICAli GARDENS. 



pendent parish. The steeple is much more modern than the 
church. It is furnished with a chime of bells, the gift of a Mr. 
Wilcox, once a wealthy merchant of the city and a member 
of the congr^ation. 



CHAPTER III. 

PHILADELPHIA IN 1876 — CONCLUDED. 

Steam Railroads — Their Depots and Ticket OflBces — Steamship Lines — The 
Philadelphia Markets — Prominent Churches — Cathedral — The oldest Pres- 
byterian and Koman Catholic Churches — The old Swedes' Church — The 
Public Schools — University of Pennsylvania — The Medical Colleges — Girard 
College — The Philadelphia Library — Mercantile Library — Ridgway Librar}' 
— Academy of Natural Sciences — Learned Societies — The Zoological Gar- 
dens — Benevolent Institutions — The Pennsylvania Hospital — Insane Asylum 
— Naval Asylum — Prisons — House of Correction — Places of Amusement — 
Cemeteries — Newspapei"s — Banks — Gas and Water — Street Railways — The 
Water Front — The Delaware Shore — Port Richmond — The Coal Wharves 
— Ship Yards — Camden — Smith's and Windmill Islands — Docks of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad — The American Steamship Line — The Old Navy 
Yard — Greenwich Point — League Island — The Navy Yard — Fort Mifflin — 
A Reminiscence of the Revolution — The Schuylkill River — The Bridges — 
The Fairmount and Girard Avenue Bridges — The finest Bridge in America 
— West Philadelphia — Germantown — Manufactures and Commerce. 

IS-' 

t:-^! HERE are eight lines of railway entering the city of 
I Philadelphia, or terminating at Camden, on the op- 
posite shore of the Delaware. These are as follows : 

The Pennsylvania Railroad, the depots of which are 
at Thirty-second and Market streets, in West Philadel- 
phia, and at Kensington. The ticket offices of this road are 
located at the depot, and at 838 Chestnut street, 1348 Chestnut 
street, and 116 Market street. From the Kensington depot 
local trains run to points between Philadelphia and Trenton. 
The "West Philadelphia depot is the arriving and starting point 
of trains from and to the West and New York. The old line 
of the Camden and Amboy road, now leased by the Pennsyl- 
vania Company, lies entirely in New Jersey, and the terminus 
is in Camden. The Market Street Ferry connects with it. It 
92 




THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 93 

is the line to New York by way of Amboy, and to points in 
New Jersey. 

The Philadelphia and Reading Raihoad. The depots of this 
road are at Thirteenth and Callowhill, and at Ninth and Green 
streets. The ticket offices are at 838, 624 and 732 Chestnut 
street, 317 Arch street, and at the depots. The Thirteenth 
street depot is the station for the main line to Reading and the 
anthracite coal regions. The Ninth and Green streets depot is 
the station for points on the Germantown and Norristown 
branches. 

The North Pennsylvania Railroad, The depot of this road 
is at Berks and American streets. It is a direct line to Beth- 
lehem, Lehigh Valley, and the North and West. A branch of 
this road has just been constructed, connecting with the Central 
Railroad of New Jersey, at Bound Brook. It forms with that 
road a direct line to New York, and passengers over it enter 
that city by the New Jersey Central Ferry, at the foot of 
Liberty street. 

The Philadeljphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad. The 
depot of this road is on South Broad street, at the corner of 
Washington avenue. It is the only direct line from Philadel- 
phia to Baltimore, Washington, and the South. It is also the 
route from Philadelphia to the West by way of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, connection with which is made at Baltimore. 
The ticket offices of the road are at the depot, and at 700 and 
838 Chestnut street. 

The West Chester Railroad. The depot of this road is at 
3100 Chestnut street, in West Philadelphia, and its only ticket 
office at the same place. The road extends to West Chester. 

The New Jersey Southern Railroad. The depot of this road 
is in Camden. The Market Street Ferry connects with it. The 
ticket offices are at 700 and 838 Chestnut street. It is a direct 
line to Long Branch, Ocean Grove, and Sandy Hook, on the 
New Jersey coast. From the latter point connection is made 
with a steamer to New York. 

The Camden and Atlantic Railroad. This is the line to 
Atlantic City, on the New Jersey coast, the nearest and most 



Pi 




" m\m 
ij 



liilf 



iMMMm 



!'!i);l!lli!llllll!illitl!litt!ill!B 



94 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 95 

accessible sea-shore resort from Philadelphia. Atlantic City 
has long been famous as the best sea-bathing point on the coast, 
and is always crowded during the summer season with a bril- 
liant and fashionable throng of visitors, in search of health and 
pleasure. Its proximity to Philadelphia — being only an hour 
and three-quarters distant — and the admirable facilities for 
reaching it afforded by the numerous fast trains between the two 
points, will enable visitors to the Centennial Exhibition to 
spend a day or two at the sea-shore, and enjoy "a dip in the 
ocean/' without trespassing upon the time set apart for their 
summer vacation. The depot is at the foot of Vine street. The 
ticket offices are at 838 and 1348 Chestnut street, and at the 
depot. _ 

The West Jet^sey Railroad. This line extends to Cape May,, 
and to points in Western New Jersey, on the Delaware Bay. 
The depot is in Camden, and passengers are conveyed to it by 
the Market Street Ferry. The ticket offices are at 838 and 
1348 Chestnut street. The road is controlled by the Pennsyl- 
vania Company. 

Passengers over any of these lines can procure their tickets, 
secure berths in sleeping-cars, and have their baggage checked 
and called for at their residences or hotels, at any of the city 
ticket offices named above, thus saving themselves all trouble at 
the depot at the moment of departure. 

Steamship Lines. 

There are two steamship lines plying regularly between 
Philadelphia and European ports. These are the American 
Steamship Company, the splendid vessels of which have become 
noted as among the best and most comfortable on the ocean. 
The sailings of this line are weekly. It is a strictly American 
corporation, and the only one for this purpose in existence. Its 
success has been marked from the start. The Inte?mational 
Steamship Company, or Red Star Line, plying between Philadel- 
phia and Antwerp, despatch their vessels fortnightly Phila- 
delphia is connected with the principal ports on the Atlantic 
coast by steamship lines, which transact a steady and profitable 



96 THE ILLUSTKATED HISTORY 

business. The various European steamship lines sailing from 
New York have offices in Philadelphia. 

Markets. 

The markets of Philadelphia are among the institutions of 
the city. In them are collected the vegetable products of the 
North, South, East and West. It is the boast of the city 
that the provisions to be had here are always fresh and at 
moderate prices. Meats of all kinds, poultry, fish, eggs, butter, 
vegetables and fruits, are displayed in the greatest profusion and 
in the most tempting manner. The old sheds which formerly 
disfigured the streets of the city are giving way to handsome 
and commodious edifices of brick. At the corner of Market 
and Twelfth streets, and on Fifth street near Chestnut, are two 
of the finest market-houses in the city. They are well worth a 
visit. 

Churches. 

A number of the most prominent churches of the city have 
been noticed in our description of the principal streets. A few 
remain to be mentioned. 

The Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paid, situated on Eigh- 
teenth street, facing Logan Square, is one of the most elaborate 
religious edifices in the city. It is the principal church of the 
Roman Catholic denomination, and a conspicuous object in any 
view of the city. The Most Rev. Francis Patrick Kenrick, 
D. D., afterwards Archbishop of Baltimore, was Bishop of the 
Diocese of Philadelphia from 1842 to 1851. Soon after his 
entrance upon his office, he inaugurated the movement for the 
erection of a new Cathedral, and fixed upon the Logan Square 
site as the proper place for it. The site was opposed by the 
olergy and many of the laity as too remote from the centre of 
the city; but the Bishop, who had an abiding faith in the 
growth of Philadelphia, carried his point, and on the 6th of 
September, 1846, the corner-stone of the Cathedral was laid. 
In 1857 Bishop Kenrick was promoted to the Archdiocese of 
Baltimore, and was succeeded by Bishop Wood, under whom 
the work was completed. It was dedicated with imposing 



OF THE CENTENNIAL. EXHIBITION. 



97 



ceremonies in 1864. The architects were ^N^apoleon Le Brun 
and John Notman. 

The building is of stone, and is built in the form of a cross, 
with a massive portico and a grand dome. It has a frontage of 
136 feet, and a depth of 216 feet. The height of the apex of the 




CATHEDRAL OF ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL. 



pediment from the pavement is lOlf feet, the height of the dome 
is over 210 feet, and its exterior diameter is seventy-one feet. 
The architecture is of the most elaborate Roman Corinthian 
style. There are no side windows — a feature in which the 
church differs from most of the buildings in this country — the 
7 



98 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

light being introduced almost wholly from above. The facade 
is ornamented with a portico supported by four immense Cor- 
inthian capitals, sixty feet high, and six feet in diameter. On 
the frieze of the pediment are cut the words "Ad Majorem Dei 
Gloriam." The interior of the building is cruciform, and is 
finished in a light stone which greatly resembles Paris stone, 
the effect of which is striking. The walls are frescoed with a 
fine painting of the Crucifixion, the Nativity, and the Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds, and with figures of the four Evangelists. 
The crown of the dome is adorned with a painting representing 
the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin. The high altar and 
the various shrines of the church are constructed of marble, 
and are adorned with great magnificence. The interior is thus 
rendered one of the richest and most beautiful in this country, 
and will bear comparison with many of the churches of Europe. 
The cost of the whole edifice was over $1,000,000. Adjoining 
the Cathedral are the chapel, used for early and week-day ser- 
vices, and the residence of the Bishop. 

Immediately opposite the southern entrance to Washington 
Square is 

The First Presbyterian Church. 

This congregation was for many years regarded as the oldest 
Presbyterian congregation in America, but in 1835 it was dis- 
covered that an older congregation existed at Pehoboth, on the 
Eastern Shore of Maryland. The records of the church go back 
to 1698, in which year the congregation was worshipping with 
the Baptists in their church on '' Barbadoes lot,^^ at the north- 
west corner of Chestnut and Second streets. The present build- 
ing was erected in 1820. From 1830 to 1868 the church was 
under the pastoral care of .the Eev. Albert Barnes, whose literary 
labors are too well known to the reader to need mention here. 

St. Joseph's Church, 

The oldest Roman Catholic church in Philadelphia, is situated 
in Fourth street just below Walnut, near the building of the 
Reading Railroad Company. In 1733 several Jesuit fathers 
purchased the lot on which it stands, and erected a plain wooden 



/ 



98 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

light being introduced almost wholly from above. The facade 
is ornamented with a portico supported by four immense Cor- 
inthian capitals, sixty feet high, and six feet in diameter. On 
the frieze of the pediment are cut the words "Ad Majorem Dei 
Gloriam.^^ The interior of the building is cruciform, and is 
finished in a light stone which greatly resembles Paris stone, 
the effect of which is striking. The walls are frescoed with a 
fine painting of the Crucifixion, the Nativity, and the Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds, and with figures of the four Evangelists. 
The crown of the dome is adorned with a painting representing 
the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin. The high altar and 
the various shrines of the church are constructed of marble, 
and are adorned with great magnificence. The interior is thus 
rendered one of the richest and most beautiful in this country, 
and will bear comparison with many of the churches of Europe. 
The cost of the whole edifice was over $1,000,000. Adjoining 
the Cathedral are the chapel, used for early and week-day ser- 
vices, and the residence of the Bishop. 

Immediately opposite the southern entrance to Washington 
Square is 

The First Presbyterian Church] 

This congregation was for many years regarded as the oldest 
Presbyterian congregation in America, but in 1835 it was dis- 
covered that an older congregation existed at Rehoboth, on the 
Eastern Shore of Maryland. The records of the church go back 
to 1698, in which year the congregation was worshipping with 
the Baptists in their church on '' Barbadoes lot,'^ at the north- 
west corner of Chestnut and Second streets. The present build- 
ing was erected in 1820. From 1830 to 1868 the church was 
under the pastoral care of the Rev. Albert Barnes, whose literary 
labors are too well known to the reader to need mention here. 

St Joseph's Church, 

The oldest Roman Catholic church in Philadelphia, is situated 
in Fourth street just below Walnut, near the building of the 
Reading Railroad Company. In 1733 several Jesuit fathers 
purchased the lot on which it stands, and erected a plain wooden 



uovemBfiH 10"" 1870 ' 





a^^. — >-)^^76>^-<- 



MACHINERY HALL — INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. 
1402 feet in length and 860 feet in width. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION, h 



99 



edifice. This was pulled down by the soldiers by order of the 
colonial authorities, was rebuilt, and pulled down a second time. 
A third time the church was erected, and once more the soldiers 
came to destroy it. -This time the fathers interposed the plea 
that the building was their dwelling, as well as a churcli, and 
that as such they were entitled to hold it. The plea was suc- 




GETHSEMANE BAPTIST CHUECH. 



cessful, and the house was spared. The old church stood until 
1821, when it was remodelled and enlarged. Washington and 
the Continental Congress assembled here in it, at the close of 
the Eevolution, to return to France, through Lafayette, the 
thanks of the country for her aid in the Eevolution. The 
present structure was erected in 1838. 

At the corner of Fourth and Pine streets is 



100 " THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

The Third Presbyterian Church, 

Generally called ^' The Old Pine Church." It was organized 
in 1760 by a number of families who withdrew from the First 
Church, and in 1764 a small frame building was erected on 
this lot, which was obtained from Thomas and Richard Penn. 
The present church was begun in 1766 and completed in 1768. 
During the sessions of the Continental Congress, John Adams 
was one of its most constant attendants. During the occupation 
of the city by the British, the church was used as a hospital for 
the troops. It was stripped of its pulpit and pews for fuel, and 
was then converted into a stable for the horses of the dracroons. 
Among the graves in the churchyard is that of David Ritten- 
house, famous as a mathematician, and a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

In Swanson street near Christian is the most venerable edi" 
fice in the city, the 

Gloria Dei, or Swedes' Church. 

It was built by the Swedes, who settled the site of Philadel- 
phia in 1637, more than forty years before the arrival of Penn's 
colony. The first settlers were very poor, and at first sheltered 
themselves in caves which they dug in the banks of the river. 
A year or two later they built log huts on the plateau beyond 
the river. " They were a kindly, though hot-tempered folk, 
too ; gave their open hand to the English, who asked leave to 
settle on the land, and shut it against the Dutch, who claimed 
the land as a right. . . Nothing can be more pathetic than the 
letters which they sent to old Sweden by every chance voyager 
to Europe, setting forth that they were in a strange and heathen 
land, far away from their own dear fatherland, and begging 
that ^ godly men might be sent to them to instruct their chil- 
dren, and help themselves to lead lives well pleasing to God.' 
It was six years before the letter was answered by the arrival 
of Rudmau and Bjork, the first clergymen sent out by the 
Swedish king. . . Immediately after the arrival of Rudman 
and Bjork, Gloria Dei Church, known now in Philadelphia as 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 101 

old Swedes', was built. It stood upon a green bank of the 
quiet river, Swan Swanson^s being the only hut near by. On 
Sunday mornings the men came tramping on foot beside the 
women's horses from Kingsessing, Passajungh, and even far- 
away Matzongh, hanging their muddied outer leggings or 
shirts of wolfskin on the branches of the trees before they went 




THE OLD swedes' CHURCH. 

in. Now and then a pirogue brought a chance worshipper up 
the lonely river, or a solitary Indian stood in the doorway, half 
believing, and wholly afraid. . . The church itself was built in 
a fervor of pious zeal, the carpenters and masons giving their 
work, and the good pastor, Erick Bjork, selling or pawning the 
best articles out of his house when the money did not come in 



102 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

fast enough, and carrying the hod every day himself." The 
original church was built of logs, and served as a blockhouse as 
well as a place of worship. It was built in 1677. The present 
edifice was erected on the same site in 1700. It is built of 
brick, and is cruciform. The interior is quaint, and the gallery 
front is ornamented with wooden cherubim brought over from 
Sweden. In the churchyard lies buried Alexander Wilson, the 
ornithologist. It may be added here that William Penn 
scrupulously respected the rights of the Swedish settlers, and 
purchased from them the site upon which he founded his city 
of Philadelphia. 

On the north side of Locust above Sixteenth street is 

St Mark's Episcopal Church. 

It was erected in 1849, is built in the decorative Gothic style, 
and is considered one of the most beautiful and gracefully pro- 
portioned churches in the city. It is built of freestone, so nicely 
laid that no trace of mortar can be seen. It is 150 feet in 
length, with a breadth, including the tower, of 91 feet. The 
tower is a massive structure of stone, supporting a spire which 
rises to a height of 230 feet from the ground. The interior is 
very beautiful, and its stained glass windows are among the 
finest in the country. The church is the property of one of the 
wealthiest congregations in the city, and its services are grand 
and impressive. 

St. Clement's Church, at the corner of Twentieth and Cherry 
streets, is a handsome edifice, richly decorated within. It is an 
Episcopal church, and is noted as the most extreme ritualistio 
establishment in the city. 

On the east side of Fourth street, just below New, is 

St. George's Methodist Episcopal Church, 

The oldest Methodist church in the city. Methodism was estab- 
lished in Philadelphia in 1767 by Captain Thomas Webb, who 
held his meetings in a sail-loft near Dock and Front streets. 
He succeeded in forming the germ of the present congregation. 
In 1769 Richard Boardman and Joseph Pillmore were sent 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



103 



over by John Wesley to take charge of the Philadelphia church. 
They preached in the present building, which had just been 
erected, and was known as " Our Preaching House." Francis 
Asbury, afterwards the great bishop, named it St. George'sj in 
1781. In March, 1770, the first love-feast held in America 
was held here. During the Revolution the British occupied 
the church as a riding-school. The church has had among its 
pastors four who became bishops in the Methodist Episcopal 




CENTEAL CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 



Church. They were Francis Asbury, Richard Whatcoat, 
Robert R. Roberts, and Levi Scott. 

The Central Congregational Churchy on Eighteenth street, at 
Eighteenth and Green streets, is a handsome edifice, in the late 
Norman style, erected at a cost of $100,000. 

St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church is at the corner of Girard 
avenue and Fifth street. It is a large and handsome structure, 
with a tower 215 feet high. It will seat 2000 persons. The 



104 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

congregation is the largest and wealthiest in the diocese of 
Philadelphia. 

There are in all over five hundred churches in the city of 
Philadelphia. They are divided as follows among the different 
denominations : 

DENOMINATION Number of Churches. 

Advent Christian Church 3 

Baptist 63 

Bible Christians 1 

Christian Evangelist 1 

Christian Independent 2 

Church of God 1 

Congregational 2 

Disciples of Christ 2 

Evangelical Association 8 

French Protestant Episcopal 1 

Friends (Orthodox) 6 

" (Hicksite) 8 

" (Primitive) 1 

Hebrews 11 

Lutheran (English) 14 

" (German) 12 

'" (Independent) 2 

Mennonite 3 

Methodist Episcopal 89 

" " African 9 

Methodist (Free) • 1 

Moravian 4 

New Church (Swedenborgian) 3 

Presbyterian 75 

« (Reformed Synod) 3 

« " (Original 1 

« " (General Synod) 8 

(United) 12 

Protestant Episcopal , 90 

Reformed Episcopal 3 

" Church in the United States 16 

Koman Catholic 4^ 

Unitarian 2 

Universalist 3 

Total 503 



•If 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 105 

Educational Establishments. 

The public schools of Philadelphia have long been famous for 
their excellence. In the year 1872 there were 396 school-houses 
in the city ; and 78 male and 1552 female teachers. The whole 
number of pupils belonging to the schools at the close of the 
year was 84,387, and the average attendance during the year 
72,025. The whole amount paid for salaries of teachers was 
$900,819; the whole amount paid for school purposes was 
$1,576,199. There were also 29 night-schools, attended by 
8,587 pupils. 

The private schools and academies are numerous and well 
attended. 

There are thirteen colleges in the city. The principal of 
these is the 

University of Pennsylvania. 

This noble institution grew out of the Philadelphia Academy, 
founded by Benjamin Franklin. It consists of four departments 
or schools, namely : the Academical, the Collegiate, the Medical, 
and the Law Schools. 

The University buildings are located in West Philadelphia, 
at the junction of Thirty-sixth street, the Darby road, and 
Locust street. The University buildings are constructed of 
serpentine stone, with the coping, buttresses, and gables of Ohio 
stone, \yhen all are erected they will comprise a complete 
square of Gothic structures, unsurpassed in beauty and conve- 
nience by any in the world devoted to similar purposes. The 
buildings at present comprise the Schools of Arts and Science, 
the Medical School, and the Hospital attached to the Medical 
School. The School of Arts and Science is an imposing structure, 
three stories in height beside the basement. It has a frontage 
of 260 feet on Locust street, and a depth of 120 feet. Its 
pavilions and towers give to it a beautiful and picturesque 
appearance. The Medical School, though it possesses distinct 
architectural features of its own, follows the general design. It 
is fitted up with every convenience for the successful prosecution 
of the studies and investigations of the students. The Hospital 



106 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



is situated to the south of the School of Arts and Science, and 
stands in a lot given to the University by the city on condition 
of its maintaining fifty free beds for poor patients. The Law 
School is located in the first building mentioned. 




UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA'. 

The University is in a flourishing condition, and the faculty 
includes in its number some of the most eminent men in the 
Union. 

Jefferson Medical College 

Is situated in Tenth street below Chestnut. It was established 
in 1825, and was at first a branch of the medical college at 
Cannousburg, Pa. It owes .its existence principally to the 
exertions of Dr. George McClellan. It soon attracted to its 
faculty the most eminent physicians of the city. Its success was 
rapid, and it has long been considered one of the first medical 
schools in America. Its graduates are to be found in every 
part of the Union. The college building is a handsome 
structure, and is fitted up with all the appliances of a first-class 
institution. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 107 

The Homoeopathio Medical College is situated on the north 
side of Filbert street, above Eleventh. Attached to it is a large 
and well-conducted hospital. The college is regarded as one of 
the best schools of this branch of medicine in existence. 

The College of Pharmacy is on the east side of Tenth street 
below Race. It was founded in 1821, and is designed for the 
education of chemists and apothecaries. Thanks to its efforts the 
drug business of the country has been placed mainly in the 
hands of educated pharmaceutists. 

The College of Physicians 

Is located at the northeast corner of Thirteenth and Locust 
streets. It was founded in 1789. Its members are practising 
physicians, and its object is the investigation of " the diseases 
and remedies which are peculiar to this country." The members 
are divided into two classes : Fellows, or practising physicians 
residing in the city ; and Associates, who are eminent physicians 
in other parts of the country. The college publishes a quarterly 
journal of its transactions, which is highly valued by the pro- 
fession. Its transactions are of the greatest benefit to the 
sciences of medicine and surgery, 

Girard College 

Was erected through the munificence of Stephen Girard, whose 
name it bears. The college grounds consist of a tract of forty- 
five acres, fronting on Ridge avenue about a mile from its junc- 
tion with Ninth and Vine streets. The grounds are enclosed 
with a high stone wall, capped with marble slabs, and 
strengthened with pilasters. By the terms of his will, Mr. 
Girard left the sum of six millions of dollars to trustees for the 
purpose of founding and maintaining a college for the free educa- 
tion and support of white male orphans. The cost of the build- 
ings for the purposes of the college was limited to two millions 
of dollars. Up to the present time the sum of $1,933,821 has 
been expended upon the buildings and grounds. The rest of 
the vast legacy was to be kept as a fund for the support of the 
college, the interest only being used. The trustees in a recent 



108 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



report state that if the residuary estate is properly managed, " it 
will soon be ample to maintain as many orphans as the entire 
plot of ground can accommodate." The number of pupils in 
the college at present is about 500, and the sum of $190,000 is 
annually expended in their support. Since its foundation, the 
college has received as pupils 1800 poor, fatherless boys, and 
has indentured 780 of them to honest and profitable trades. 

The grounds are handsomely laid out and carefully kept. 
The main entrance is through a tasteful lodge in the south front. 




GIRARD COLIiEGE. 



The college proper is one of the handsomest structures in the 
United States. It is constructed of pure white marble, and the 
general design is that of a Greek temple, surrounded with a 
range of magnificent Corinthian columns, having eight at each 
end, and eleven on each side, including those at the corners. 
The building rests upon a basement consisting of eleven steps, 
which extend around the entire edifice, thus giving to it an 
air of greater solidity and splendor. The building has a length 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. lOif 

of 169 feet and a width of 111 feet, with a wide platform 
between the outer walls and the ranges of columns. The archi- 
tecture is of the purest Corinthian order, and is one of the most 
perfect specimens of Grecian architecture in America. The 
cohimns are 55 feet high, 10 feet in diameter at the base, and 
are surmounted by capitals^ 8 feet 6 inches high. The distance 
from the top of the capitals to the apex of the pediment is 34 
feet, making the total height from the apex of the pediment to 
the floor of the platform on which the superstructure stands 
nearly 95 feet. The principal entrances are in the north and 
south fronts, and are 32 feet high, and 16 feet wide. Each side 
contains twenty windows, four of which open into each room, 
and one upon each stairway. The building is floored with mar- 
ble, and the roof is constructed of the same material and weighs 
■969J tons. The building is divided into three stories, and is 
used entirely for lecture and recitation purposes. The interior 
work is done entirely in marble, iron, and brick, but not a trace 
of the last material is anywhere visible to the eye. 

A marble statue of Stephen Girard, by Grevelot, stands in 
the south porch of the college, and beneath it lie the remains of 
the founder, and a room in the building known as " Girard's 
Hoom '' contains his books, office furniture, and personal effects. 

A number of fine marble buildings, roofed with copper, stand 
in the college grounds. They are each three stories in height, 
with a frontage of 52 feet and a depth of 125 feet, and are used 
as the residences of the college officers and the dormitories of 
the pupils. 

Mr. Girard's will contained the following restrictions upon 
visitors to the college, which are rigidly enforced. The italics 
are his own : 

" I enjoin and require that no ecclesiastic, missionary , or minis- 
ter of any sect whatsoever, shall hold or exercise any station or 
duty whatever in the said college : nor shall any such person ever 
he admitted for any purpose, or as a visitor, within the premises 
appropriated to the purposes of the said cotlege. In making this 
restriction, I do not mean to cast any reflection upon any sect or 
person whatsoever ; but as there is such a multitude of sects. 



110 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

and such a diversity of opinion amongst them, I desire to keep 
the tender minds of the orphans, who are to derive advantage 
from this bequest, free from the excitement which clashing doc- 
trines and sectarian controversy are so apt to produce ; and my 
desire is, that all the instructors and teachers in the college shall 
take pains to instil into the minds of the scholars the purest 
'principles of morality, so that, on their entrance into active life, 
they may, from inclination and habit, evince benevolence towards 
their fellow-creatures, and a love of truth, sobriety, and industry, 
adopting at the same time such religious tenets as their matured 
reason may enable them to prefer." 

" When Mr. Duane had written this passage at Girard's dicta- 
tion," says Mr. Parton, "a conversation occurred between them, 
which revealed, perhaps, one of the old gentleman's reasons for 
inserting it. ^ What do you think of that ? ' asked Girard. Mr. 
Duane being unprepared to comment on such an unexpected 
injunction, replied, after a long pause, ^ I can only say now, Mr. 
Girard, that I think it will make a great sensation.' Girard 
then said, ^ I can tell you something else it will do, — it will 
please the Quakers.' He gave another proof of his regard for 
the Quakers by naming three of them as executors of his will ; 
the whole number of the executors being five." 

The Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery is located at 
Tenth and Arch streets, and the Philadelphia Deiital College at 
108 North Tenth street. Both are flourishing institutions. 
The Woman^s 3Iedical College of Pennsylvania is at Twenty-first 
and North College avenue. The Polytechnic College of the State 
of Pennsylvania is on Market street above Seventeenth, 

The church institutions are the Academy of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, at Locust and Juniper streets ; the Theologi- 
cal Seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, at No. 216 
Franklin street; St. Joseph's (Roman Catholic) College, at 317 
Willing's alley ; and the Seminary of St. Charles Borromeo, at 
Overbrook station on the Pennsylvania Railroad, just beyond 
Hestonville. The building of the last-named institution is a 
magnificent specimen of the Italian style of architecture. 



OF THE CEXTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



Ill 



LIBRARIES, 

The principal library of the city is the 

Philadelphia Library. 

It was founded in 1731, by Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Hop- 
kinson, Thomas Cadwallader, and several other gentlemen, 
Franklin being the principal mover in the matter. James Logan 
became interested in the enterprise at an early day, and instructed 
Mr. Hopkinson, who was about to sail for England, to purchase 
books to the value of £Qb, This was done, and the books were 




SEMIXARY OF ST. CHAELES BORROMEO. 

received in 1732. The library was made free to the public, but 
none but subscribers, with the exception of Mr. Logan, were 
allowed to take the books from the building. This rule is still 
observed. The library grew slowly, and in 1782 the heirs of 
James Logan presented the trustees with the valuable Loganian 
Library, which is still kept as a separate collection. The two 
collections now number about 100,000 volumes. The library 



112 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



is located in a stately and substantial old-time edifice of brick, in 
Fifth street south of Chestnut, and opposite Independence 
Square. The building was begun in 1789, and was completed 
and occupied by the library in 1790. 

The Mercantile Library 

Occupies a handsome building in Tenth street north of Chestnut. 
It was organized in 1821 by a number of merchants and bankers, 
and in 1826 was made a stock company. The building used by 
the company was formerly the Franklin Market, and cost, with 




MERCANTILE LIBRARY. 



the alterations necessary to adapt it to its new use, $230,000. 
It contains a fine collection of 95,000 volumes and all the prin- 
cipal newspapers and magazines of this country and Europe. 
It has also a cliess-room with twenty-four tables. It is managed 
upon the most liberal plan, and has a membership of 12,000. 

The Ridgway Branch of the Philadelphia Library. 

The building now in course of erection for this purpose is one 
of the most superb structures in the United States. It stands 



OF THE CKNTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 113 

in the centre of the square, bounded by Broad, Thirteenth, 
Christian, and Carpenter streets. This is enclosed by a stone 
wall, except on the Broad street front, where the wall gives place 
to a tasteful iron railing. The grounds are to be laid oif in the 
most beautiful manner. The building is of granite, and consists 
of a central edifice and two wings, the whole having a frontage 
of 220 feet, and an extreme depth of 105 feet. The principal 
fagade faces Broad street, and consists of three porticos, one to 
the central building and one to each of the wings. The porticos 
are enclosed by massive Doric columns of granite, sixteen in all, 
eight in the central portico, and four to each of the wings, each 
thirty feet high. The structure stands upon a platform which is 
reached by a flight of steps the full width of the central building. 
The main entrance is from the central portico, and leads into a 
vestibule 36 feet long, 10 feet wdde, and 14 feet high, which 
opens into the main hall. This hall is cruciform, 84 feet in 
length, and 60 feet in width. At the intersection of the cross 
are twenty-four Ionic columns supporting a gallery. The ceiling 
in this part of the hall is 44 feet from the floor. The main hall 
will be fitted up with alcoves for books. There are several other 
rooms in the building, intended for the use of the directors, etc. 
The wings will be used as reading-rooms. A mausoleum will 
be erected in the main hall opposite the principal entrance, to 
contain the remains of the late Dr. Benjamin Rush and his wife. 
The building owes its existence to the munificence of Dr. Rush, 
who at his death bequeathed the land on which it stands, and 
the million and a half dollars expended in its erection. When 
completed the Philadelphia Library Company will most likely 
exercise control over the "Ridgway Branch." The building is 
in all respects one of the most massive and superb edifices of 
its kind in the world. It is an ornament of which any city 
might be proud, and is the noblest monument its founder could 
have desired to perpetuate his name and fame to after ages. It 
is solid enough to withstand the decaying hand of time, and 
will always form one of the noblest of Philadelphia's public 

institutions. 

* 

8 



114 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 

The other libraries of Philadelphia are as follows : 

NAME. LOCATION. 

American Baptist Historical Society 530 Arch Street. 

American Mechanics' Library Fourth and George Streets. 

Athenaeum Library Sixth and Adelphi Streets. 

Apprentices' Library Association 500 Arch Street. 

American Protestant Hall and Library Asso'n. .1415 Locust Street. 

Friends' Library 304 Arch Street. 

Germantown Library 4838 Germantown Avenue. 

James Page Library Company 208 East Girard Avenue. 

Library Association of Friends Race and Fifteenth Streets. 

Library of the German Society 24 South Seventh Street. 

Library of the Law A.'^sociation 532 "Walnut Street. 

Mechanics* Institute Library 1110 South Fifth Street. 

Moyamensing Library Eleventh and Catharine Sts. 

Odd-Fellows' Library 806 North Third Street. 

Philadelphia City Institute Library Eighteenth and Chestnut Sta. 

Spring Garden Institute 1349 Spring Garden Street. 

Southwark Library Company 765 South Second Street. 

Wm. Brotherhead's Library 205 South Thirteenth Street. 

West Philadelphia Institute Library. 4050 Market Street. 

Wagner Free Institute of Science Seventeenth and Montgomery. 

The public and private libraries of Philadelphia number 
3700, and comprise a total of 2,985,770 volumes. 

80IENTIFI0 INSTITUTIONS. 

Chief among the learned societies of Philadelphia is the 

Academy of Natural Sciences. 

This society was organized in 1812, by a number of gentle- 
men for purposes of mutual improvement. At an early period 
a museum and a library were established. These have been 
steadily increased, and the library now contains nearly 25,000 
volumes. The museum contains 6ver 250,000 specimens. 
Among these are ^' more than 6000 minerals, 900 rocks, 65,000 
fossils, 70,000 species of plants, 1000 species of zoophytes, 
2000 species of crustaceans, 500 species of myriapods and 
arachnidians, 25,000 species of insects, 20,000 species of shell- 
bearing moUusks, 2000 species of fishes, 800 species of reptiles, 
37,000 birds with nests of 200 and eggs of 1500 species, 1000 
mammals, and 900 skeletons and pieces of osteology." The 




BAPTIST BOARD OF PUBLICATION, CHESTNUT STKEET. 

116 



116 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

collection is as valuable as it is extensive. Gratuitous instruction 
is furnished to a number of students. Visitors are admitted on 
Tuesday and Thursday afternoons, for the slight sum of ten cents. 
The money is devoted to the purposes of the building fund. 

The Academy was formerly located on Broad street, south of 
Chestnut, but a year or two ago a new and larger edifice was 
begun at the southwest corner of Nineteenth and Race streets. 
It will have, when completed, a frontage of 288 feet on Nine- 
teenth street, and a depth of 198 feet on Race street. It will 
be in the collegiate Gothic style, and will be constructed of 




ACADEMY OF NATUKAL SCIENCES. 



serpentine stone with trimmings of Ohio sandstone. Only the i 
north wing has been completed, and into this the collections of 
the Academy are crowded. It is estimated that the entire 
building with all its appointments will cost over $700,000. 

The American Philosophical Society 

Occupies a quaint old building in Fifth street, immediately in 
the rear of Independence Hall. The society occupies the second 
floor of the building, the lower floor being devoted to the Court 
of Common Pleas and the Water Department. In 1727 Ben- 
jamin Franklin, then a prosperous printer of Philadelphia, 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 117 

(laving become interested in scientific studies, established a 
society of kindred spirits, which he called ^' The Junto." Its 
membership was restricted to twelve, and its meetings were 
secret to prevent the intrusion of improper persons. Out of 
this grew the present society, which was founded in 1743. 
Among its members have been some of the greatest men of our 
history. The library of the society comprises nearly 20,000 
volumes, and connected with it is a fine cabinet of coins and 
antiquarian relics. The present building was erected in 1789. 
Among the most precious possessions of the society is the 
original draft of the Declaration of Independence in the hand- 
writing of Thomas Jefierson. 

The Pennsylvania Historical Society 

At present finds a habitation in a building attached to the Penn- 
sylvania Hospital in Spruce street above Eighth. The society 
was established in 1825, and for a number of years struggled 
onward in the face of great difficulties. It has noAV a member- 
ship of 600, a library of 12,000 volumes, and 80,000 pamph- 
lets, a gallery containing sixty-five portraits of historical per- 
sonages, twelve historical pictures, and a large collection of 
engravings and manuscr'pts, among which are William Penn's 
papers. The society also possesses a valuable collection of 
American antiquities. 

The Franklin Institute 

Was incorporated in 1824^ "for the promotion and encourage- 
ment of manufactures and the mechanic and useful arts hy 
popular lectures, the formation of a library, with a cabinet of 
models and minerals, ofiering premiums on all subjects deemed 
worthy of encouragement, and by examining all inventions sub- 
mitted to them.'' The membership is open to all persons 
friendly to and interested in the mechanic arts. The buildine 
occupied by the society is on the east side of Seventh street north 
of Chestnut. Its exterior is plain. The interior is provided 
with a fine lecture-room, in which lectures are delivered at stated 
times upon scientific subjects and accompanied with experiment*^. 



118 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

The library of the Institute is on the second floor. There is 
also a museum, in which is the famous astronomical clock con- 
structed by David Kittenhouse. The Institute has done and is 
doing a noble work for technical science, and its Journal is the 
oldest and one of the most valuable mechanical publications in 
this country. 

The Zoological Society of Philadelphia, 

After an existence of many years, has but recently become 
prominent among the learned associations of Philadelphia. It 
has within the past few years leased from the Fairmount Park 
Commissioners a garden of 35 acres, located on the west side of 
the Schuylkill below the Girard Avenue Bridge. This tract 
was originally known as " Solitude," and was the residence of 
John Penn, the son of Thomas and grandson of William Penn. 
The old mansion built by him when Governor of Pennsylvania 
is still standing. His descendants retained the place until its 
purchase by the Commissioners of Fairmount Park. The Zoo- 
logical Society have fitted up their garden with a number of 
handsome improvements, consisting of a monkey-house, a beaver- 
dam, deer and buffalo parks, a winter-house for animals from 
the tropics, three large stone bear-pits, 'md an aviary. The col- 
lection of animals is already very large, and is being increased. 
It is the intention of the society to make this garden second to 
none in the world. Visitors are admitted at a charge of twenty- 
five cents for adults, and ten cents for children. 

Besides the above associations are the American Entomologi- 
cal Society, at 518 South Thirteenth street; the Germantown 
Scientific Association, at 4836 Germantown avenue ; the Numis- 
matic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia, at the corner of 
Eighteenth and Chestnut streets ; and the Warner Free Institute, 
at Seventeenth street and Montgomery avenue. 

Benevolent Institutions. 

The benevolent and charitable institutions of Philadelphia 
number more than one hundred. In respect to her institutions 
of this kind, Philadelphia is second to no city in the Union. 
We can mention here but a few of the more prominent. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 119 

The Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb has been 
noticed in our account of Broad street. The 

Pennsylvania Hospital 

Occupies the square bounded by Eighth, Mnth, Spruce, and 
Pine streets. It was established in 1751, and among its first 
managers was Benjamin Franklin. The charter set apart the 
institution for " the relief of the sick, and the reception and cure 
of lunatics." The grounds are enclosed with a high brick wall, 
except in the centre of the Pine street front. Through this open 
space the group of venerable buildings can be seen from the 
street. The eastern wing was erected in 1755, the western in 
1796, and the central building in 1805. This noble institution 
has admitted and cared for nearly 100,000 patients since its 
establishment, fully one-half of whom have been supported 
at its expense. Until 1841 a portion of the hospital was devoted 
to the treatment of the insane, but in that year these patients 
were removed to the new hospital in West Philadelphia. 

The Wills^ Hospital, in Race street, opposite Logan Square, 
was founded by a bequest of the late James Wills, for the treat- 
ment of diseases of the eye and limbs. It was opened in 1834. 

The Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind 

Is at the corner of Race and Twentieth streets. It was founded 
in 1833. It is a plain, but large and excellently arranged build- 
ing, with an average attendance of about two hundred pupils, 
many of whom are from other States, who are required to pay 
for their instruction and support. 

The Municipal Hospital 

For the treatment of patients afflicted with small-pox and other 
contagious diseases is situated on Hart lane near Twenty-first 
street. It consists of a principal building and wings, all of 
Cleveland brown-stone, with a mansard roof Adjoining it is 
the " Potter's Field," with its rows of nameless graves. 

The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania has been 
already mentioned in connection with the University. The 



120 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



Blockley Almshouse 

Lies south of the IJDiversity and faces the Schuylkill. It con- 
sists of four buildings, each 500 feet long and three stories high* 




■w^ \«t.vwnA.'v^iu 



PRESBYTEillAN BOAKD OF PUBLICATION, CHESTNUT ST. 

These are arranged as the four sides of a square. The number 
of inmates is about 3000, of whom 600 are in the insane depart- 
ment, and 200 more in the children's asylum. The buildings 



OF THE cente:nntal exhibition. 121 

themselves cover an area of teu acres, and stand in a tract of 
179 acres which is cultivated for the use of the asyhim. The 
city of Philadelphia annually expends over four hundred thou- 
sand dollars in the support of this institution. 

On Market street, between Forty-second and Fiftieth streets, 
in West Philadelphia, is the 

Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, 

Which was established in 1841. The buildings stand in a tract 
of 113 acres of beautifully ornamented grounds enclosed with a 
high wall of stone, and consists of two large structures, each with 
a central edifice and wings, with Doric porticos, and a fine dome 
over one hundred feet high. One of these buildings is occupied 
by the male and the other by the female patients, and each has 
its separate enclosure and pleasure-grounds. They were erected 
at a cost of $800,000. The number of inmates is about 400. 

The Presbyterian Hospital, at Thirty-ninth and Filbert streets ; 
the Hospital of Christ Church, on Belmont avenue, near the 
Park entrance ; the Jewish Hospital, on the Olney road in the 
Twenty-third ward ; the Asylum of the Orphan Society of 
Philadelphia, at Haddington ; the Burd Orphan Asylum, on 
the Delaware county line, at the extreme western end of Market 
street; the Preston Retreat, the House of Industry, and the 
House of Refuge, are noble institutions. The 

United States Naval Asylum 

Is located on Gray's Ferry road below South street. It was 
built by the general government in 1832, and is for the care of 
infirm and decrepit officers and seamen of the navy and the marine 
corps. The main building has a frontage of 380 feet and a depth 
of 150 feet. It has a front of white marble, is three stories in 
height, and is approached by a flight of marble steps. There 
are about 130 decrepit sailors maintained here by the govern- 
ment. The Commodore's quarters stand north of the asylum. 
In the rear of the asylum is a large building erected during the 
late war by the government for the care of the sick and wounded 
sailors of the navy. The grounds are handsomely laid out. 



122 



THE- ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



PRISONS. 

The prisons of Philadelphia are well conducted. They are 
three in number. The 

Philadelphia County Prison 

Is located on Passyunk road, just below Reed street. It is a 
massive edifice comprised of a central building with receding 
wings on either side. At the end of each wing Ls a heavy octagonal 




PHILADELPHIA COUNTY PRISON. 

tower, and on each side of each wing is a high wall terminating in 
a bastion. The architecture is in the English-Gothic style of the 
fifteenth century. The building is constructed of Quincy granite, 
and is regarded as one of the strongest prisons in the Union. 
About 14,000 persons are annually committed to it. The prison 
is generally known as the " Moyamensing Prison," from the 
former name of the district in which it stands. 



OP THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 123 

The Eastern Penitentiary, 

Or, as it is better known, " Cherry Hill Prison," occupies the 
entire square bounded on the south by Fairmount avenue, and 
lying between Twenty-second and Twenty-third streets. It is 
enclosed with a massive stone wall. The Fairmount avenue 
front consists of two square towers with battlements, 65 feet 
high, connected by a stone wall, in which is set the main entrance, 
a heavy door studded with bolts. An octagonal tower rises from 
the wall, above this entrance, to a height of 97 feet. At each 
corner is a heavy tower, connected with the central building by 
thick walls pierced with narrow and heavily barred windows. 
The grounds of the prison cover about eleven acres, nearly all 
of which space is occupied by the buildings. Within the 
enclosure is a central building, from which radiate seven corridors 
like the points of a star. They are so arranged that the warden, 
sitting in the central building, can see the whole length of each 
corridor. The cells of the convicts are located in these corridors, 
and to each cell is attached a small walled yard, in which, at 
certain hours of the day, the prisoner is permitted to enjoy the 
air and sunlight. The prison is for the confinement of convicts 
from the eastern counties of the State, and is conducted upon the 
solitary plan. The prisoners are furnished with work enough 
to keep them busy, and this they perform in their own cells. 
They are also permitted to earn money for themselves by extra 
work. Each prisoner is allowed to see and converse with the 
prison officials, the chaplain, and an occasional visitor, but is not 
permitted to hold any intercourse with any of his fellow-prisoners. 
It is claimed that this system possesses the peculiar advantage 
of preserving the prisoner from association with the other 
criminals during his confinement, and thus saves him from the 
danger of meeting with other prisoners after his release, and being 
by their influence drawn back into his evil ways. There are 
about 500 convicts confined here. 



124 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 



/ ,ie House of Correction 

Is at Holraesbnrg, in tiie northern part of the city. It contains 
two thousand cells, and answers the purpose of a work-house 
and a prison. 

Places of Amusement. 

The most prominent places of amusement have already been 
noticed in our account of the city. Philadel])hia has one first- 
class opera-house — the Academy of Music, at Broad and Locust 
streets — and three first-class theatres. These are the Chestnut 
Street Theatre, on Chestnut street, between Twelfth and Thir- 
teenth ; the Arch Street Theatre, on Arch street between Sixth 
and Seventh streets ; and the Walnut Street Theatre, at the 
corner of ^A^alnut and Ninth streets. 

During the centennial season there will be two first-class 
concert gardens, viz. : Theodore Thoraas^ Garden, at Broad and 
Master streets, and Kiralfy^s Alhamhra Palace Garden, on 
Broad street below Locust. 

The Colosseum^ at Broad and Locust streets, affords a first- 
class art entertainment in its panorama of Paris. 

The other places of amusement are. Fox's New Ameincan 
Theatre, on Chestnut above Tenth street; the Grand Central 
Theatre, on Walnut street above Eighth; the New National 
Theatre, 2d. Callowhill and Tenth streets; and Enoch^s Varieties, 
on Seventh street below Arch — all devoted to variety entertain- 
ments; the Arch Street Opera House, on Arch street above 
Tenth, and the Eleventh Street Opera House, both of which are 
negro minstrel halls, and well patronized; and Colonel Wood^s 
Museum, at Arch and Ninth streets. 



Cemeteries. 

^ The principal cemetery of Philadelphia is Laurel HiU, on the 
east side of the Schuylkill, below the Falls. It is situated in a 
region famed for its beauty, and is one of the most beautiful 
cemeteries in the world. It contains a large number of splendid 
tombs, some of which are noted as works of art. The other 




125 



126 THE ILLUSTRATED HIS'IORY 

cemeteries are, Glenwood, Monument, Woodlands, Ronaldson'^s, 
Odd Fellows, and Mount Moriah, 

Newspapers. 

There are twenty-seven daily and weekly newspapers, devoted 
to politics and general news, published in Philadelphia. Of 
these, seven are Republican, four Democratic, and sixteen inde- 
pendent. About fifty periodicals are published in the city, 
which also conducts a large part of the book publishing business 
of the United States. 

Banks. 

There are forty banks in Philadelphia, with an aggregate 
capital of $20,235,000. Of these, twenty-nine are National 
banks, and eleven continue to do business under the State laws. 
The National banks have a capital of $16,235,000, and the 
State banks a capital of $4,000,000. 

Gas and Water. 

Philadelphia is lighted with gas of an excellent quality, 
which is supplied at a reasonable rate to the citizens. The gas 
works are conducted by the city, and the consumers are secured 
the best gas that can be made, and are protected from the extor- 
tions of private companies. The total length of street mains is 
over 600 miles. 

The city is supplied with water from the Schuylkill river. 
The water works are at Fairmount, on the east side of the 
Schuylkill. They were begun in 1812, and water was intro- 
duced into the city in 1827. Since i:hen additional reservoirs 
have been constructed within the limits of the Park, and addi- 
tional pumping houses have been erected at Belmont, Rox- 
borough, and other points on the Schuylkill. The works are 
supplied with the most approved and complete machinery, the 
engines at the Spring Garden pump house having a capacity of 
ten millions of gallons every twenty-four hours. • 

In order to preserve the water of the Schuylkill pure and fit 
for drinking, the Commissioners of Fairmount Park, a few years 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



127 



ago, purchased the land on both sides of the river to the Falls, and 
along the Wissahickon for several miles from its mouth. These 




VIEW OF FAIRMOUNT WATER WORKS. 

streams are thus prevented from being made the receptacles for 

the refuse of factories, which would render their waters impure. 

About 646 miles of water pipes have been laid through the 



128 THE ILLUSTRATED IIISTOIIY 

city, and all the modern, and the most of the older houses, hav^e 
water introduced into them. The average amount used per 
day is over 30,000,000 gallons. A vast storage reservoir has 
been recently constructed in the East Park, at a cost of $2,000,- 
000. It has a capacity of 750,000,000 gallons. 

Street Railways. 

There are about twenty-two main lines of street railway in 
Philadelphia. Including the branches of these, the number of 
railway lines is about forty-five. These constitute the best 
system of street transportation in the Union, and convey pas- 
sengers to all points of the city at a uniform fare of seven cents. 
A number of these lines run direct to the entrances to the exhi- 
bition grounds. 

The Water Front 

The plateau on which Philadelphia stands is w^ashed on three 
sides by the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, which give to the 
city all the advantages of a great commercial seaport. Along 
the Delaware shore there is always to be seen a forest of masts, 
representing the shipping of every nation on the globe. The 
visitor to Philadelphia should by no means omit an opportunity 
to view the city from the Delaware river, as from no other point 
can he as perfectly acquire a correct idea of the vast commerce 
which yearly enters and leaves this port. An excellent plan 
would be to engage a boat at Tacony, descend the river to the 
mouth of the Schuylkill, and ascend that stream to the exhibi- 
tion grounds. 

Starting from Tacony, the suburb of Bridesburg is soon 
passed, and then, turning a bend of the river, the visitor finds 
himself opposite Port Richmond, the coal-shipping depot of the 
Reading Railroad Company. This vast depot is one of the 
"sights^' of Philadelphia, and is the most extensive in the 
world. It comprises 21 shipping docks, with an aggregate 
length of 15,000 feet, and accommodations for 250 vessels and 
boats. The shipping piers are 23 in number, and their aggre- 
gate length is 4^ miles. They are provided with 10 J miles of 
single track, and in addition to this are connected with each 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 129 

other and with the main line of the road by 22 miles of track. 
The cars, loaded with coal at the mines, are brought direct to 
this depot, and are run out on the shipping piers. By means 
of trap-doors in the floors of the cars the coal is eaiptied into 
schutes 169 feet in length, which convey it directly into the 
holds of the vessels to be loaded. About 2000 men are em- 
ployed here, and the daily shipments of coal amount to 30,000 
tons. The piers have a storage capacity of 175,000 tons. The 
company at present employ six fine iron steamers for the trans- 
portation of coal from Port Eichmond to other points, and 
intend to increase this number to fifty. Several hundred other 
vessels are employed in this trade. 

Opposite Port Richmond is Treaty Island^ a spot dear to the 
hearts of Philadelphia sportsmen. 

A short distance below Port Richmond are the shipyards of 
William Cramp & Son, said to be the most extensive establish- 
ment of its kind in the United States. A number of vessels 
were built here for the navy during the civil war, among others 
the New Ironsides. The four iron steamers of the American 
Line, plying between Philadelphia and Liverpool, were also 
built here. 

Below these shipyards rises the standpipe of the Delaware 
Water Works, and beyond this is a region devoted to rolling 
mills, iron foundries and forges; and beyond these still, occupy- 
ing the river front from Laurel to Noble street, is a succession 
of lumber yards, where an immense business in all kinds of 
lumber is annually transacted. Large quantities are shipped to 
South America and the West Indies. Immediately below 
Noble street are the freight depots and piers of the North Penn- 
sylvania and Reading Railroads. 

Below Noble street the long line of foreign and coastwise 
shipping begins, and stretches away for several miles down the 
river. Immediately opposite this part of Philadelphia, and 
separated from it by the Delaware, is Camden, the sixth city 
of New Jersey. It is but a suburb of Philadelphia, with which 
it is connected by six lines of steam ferries. The time occupied 
in crossing the river is five minutes. 
9 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 131 

In the middle of the Delaware, opposite Market street, is 
Smith's Island, a noted pleasure resort. Immediately south of 
it, and separated from it by a narrow channel, through which 
the Camden & Amboy Eailroad ferry boats pass, is Windmill 
Island, also a pleasure resort. 

At the foot of Christian street and Washington avenue are 
the docks of the American line of steamers to Liverpool. In the 
rear of these docks is the enormous Elevator of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, with a capacity of half a million bushels of grain, and 
every facility for prompt and economical shipment. 

Immediately adjoining these docks is the Old Navy Yard, 
covering a tract of eighteen acres. It was purchased by the 
government in 1801 for §37,500, and was sold about a year ago 
to the Pennsylvania Eailroad Company for about §2,000,000. 
Some of the finest vessels in the navy were built here. The 
navy yard has, since the sale, been entirely transferred to 
League Island. The Pennsylvania company intend to fit up 
the old navy yard as their principal terminus on the Delaware. 
This road is a large stockholder in the American line of steamers, 
which vessels lie at its docks and receive and transfer passengers 
and freight from and to its cars. By this system all breaking 
bulk of freight from distant points is avoided, there being but 
one reshipment, from the cars to the steamer, necessary. 

At Greenvnch Point, at the foot of Packer street, are the coal 
wharves of the Pennsylvania Railroad, second only in extent 
and the amount of business transacted at them to those of the 
Keading road at Port Richmond. 

Just above the mouth of the Schuylkill is 

League Island, 

Now occupied by the United States as a Navy Yard. The 
island was presented to the government by the city of Phila- 
delphia. It covers an area of 600 acres, and when the ex- 
tensions in contemplation are completed, will have a frontage 
of nearly three miles on the Delaware, with an average deptli of 
water of twenty-five feet. Machine shops, and all the establish- 



132 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

ments necessary to the purposes of a great naval station, have been 
constructed or are in course of construction. The back channel 
is for the use of monitors, a large number of which are here laid 
up in ordinary. The advantages of League Island as a naval 
station are thus summed up by the Secretary of the Navy, in 
his report for 1871 : "A navy yard so ample in its proportions, 
in the midst of our great coal and iron region, easy of access to 
our own ships, but readily made inaccessible to a hostile fleet, 
with fresh water for the preservation of the iron vessels so 
rapidly growing into favor, surrounded by the skilled labor of 
one of our chief manufacturing centres, will be invaluable to 
our country." 

Just below League Island is Mud Island^ on which stands 
old Fort Mifflin, This work was begun at the outbreak of the 
Bevolutlon, and consisted then of an embankment of earth. It 
was known as the " Mud Fort." Upon the occupation of the 
city by the British in 1777 it became necessary to capture the 
defences on the Delaware, at Mud Island and at Red Bank, on 
the New Jersey shore, in order to open communication between 
the British fleet and the city. Could these works have been 
held by the Americans the enemy must have evacuated the city. 
On the 22d of October, 1777, Lord Howe opened a tremendous 
cannonade upon Fort Mifflin from his fleet, and at the same 
time a picked force of twelve hundred Hessians was sent to 
storm the works at Red Bank. The latter attack was repulsed 
with a loss of four hundred men, and the Hessian commander. 
Count Donop, was slain. In the attack upon Fort Mifflin the 
British lost two ships, and the remainder were more or less 
injured by the fire of the American guns. Soon after this re- 
pulse the British erected batteries on a small island in the 
Delaware, and on the 10th of November opened a heavy fire 
upon Fort Mifflin from these works and their fleet. The bom- 
bardment was continued until the night of the 15th. Fort 
Mifflin was literally destroyed, and on the night of the 16th was 
evacuated by its garrison. On the 18th the works at Red Bank, 
on the Jersey shore, were abandoned. The British removed now 
ihe obstructions from the river, and their fleet ascended to Phila- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 133 

delphia. The present work was constructed after the close of 
the Revolution, and is strongly armed. 

The Schuylkill river flows into the Delaware immediately 
below League Island. This river was so named by the early 
Dutch navigators, and the name is said to mean "a hidden 
river/' from the fact that its mouth cannot be seen by voyagers 
ascending the Delaware until the junction is reached. 

A little above the mouth of the river, on the eastern shore, 
are the new docks and the grain elevator of the Internationalj 
or Red Star^ Steamship Line, plying between Philadelphia and 
Antwerp. These docks are a terminus of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, and transfers of grain and freight are made directly 
between the cars and the steamers. This promises to be one of 
the most prominent shipping points of the city. 

*' The Schuylkill may be reckoned among Philadelphia's 're- 
serve forces.' With a depth of water sufficient to float a frigate, 
and room enough on either bank for long rows of wharves and 
warehouses, it is comparatively deserted. Some coal and stone 
yards on its shores employ a few vessels annually. The Schuyl- 
kill Canal brings dowai numbers of boats from the mines in the 
coal regions; but, apart from these, there is as yet no commerce 
on the Schuylkill.. This grand avenue to the future heart of 
the city is still waiting for the time when its services shall be 
required — a time which cannot be far distant.'^ 

The principal objects of interest on the Schuylkill are the 
bridges, which connect the quarters of the city lying on the op- 
posite sides of the river. Some of these are among the finest in 
the world. The first of these, after passing the mouth of the 
river, is the Penrose Ferry Bridge; above this is the Gray^s 
Ferry Bridge, a double structure, used for the passage of the 
trains of the Philadelphia, AVilmington and Baltimore Railroad, 
and for pedestrians and vehicles. Above this is the handsome 
iron truss bridge of the south extension of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. Higher up is the new South Street Bridge, begun in 
1870 and completed in the early part of 1876 at a cost of 
$865,000. With its approaches, which rest upon massive stone 
arches, the bridge has a total length of two thousand four hun- 




134 



'^ 

^yr 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 135 

dred and nineteen feet, and a width of fifty-five feet, except at 
the draw span, where the width is but thirty-six feet. This 
gives a roadway of thirty-five feet, and two footwalks, each ten 
feet wide. The river span is five hundred and eighty-four feet 
long, and consists of two permanent spans of one hundred and 
eighty-five feet each, and a pivot draw with two openings, each 
of seventy-seven feet, supported by a cylindrical cast-iron pier. 

Chestnut Street Bridge lies next above. It was begun in 
1861 and completed in 1866, at a cost of $500,000. It is one 
thousand five hundred and twenty-eight feet in length, and is 
constructed of iron, with approaches and piers of granite. 

At Market street is a temporary wooden bridge, erected in the 
place of the old wooden bridge that crossed the river at this 
point, and which was burned about the close of 1875. It is 
used for the Market Street Kailway, by vehicles and pedestrians, 
and by the freight trains of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

The Fairmounty or Collowhill Street, Bridge stands on the site 
of the old suspension bridge, so well known to visitors to Fair- 
mount. It is one of the handsomest and most substantial 
bridges in the Union, and during the progress of the Centennial 
Exhibition will be used by a large part of the visitors. There is 
a span over Callowhill street of eighty feet ; then follow five 
arch colonnades on the east side, having a total length of one 
hundred and five feet ; then the main span of three hundred and 
fifty feet over the Schuylkill ; then ten arch colonnades on the 
west side, with a length of two hundred and thirty feet ; then 
the bridge over Thirtieth street, ninety feet long ; then seven 
spans of plate girders, three hundred feet in length, and finally 
the span over the Pennsylvania Railroad, one hundred and 
forty feet long ; making a total length of one thousand two hun- 
dred and ninety-five feet. The bridge consists of two roadways, 
the upper one thirty-two feet above the lower. The upper floor 
is forty-eight feet wide between the balustrades, and the lower 
fifty feet wide. Each floor has a roadway with sidewalks on 
each side. The bridge is constructed of iron with stone piers 
and foundations, and is ornamented with a double row of mag- 
nificent gas lamps. Street railway tracks are laid on each floor. 



136 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



and are used by a number of street car lines running direct to 
the exhibition grounds. The cost of this magnificent structure 
was ?1, 200,000. 

Above tiie bridge are tlie dam and water-works at Fairmount^ 
and higher up still are the boat-houses of the Schuylkill navy, 
to which we shall refer again in another portion of this work. 

Higher up still is the finest of all the Philadelphia bridges^ 
the now famous 

Girard Avenue Bridge, 

Which spans the Schuylkill at the main avenue of approach to 




VIEW ABOVE THE DAM, FAIRMOUNT. 

Fairmount Park and the Centennial Exhibition. It is the 
most magnificent bridge in the Upited States, and will always 
be one of the principal objects of interest to visitors to the city. 
It has a length of one thousand feet, and a width of one hun- 
dred feet, and was built at a cost of $1,404,445. The height 
of the roadway above low water is fifty-five feet. The girders 
rest on three piers and two abutments, and form three centre 
spans of one hundred and ninety-seven feet each. The following 
description of the bridge is taken from The Scientific American: 
" The masonry of the piers and abutments is rock-faced ashlar 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 137 

of Maine granite laid in mortar of one part Coplay cement to 
two parts of sand. The copings and parapets are of finely-cut 
granite, but no other cutting has been done, except the necessary 
drafts, the object being to preserve the massive effect of rock- 
faced granite work. 

'^Superstructure. — There are seven lines of trusses or girders 
placed side by side, sixteen feet apart, and united by horizontal 
and vertical bracing. 

" These trusses are of the well-known Phcenixville pattern 
of quadrangular girder. The upper compressive members and 
the vertical posts are Phoenix-flanged columns, united by cast- 
iron joint boxes. The lower chords and diagonals are Phoenix 
"weldless eye-bars, die-forged by hydraulic pressure. Upon the 
tops of the posts, twelve feet apart, are laid heavy fifteen-inch 
Phoenix-rolled beams, and upon these longitudinally nine-inch 
beams placed two feet eight inches apart. These are covered 
transversely with rolled corrugated plates one-fourth inch thick, 
corrugated one and one-fourth inches high by five inches wide. 
These form an unbroken iron platform upon which the asphalt 
concrete is placed. 

" The dead load of the structure, with a moving load of one 
hundred pounds per square foot, makes a total load of 30,000 
pounds per lineal foot carried by seven trusses. The limit of 
strain is 10,000 pounds per square inch, reduced to 6000 pounds 
per square inch as the compressive limit on parts. • 

"All points of contact are either planed or turned. The pins 
are of cold rolled iron, and the limit of error between pin and 
hole is one sixty-fourth of an inch. The iron used in this 
bridge is double refined, or of ' Phoenix best best' brand, cap- 
able of bearing the regular tests of that quality of iron, as fol- 
lows : Ultimate strength, 55,000 pounds to 60,000 pounds per 
square inch ; no permanent set under 27,000 pounds to 30,000 
pounds per square inch ; average reduction of area at point of 
fracture, twenty-five per cent. The elongation of a twelve-inch 
bar is fifteen per cent., and the cold bend of a one and one-half 
inch round bar before cracking one hundred and eighty degrees, 
or hammered flat. 




138 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 139 

^^Roadway. — The corrugated iron plates which cover the 
bridge are themselves covered by four inches to five inches of 
asphalte, making a water-tight surface. The one hundred feet 
of width is divided into sixty-seven and one-half feet of carriage- 
way and two sixteen and one-half feet sidewalks. The roadway 
is paved with granite blocks in the usual manner, except that 
it is divided into seven ways by two lines of iron trackways next 
the sidewalks for horse-cars, and five lines of carriage-tramways, 
made of cut granite blocks, one foot wide, laid to a five-feet 
gauge. The gutters and curbstonea are of fine cut granite. The 
sidewalks are covered for ten feet of their width with black 
Lehigh county slate tiles, two feet square, laid diagonally. 

"On each side of the slate tiles are spaces two feet wide, 
which were originally laid with encaustic tiles. After one 
winter's frost these tiles became so much shattered that they 
were removed and white marble tiles substituted in their place. 
The curbstone, eighteen inches wide, makes up the remainder 
of the sixteen and one-half feet. 

" The sidewalks are separated from the roadway by railings 
of galvanized iron tubes with bronze ornaments, and are sup- 
ported by cast-iron standards at every six feet. Every eighth 
standard is prolonged into a lamp-post. There are eight refuge 
bays, each of which contains a cluster of six lamps, the support- 
ing shaft rising through an octagonal seat, which forms its base. 
The outer balustrade and cornice is of cast-iron with bronze 
open-work panels, and treated in a highly ornamental manner. 

" The bronze panels represent various birds and foliage, such 
as the phoenix, swan, heron, owl, eagle, tobacco, ivy, Virginia 
creeper, ferns and hops. These panels are of statuary bronze 
cast under a pressure of sixty pounds per square inch, which 
forces the metal into all the finest lines and makes an extremely 
sharp casting ; so sharp, indeed, that a casting made by this pro- 
cess from an electrotype has been used to print engravings from. 
There are between eight and nine hundred of these bronzes set 
in the balustrade, like pictures in a frame. 

" It is intended, at some future day, to place sidewalks inside 
the bridge, at the level of the lower chord. Access to these will 



40 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



be gained through the arched openings in the abutments, and 
this spot has been selected as a proper place for a drinking 
fountain. The bridge is painted salmon color, relieved by blue 
and gold ; the cornice and balustrade are green and gold. 

" The construction of the permanent new bridge began May 
11th, 1873, and July 4th, 1874, it was formally opened for 
public travel, and has remained in use ever since. 




PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD BRIDGE, FAIRMOUNT PARK. 



"This rapidity of construction is due, first, to the mode 
adopted of laying the foundations under water, instead of pump- 
ing out that water; second, to the forethought displayed in 
making the temporary work strong enough to pass uninjured 
through a freshet which increased the depth of water from thirty 
feet to forty-six feet; third, to the peculiar construction of the 
girders (which contain over three thousand five hundred tons 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



141 



of iron), which were made at Phoenixville from the ore, entirely 
by machinery, and without any hand labor; and, lastly, to the 
rapidity and facility of erection allowed by the pin-connected 
mode of construction.'^ 

Immediately above this magnificent structure is the Connect- 
ing Bridge of the Pennsylvania Railroad, over which the road 
from West Philadelphia to New York passes. Above this is 
the Columbia Bridge, sl wooden structure, used by the Reading 
Railroad to connect its branches. Just below the Falls of the 




THE BATTLE OF GERMANTOWN — CHEW's HOUSE. 



Schuylkill is a picturesque stone bridge of six arches, which is 
also the property of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad 
Company, the trains of which pass over it. 

West Philadelphia. 

West Philadelphia is one of the most attractive portions of 
the great city. It is built up with numerous handsome villas 
and cottages, which give to it a partly rural aspect, while it 
possesses every advantage and convenience of the city proper. 



142 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



It offers many fine drives and many objects of interest to the 
visitor. 

Germanfown 

Is the principal and most beautiful suburb of Philadelphia. It 
is reached by the Germautown branch of the Philadelphia and 




A GERMANTOWN VILLA. 



Reading Railroad, and by a line of horse-cars. It was settled 
in 1683 by emigrants from Germany, from whom it takes its 
name, and was a distinct corporation until 1854, when it was 
incorporated with Philadelphia, of which city it now forms a 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 143 

part. It contains many splendid country-seats, a large number 
of elegant but less costly suburban mansions, and several his- 
torical mansions, chief among which is the old "Chew Mansion," 
which was occupied by the British as a fortress during the battle 
of German town, on the 4th of October, 1777. Germantown is 
a favorite place of residence with the wealthier class of Phila- 
delphians, and its natural beauty has been heightened by a lib- 
eral expenditure of wealth and taste in the adornment of the 
homes with which it is filled. 

Manufactures and Commerce. 

The number of manufacturing establishments in Philadelphia 
is 8184. They employ a capital of $174,016,674, and 137,496 
hands ; they pay out $58,780,130 annually for wages ; consume 
raw material to the amount of $180,325,713; and yield an an- 
nual product of $322,004,517. In 1872 the commercial returns 
were as follows: Vessels arrived, American, 503; tonnage, 
185,727 ; crews, 4943; foreign, 522; tonnage, 322,184; crews, 
6325. Aggregate arrived, vessels, 1025; tonnage, 417,911; 
crews, 11,268. Vessels cleared, American, 343 ; tonnage, 153,- 
845 ; crews, 3741 ; foreign, 547 ; tonnage, 251,467 ; crews, 6526. 
Aggregate cleared, vessels, 890; tonnage, 405,312; crews, 
10,267. Of the arrivals 27 were steam vessels, of which 21 
were American and 6 foreign. Of the clearances 27 were steam 
vessels, of which 16 were American and 11 foreign. 

In the same year the imports amounted to $20,383,853 ; and 
the exports to ^$21,016,750. Of the latter sum $20,982,876 
were for domestic exports, and $33,874 for foreign exports. 

Such is the great city in which the Centennial Exhibition is 
being held. 



CHAPTER IV. 

FAIRMOUNT PARK. 

Dimensions of the Park— Its History— Improvements — Old Fairmount and 
Lemon Hill— View from the Hill— The Waterworks— The Art Gallery— 
The Lincoln Monument— Lemon Hill — Reminiscences of Robert Morris — 
Sedgeley Park— Tlie River Road— The East Park— The Storage Reservoir 
—Old Country-seats— Mount Pleasant— Arnold's Home— Fort St. David's — 
Tlie Wissahickon — Romantic Scenery— The Hotels — The Hermit's Well— 
The Mystics— Washington's Rock— The Monastery— The West Park- 
Solitude — The Zoological Gardens— The Grounds of the Centennial Exhibi- 
tion— Lansdowne — George's Hill— Belmont— Judge Peters — The Sawyer 
Observatory — How to Reach the Park. 



f^ 



5|rAIRM0UNT PARK, the great pleasure-ground of 

An Philadelphia, is the fourth park in size in the world. 

1^^ It contains 2740 acres, and is exceeded in size only by 
Epping and Windsor forests, in England, and the 
Prater, in Vienna. It lies on both banks of the 
Schuylkill, from Callowhill street bridge to the Falls of Schuyl- 
kill and the mouth of Wissahickon, a distance of six miles, and 
along the Wissahickon, from its mouth to Chestnut Hill, a 
further distance of seven and a half miles. 

The Park grew out of the necessity of placing the Schuylkill 
and Wissahickon under the control of the city, in order to pre- 
serve the water supply of Philadelphia from pollution by the 
refuse of the factories and slaughter-houses that were being 
erected along the shores of those streams, and out of the convic- 
tion in the minds of the Philadelphians that their great and 
growing city needed a suitable pleasure-ground for the enjoy- 
ment of its people. 

The Park is naturally one of the most beautiful enclosures in 
the world. It has not yet received the care and taste that have 
been lavished upon the "Central" of New York, but improve- 
144 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



145 



ments are being steadily and rapidly made in it, and it will, 
before many years, be the most magnificent park in existence. 
It is generally divided into four sections, known as Old Fair- 
mount and Lemon Hill, East Park, West Park, and Wissa- 
hickon Park. 

Old Fairmounf and Lemon Hill. 

Fairraount and Lemon Hill begin at Callowhill street bridge, 
and extend a short distance above the Connecting Bridge of the 




THE SCHUYLKILL, AT PHILADELPHIA. 

Pennsylvania Railroad. Old Fairmount has long been a pleasure 
resort, and was originally laid off as such upon the construction 
of the Fairmount Waterworks in 1822. William Penn selected 
this site as the most suitable for his manor, as he was greatly 
impressed wdth its beauty. 

The main entrance to the Park is from Green street. On the 
right rises the picturesque height which gives its name to the 
. Park, and on which are located the reservoirs into which the 
10 




146 



BEAR PITS IN THE ZOOLOGICAL, GARDEN. 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



147 



waterworks on the river shore below pump d^ti^.f by steam 
and water power the enormous quantity of thirty-five million 
gallons. The reservoirs are four in number, and from them the 
visitor may enjoy one of the most superb views to be obtained 
in the Park. "At the foot of the galleries of green velvet grass, 
above which you are standing, you have the Reservoir Park, 
with its cascades, 
walks and plots ; 
and turning west- 
ward your eye era- 
braces the lake-like 
F a i r m o u n t dam, 
with its broad and 
bright-falling sheets 
of foam ; its head- 
race, forebay, and 
beautiful terraces ; 
the fairy-like little 
steamers that ply up 
and down the 
Schuylkill ; the tem- 
ple-like pier at the 
dam; the boat- 
houses of the 
Schuylkill Navy 
and their little fleets 
with waving 
streamers ; the grand 
Lincoln monument, 
and beyond this, the 
arboreal and floral 
commencement of Fairmount Park proper, with its broad and 
beautiful river-drive on the left, of fourteen miles ; its fountains 
ascending, and shrubbery-lined pathways, embowered seats and 
historic groves.'' Near the base of the standpipe on the cliff 
overlooking the forebay are '^ Leda and the Swan," a group of 
statuary which formerly ornamented the old waterworks at the 
intersection of Broad and Market streets. 




FOUNTAIN NEAR MINERAL SPRING, LEMON HILL. 



148 



THE II.LUSTKATED lllbTOKV 



Not far from the Green street entrance to the Park is the Art 
GcUlery, a rough-cast building, containing a number of fine 
works of art, among which are Kotliermel's " Battle of Gettys- 
burg/' painted by order of the State of Pennsylvania, at a cfist 
of $30,000, and' Benjamin West's '' Christ Rejected." The 
gallery 'is free to visitors. The " Battle of Gettysburg " holds a 
place in Memorial Hall during the Exhibition. 

Passing the Art Gallery, and following the main drive, the 




>«*»5SK.-^a*Ki->^ - - 



MONUMENT TO ABRAHAM LINCOLN IN FAIRMOUNT PARK, PHILADELPHIA, 

visitor reaches the Lincoln Monument, which stands in the open 
space at the foot of Lemon Hill. It is of bronze, and represents 
the martyrecl President seated in his chair, holding in his right 
hand a pen, and in his left the scroll of the Emancipation 
Proclamation. The statue rests upon a high pedestal of granite. 
On the south side of the pedestal is the inscription: "To 
Abraham Lincoln, from a grateful people;" on the east, these 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 149 

words ; " Let us here highly resolve that the government of the 
people, by the people, and for the people, shall not perish from 
the face of the earth ; " on the north : " I do order and declare, 
that all persons held as slaves, within the States in rebellion, 
are and henceforth shall be free ; '' on the west side : " With 
malice towards none, with charity towards all, with firmness in 
the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us finish the work 
ive are in." 

The statue is the work of Randolph Rogers, the artist of the 
famous Bronze Doors of the Capitol at Washington. It was 
modelled at Rome and cast at Munich. Its cost was $33,000. 
It is colossal in size, being 9 feet 6 inches in height. It was 
dedicated in 1870. 

Beyond the Lincoln Monument is a handsome fountain in the 
centre of a large basin, known as the Gold-fish Pond. From 
this spot the hill rises in terraces to the summit. Ascending to 
the top by the stone steps which lead up from the successive 
terraces, the visitor finds himself on the summit of 

Lemon Hill, 

And before a handsome, old-time mansion. The present edifice 
was erected in 1800, by Henry Pratt, on the site of an older 
mansion, which constituted the country-seat of Robert Morris, 
"* the great financier of the Revolution, the man to whose fertile 
brain, not less than to the valor of her sons, America owed the 
successful issue of the war for Independence. Morris' country- 
seat was generally known as " The Hills.'' His residence was 
simple but tasteful. He owned a fine town-house, but this was 
his "dearly loved" home, and here he resided from 1770 to 
1798. A part of this time he was virtually a prisoner, as he 
was afraid to leave the house lest he should be arrested for debt. 
The part played in the Revolution by this illustrious man 
should never be forgotten by his countrymen. But for his 
indefatigable efforts the American cause must have failed for 
want of funds to carry on the war. At the critical moments, 
however, Morris promptly devised the means of raising the 
necessary funds, and often when no other way would answer 



150 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



pledged his own private credit as security for the loans made to 
the Continental Congress. Personally, he was a great suiFerer 
from the financial troubles caused by the war, but had the 
happiness in the end, of seeing the triumph of the cause for 
which he had labored so devotedly. Shortly after the close of 
the Revolution he formed a new private business enterprise, 




EAST TERRACE, LEMON HILI,, FAIRMOUNT PARK. 

which resulted in a failure and caused his ruin. He had always 
advocated imprisonment for debt, and now, being unable to 
meet his liabilities, was obliged to suifer that penalty. He was 
offered his liberty in consideration of the great services he had 
rendered to his country during the Revolution, but refused to 
accept it, saying that "a law-maker should not be a law-breaker.'^ 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 151 

He remained in prison for four years, and was released in 1802, 
npon the passage of the Bankrupt Law. Shortly after this, he 
died in an humble house on Twelfth street above Chestnut. His 
beautiful home at " The Hills" was sold at the time of his ruin, 
and in 1800 Henry Pratt erected the present mansion on the 
site of the old one. . The house is now used as a restaurant. 

Beyond the plateau on which the house stands is another, once 
called "Sedgeley Park." Here is a plain wooden building 
known as " Grant's Cottage," from the fact that it once stood at 
City Point, Virginia, and was used by General Grant as his 
head-quarters during the siege of Petersburg. It was removed 
to Fair mount Park after the close of the civil war. 

From the Green street entrance to the park the river-road 
sweeps around the foot of Lemon Hill, and skirts the shore of 
the Schuylkill, passing the beautiful and substantial boat-houses 
of the Schuylkill Navy. It is the main drive to the East Park, 
and passes under the Girard avenue and Pennsylvania Kailroad 
bridges, after which it plunges through a tunnel through 
Promontory Rock, and enters the East Park. It rises gradually 
from the river to the level of the Reading Railroad, which it 
crosses at Mifflin Lane. 

The East Park. 

The East Park extends from Thirty-third and Thompson 
streets to Ridge avenue, a short distance north of Dauphin 
street. From this point Ridge avenue forms the eastern 
boundary of the park, and the Schuylkill the western, to the 
mouth of the Wissahickon. Above South Laurel Hill Ceme- 
tery the East Park is scarcely a quarter of a mile in width. 
Its greatest breadth below that point is about one mile. Its 
extreme length is about four miles. 

In the lower section of this portion of the park is located the 
vast storage reservoir, now in course of construction, the capacity 
of which is 750,000,000 gallons of water. It is built upon 
what was formerly a cultivated field, thus sparing the most 
picturesque portions of the East Park. 

The section east of the Schuylkill is one of the most beauti- 



152 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



fill portions of Fairmount Park. It coni[)rises a series of ra- 
vines and hills of the most picturesque character, stretching 
northward towards the Falls, and jutting out upon the Schuyl- 
kill in bold and beautiful clifis and promontories, which are the 
delight of the artist. At every turn the visitor is confronted 
with some new and charming landscape. The trees are mag- 




GLEN FERN, WISSAHICKOX. 

nificent and the shrubbery luxuriant and carefully trained. The 
grass is soft and velvety, and the lawns are perfect. 

Within the limits of the East Park are several of the old 
time country-seats, which were once so thick in this region. 
Some of them are rich in historical interest. The first of these 
is Fountain Greeny near the lower end of the reservoir. It was 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



153 



once the residence of Samuel Meeker, and was built in the 
latter part of the last century. North of this, between the 
reservoir and the Reading Railroad, is Mount Pleasant^ a fine 
stone mansion, built some years before the Revolution by Cap- 
tain John McPherson. During the wars between Great 
Britain, France and Spain, in the early part of the eighteenth 




SCHUYLKILL BLUFF, FAIRMOUNT PARK. 

century, Captain McPherson commanded several privateers be- 
longing to the port of Philadelphia. He was a bold and suc- 
cessful cruiser, and accumulated a considerable fortune from his 
captures, with a part of which he built this mansion, which 
John Adams, who was a guest of McPherson in 1774, describes 
as " the most elegant seat in Pennsylvania." McPherson sold 



154 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

the house soon after the opening of the Revolution, and it was 
purchased by Major-General Benedict Arnold, then in command 
at Philadelphia. After his marriage to Miss Shippen, of 
Philadelphia, Arnold settled the place on his wife and children, 
retaining only a life-interest in it. Upon the discovery of his 
treason, the State of Pennsylvania confiscated his life-interest in 
the estate. The mortgage given by Arnold at the purchase of 
the property was never paid, and it was sold again in 1796, the 
new purchaser being General Jonathan Williams, a gallant 
officer of the Revolution, and subsequently the first Superin- 
tendent of the Military Academy at West Point. From the fall 
of 1781 to the spring of 1782, the house was the head-quarters 
of Baron Steuben, of the American army. 

Just south of Laurel Hill is Strawberry Mansion, now a 
park restaurant. It is a popular place of resort for the people 
of Philadelphia, and is admirably conducted. The view from 
the heights on which the mansion is located is magnificent. 

Within the limits of the East Park, just above the stone 
bridge of the Reading Railroad, is Fort St. DavicVs, a fishing 
club-house, erected on the site of a strong work of heavy timber 
which was built long before the Revolution at the base of the 
hill from which the rock which forms the falls projects. 

77?^ Wissahickon Park 

Commences a short distance above the Falls and extends from 
the mouth of Wissahickon Creek to Chestnut Hill, a distance 
of seven and a half miles. It consists of a narrow strip along 
both banks of the river, and is less than an eighth of a mile in 
width. It is one of the most beautiful sections of the park. 
Nature has adorned it with such a bold and lavish hand that 
there is nothing for art to do in its behalf. 

The Wissahickon has long been famous for its scenery. The 
creek lies deep in a rocky ravine, the wooded sides of which rise 
up steeply on either shore and in some places almost overhang 
it. Its waters are calm and clear, and except when swollen by 
heavy rains or the spring freshets, have in many places scarcely 
any motion at all. "Along the whole course of this romantic 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



156 



stream the scenery is wild and constantly changing in appear- 
ance. The waters leap along seeking the great river by devious 
courses, winding in curves, and sometimes changing suddenly 
their direction as new obstacles are encountered. Every step 
along the banks opens new vistas of beauty and of romantic 




THE hermit's well. 



impression. The effect is heightened by the towering rocks and 
lofty trees which shade the pathway or let occasional gleams of 
brightness flash through the gorges." 

A short distance above the Falls is Wissahickon Hall, a house 
well known to pleasure-seekers for its catfish suppers. Above 
this are the Maple Spring, Valley Green, and Indian Boch 



156 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 

liotels. Above Maple Spring is Washington's Rocky a favorite 
resort of the father of Iiis country (luring his residence in 
Philadelphia as President of the United States. 

On the opposite side of tiie Wissahickon, and beyond the 
limits of the park, is ''The Hermit's AVell," dug by Johann 
Kelpius, a religious enthusiast, who founded a peculiar sect here 
towards the close of the seventeenth century. "Johann Kelpius 
emigrated from Germany to Pennsylvania in 1694, and with 
him forty others; they settled on the Ridge, the range of hills 
on the west bank of the Wissahickon, and called themselves the 
Society of the Woman in the Wilderness. Kelpius was their 
leader and believed he would not die before he saw the millen- 
nium. But he was mistaken. He died in 1708. Three of his 
followers — the rest having disbanded — were afterwards known 
as the Hermits of the Ridge, and continued to live in their 
caves, awaiting the sign and visible presence, until death claimed 
them. 

"A short distance above the bridge which crosses the Hermit's 
Lane, and also on the opposite bank of the stream, is a high 
bluff; the rock which rises from this bluff is called the Lover's 
Leap. It overlooks a wild gorge and stands two hundred feet 
above the surface of the stream. On the face of the rock is an 
illegible Latin inscription, said to have been cut by Kelpius. 
It is the scene of one of the numerous traditions which survive 
here." 

The main road crosses the Wissahickon just above Washing- 
ton's Rock, and continues its course to Chestnut Hill, on the 
west side of the creek. A short distance above the bridge the 
stream bends, and is here joined by Paper Mill Run, a small 
creek '' which is scarcely less picturesque in places than the 
Wissahickon. It joins the latter by a series of waterfalls. 
The lower of these has a perpendicular descent of about twenty 
feet. Near it stands the old house in which David Ritten- 
house was born, and near its source the first paper-mill in 
America was erected by his ancestors in 1690. Beyond these 
points the road reaches a bridge — the Red Bridge — over which 
it crosses to the opposite bank of the stream. About a mile 




THE WISSAHICKON. 



167 



lo8 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

further, another road leaves the park road and, cro&sing 
tlie stream by a bridge, takes you to tlie Monastery. When and 
by whom it was erected antiquarians are not agreed. It appears 
io liave been built about 1750. It stands on high ground on 
the brow of a liill, with a range of hills towering above it. A 
lane winds round the bend of the blufi'and, climbing its steep 
side, forms in front a semi-circular lawn. The outlook here and 
the uplook from the romantic dell below are magnificent. In the 
valley below (Willow Glen) there is a spot known a.s the Bap- 
tistery. Here the monks immersed their converts. A yard in 
the rear of the dwelling was used by them for the burial of their 
dead. 

"A mile further, on the west bank, are the caves, which are 
situated in a lovely valley formed by the junction of a small 
stream with the Wissahickon. The most remarkable of tliem 
was excavated by miners seeking for treasures ; the other caves 
are natural, and were perhaps holes for bears and foxes, and 
possibly the resort of Indians. A short distance beyond — throe 
and a half miles above its mouth — the stream is crossed by a 
beautiful structure called the Pipe Bridge, nearly seven hundred 
feet long and one hundred feet above the creek. It is iron 
throughout, except the bases of the piers, which are set in ma- 
sonry, and is a model of grace and strength. It conveys the 
water supply from the Roxborough to Mount Airy reservoir at 
Germantown. A hundred yards above this a wooden 'bridge 
spans the river. Crossing this bridge, turning to the left and 
following a pathway a short distance, you arrive at The DevWs 
Pool, where Lime-rock or Cresheim creek comes sighing down, 
forming a mirror-like basin reflecting every object near; upon 
moonlight nights nothing can equal the numerous fairy-like 
figures and grotesque outlines and shadows that play in the 
silent and fantastic light. 

" It was the scene of an engagement during the battle of 
Germantown, and its waters once were dyed red with blood ; a 
portion of the earthworks used in the engagement may still be 
seen in close proximity. 
. "A short distance further on is Valley Gh^een, with its hotel 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



159 



Here the hills open out into the sunlight, and a stone bridge 
with strong buttresses winds across the stream. The bridge 
has only one arch, and 
its reflection is so per- 
fect that on fine days 
we see an entire oval 
of masonry instead of 
a single arch. 

" Proceeding a short 
distance through a 
deeper and more 
mountainous course of 
the stream, we reach a 
point of celebrity, 
known as Indian 
Rock, the abode and 
hunting-grounds of 
the last tribe of the 
Indian race in this 
region. Upon a lofty 
and peculiarly shaped 
rock is seen the fig^ure 
of their chief, Todyas- 
cuny, or Todawskim, 
who, with the remains 
of his people, left for the hunting-grounds of the West above an 
hundred years ago.'^* 

Less than a mile above, the extreme northern limit of the 
park is reached, in the bright, open countrv about Chestnut 
Hill. 

The West Park. 

The West Park commences at Spring Garden street, on the 
west side of the Schuylkill, and extends along that river to the 
Falls. Below Girard avenue it is a narrow strip, a large part 
of which immediately below Girard avenue bridge has been 




HEMLOCK GLEN ON THE WISSAHICKON. 



Mage^a Illustrated Guide to Philadelphia, pp. 103, 104. 



160 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



assigned to the Zoological Society for their Zoological Garde%, 
This is the portion formerly known as SolUvdej the country-seat 
of John Penn, to which reference has been made in another part 
of this work. 

Above Girard avenue the park widens rapidly, stretching 




ENTRANCE TO FAIRMOUNT PARK AT EGGLESFIELD. 



away from the entrance at the bridge to George's Hill, tw© 
miles distant. This is its widest portion. 

The main road crosses Girard avenue bridge from old Fair- 
mount and Lemon Hill, and passes under the Pennsylvania 
Railroad bridge by a series of arches at the point known as 
Egglesfield. About a quarter of a mile beyond this it passes 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 161 

Sweetbriar Mansion, once the residence of Thomas Breck, at one 
time a member of Congress from Philadelphia. 

Farther on, about a mile and a quarter from Girard avenue 
bridge, are Lansdowne Plateau and Lansdowne Concoui*se, the 
grounds now occupied by the Centennial Exhibition, The Lans- 
downe Mansion was destroyed by fire in 1854. It stood near 
the group of giant pine trees. The estate formerly comprised a 
tract of two hundred acres, and extended from Sweet Briar to 
Belmont and George's Hill. The mansion was built by John 
Penn, the grandson of William Penn, who resided in it during 
the period of the Revolution. His sympathies were with Great 
Britain in this struggle, and his great estate was confiscated by 
the State of Pennsylvania in consequence. He retained the 
Lansdowne property, and at his death in 1795 bequeathed it 
to his widow, Anne Penn, the daughter of Chief- Justice Allen. 
In 1797 it was purchased by William Bingham, the first United 
States Senator from Pennsylvania. He lived in great style, and 
the place was well known for its splendid hospitality, and was 
the resort of the most distinguished people of the day. His 
daughter married Alexander Baring, afterwards Lord Ashbur- 
ton. It thus became the property of the Baring family, from 
whom it was purchased by the Park Commission. 

Beyond Lansdowne is Georges Hill^ a beautiful elevated 
tract of eighty-three acres presented to the city by Jesse George 
and his sister, well-known and respected members of the Society 
of Friends. The summit of the hill consists of a fine plateau, 
the highest point in the city, being 210 feet above tidewater. 
The view from it is superb. Almost the whole of the lower 
part of the park on both sides of the river is in sight, with the 
city and its hundreds of spires and towers in the distance, and 
immediately at the foot of the hill are the exhibition grounds 
and buildings. Adjoining the hill is the Belmont reservoir, the 
capacity of which is 36,000,000 gallons of water. 

The road from George's Hill leaves the reservoir on the 

right, and passes over a plateau of considerable elevation to 

Belmont, one of the most prominent points within the limits of 

the park. This was the home of Judge Richard Peters, whose 

11 




162 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



163 



father, William Peters, purchased the property in 1742, and 
built the first house which stood there. This venerable build- 
ing now constitutes the kitchens and ladies' restaurant of the 
present establishment. Richard Peters, the son of the founder 
of the estate, was born there in June, 1744, and resided there 
until his death in 1828. He served with distinction as an offi- 
cer of the American army during the Revolution, was subse- 
quently a Commissioner of the War Office, and after the estab- 
lishment of the present government of the United States was a 
member of Congress, 
and a Judge of the 
United States Dis- 
trict Court. He was 
one of the most prom- 
inent men of his 
day in Pennsylva- 
nia, and was the in- 
timate friend of 
Washington, Jeffer- 
son, Hancock, the 
Adamses, and others 
of the "fathers of 
the republic.'' He 
was as well known 
for his wit as for his 
more solid attain- 
ments, and his resi- 
dence was the resort 

of a brilliant and distinguished throng. Among the foreigners 
of distinction who were his guests were Lafayette, Steuben, Chas- 
tellux, Kosciusko, Pulaski, Talleyrand, and Louis Philippe. 

The mansion is now used as a restaurant, and is the principal 
establishment of its kind within the park. The view from the 
verandah is beautiful, embracing as it does, the park, the river, 
and its bridges, the great exhibition buildings and the distant 
city. 

A walk leads from Belmont through a picturesque glen to 




DRIXKIXG-FOUNTAIN ON THE WISSAHICKON. 



164 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

the shore of the Schuylkill. Here the visitor is shown a small 
cottage which was the summer residence of Thomas Moore, the 
poet, during his stay in this country in 1804. 

Adjoining the Belmont Mansion is the Sawyer Obsej-vatory, 
one of the most noted structures in the park. The observatory 
rises from the Belmont plateau, which is over 200 feet above 
tidewater, and is 170 feet high, or 100 feet above the highest 
point of the Centennial buildings. It was constructed by the 
inventor, Mr. L. B. Sawyer, of Boston. The trunk of the obser- 
vatory is a wrought-iron tower, eight feet in diameter at the bottom 
and three feet in diameter at the top, constructed by the Whittier 
Machine Company of Boston, This tower is set in a foundation 
of Conshohocken stone, eighteen feet square and fourteen feet 
deep, laid in cement and dressed with granite. On the upper 
dressing of granite, which is one foot thick, there is ribbed iron 
plate, eight inches deep and thirteen feet square, bolted down 
with two inch bolts eight feet long. On the bed-plate are fast- 
ened ten heavy iron columns seven feet high, on which rests an 
iron ring eight feet in diameter (inside), weighing a ton and a 
half This ring is riveted to the main shaft of the observatory. 
The shafting and machinery used in the observatory are attached 
to the columns supporting the ring, and the columns are also 
riveted to the central shaft. 

The top of the tower is reached by an annular car encircling 
the shaft, and moved upwards from the base on the outside of 
the shaft. It is made of iron and wood, handsomely upholstered, 
and is capable of accommodating comfortably about thirty pas- 
sengers. The sides are almost entirely of glass and small iron 
bars, so that the occupants may have an excellent view of the 
surroundings while they are ascending. 

The car is hoisted (by means of a forty-horse power engine) 
by eight wire steel ropes, about three-quarters of an inch in 
diameter, and capable of sustaining eleven tons. These ropes 
pass over iron drums situated at the base of the shaft, connected 
with the foundation by iron columns, and turned by four-inch 
cast-steel shafts, worked by four worm-gears. The ropes pass 
up inside the shaft to the top, where they pass over eight wheels 



OP THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 166 

or sbives, and down outside the shaft. They are attached to the 
car at four points. 

Outside the shaft there is a truss work of wrought-iron, of the 
same diameter at the top as at base, and intended to serve the 
two-fold object of guiding and supporting the car and strength- 
ening the tower. The car runs on four guides, or points, which 
form a portion of the truss work, and is raised by a total 
strength of eighty-eight tons. The car and its thirty passengers 
are estimated to weigh about six tons. The car itself is counter- 
balanced by a weight, suspended inside the tower, of three tons, 
and the total weight to be raised, therefore, is about three tons. 
Supposing, therefore, that all the wire ropes but one were to 
break, the one remaining would be strong enough to raise nearly 
four times the contents of the car. In case of the breakage of 
all of the ropes there are four separate "checks" provided, any 
one of which would be amply sufficient to stop the downward 
passage of the car on the instant. By means of a powerful 
spring the breakage of the rope itself is made the means of 
throwing in a milled steel roll, clamped by a powerful wrought- 
rrori clutch to the guide, which will stop the car immediately. 
The carivhen near the top encircles a gallery two and a half 
feet wide passing all the way round the shaft, and enclosed with 
a wire net work. From this gallery the visitors ascend by 
means of a stairway to the top of the tower, which is also 
enclosed with a wire netting, thus excluding the possibility of 
any one falling or jumping from it. From this point a flagstaff, 
thirty-five feet high, ascends. The space at top of the tower is 
twenty feet in diameter, and is capable of accommodating 125 or 
130 persons comfortably. 

At the base of the tower, and enclosing it, there is a building 
about sixty feet square, of an ornamental style of architecture, 
after designs by Mr. H. S. Schwartzman, architect of the Cen- 
tennial Board of Finance. This building is used for offices, 
engine-room, reception-rooms for ladies, etc. 

It is asserted that the observatory would be sufficiently strong 
to withstand almost any storm alone, but for additional security, 
and to obviate any vibrations in the building, the structure is 



166 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 

braced by eight guys of galvanized iron rope, an inch and a 
quarter in diameter, and each capable of sustaining twenty tons, 
anchored in masonry ten feet deep. 

The total weight of the structure is eighty tons, and the total 
cost was $40,000. The charge to visitors is 25 cents for adults, 
and 10 cents for children. 

Beyond Belmont the main road passes through one of the 
finest portions of the park, and in a short while reaches Mount 
Prospect, a point from which a most extensive view of the park, 
the city, and the distant Delaware can be obtained. Beyond 
this the road passes to Charaouni, at the northern limit of the 
park, and descends to the Schuylkill, crosses it at the Falls 
bridge, and continues through the East Park to the Wissahickon. 

The park is reached from the city by the Pennsylvania and 
Reading Railroads, the depot of the former line being at the 
Elm avenue entrance to the exhibition grounds, and those of the 
latter at the foot of the hill on which stands Memorial Hall, and 
at the foot of Belmont hill. A number of street railway lines 
also lead to the park and the exhibition grounds. Steamboats 
ply regularly on the Schuylkill between Fairmount, just above 
the dam, and the various landings within the park limits below 
the Falls. 




CHAPTER V. 

THE HISTORY OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 

The First Proposals for the Exhibition — Initiatory Measures — Action of the 
City Councils of Philadelphia — The Memorial to Congress — The Act of In- 
corporation — Appointment of the Centennial Commission — Creation of the 
Board of Finance — Liberal Action of the City of Philadelphia — Donation 
of the Exhibition Grounds — The Formal Transfer — Proclamation of the 
President of the United States — The Invitation to Foreign Powers — ^The 
Law for the Free Entry of Exhibitors' Goods — The General Government 
Takes Part in the Exhibition— The Ground Broken, July 4th, 1874— Plana 
of the Commission — Circulars of the Director-General — Kegulations for Ex- 
hibitors — Order of the Treasury Department — Work of the Board of Finance 
— Sales of Stock — The Bureau of Revenue — Its Successful Work — Sale of 
Medals — Appropriations by Pennsylvania and Philadelphia — Refusal of 
Congress to Aid the Exhibition — Report of the Board of Finance — Action 
of the States — Appropriations by Foreign Governments — Congress Appro- 
priates a Million and a Half to the Exhibition — Third Annual Report of 
the Board of Finance — Reception of Goods — Completion of the Work — The 
System of Awards — The Centennial Calendar. 

S the close of the first century of the independence of the 
United States drew near, it was generally regarded as 
the duty of the nation to celebrate it in a manner 
worthy of the great fame and wealth of the republic. 
Various plans for accomplishing this object were sug- 
gested, but none met with a national approval. In 1866 a 
number of gentlemen conceived the idea of celebrating the great 
event by an exhibition of the progress, wealth, and general con- 
dition of the republic, in which all the nations of the world 
should be invited to participate. The honor of originating and 
urging this plan upon the public belongs to the Hon. John 
Bigelow, formerly minister from the United States to France; 
General Charles B. Norton, who had served as a commissioner 

167 





168 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 169 

of the United States at the Paris exposition of 1867 ; Professor 
John L. Campbell, of Wabash College, Indiana ; and Colonel 
M. Richards Muckle, of Philadelphia. The plan proposed bj 
these gentlemen was not generally received with favor at first. 
It was argued in opposition to it that the great exhibitions of 
Europe were the work of the governments of the countries in 
which they were held ; that under our peculiar system the 
government could not take the same part in our exhibition ; and 
that it would thus be thrown into the hands of private parties 
and would result in failure. The city of Philadelphia was desig- 
nated as the place at which the exhibition should be held. This 
feature of the plan aroused considerable opposition growing out 
of local jealousies. It was argued by the friends of the scheme 
that Philadelphia was fairly entitled to the honor, inasmuch as 
it had been the scene of the signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence ; and that the city was also admirably located for such 
an exhibition, being easily accessible from all parts of the Union 
and from Europe. 

The friends of the scheme labored hard to overcome the ob- 
jections urged against it, and had the satisfaction of seeing their 
plans become more popular every day. The matter was ably 
discussed in the press of the country, and at length was taken 
in hand by the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, which body 
petitioned the municipal authorities to grant the use of a portion 
of Fairmount Park for the purposes of a centennial celebration. 
This petition was laid before the Select Council by Mr. John L. 
Shoemaker, one of that body, who offered a resolution provid- 
ing for the appointment of a joint commission of seven members 
from each chamber to take the subject into consideration. The 
resolution was adopted, and Mr. Shoemaker was appointed 
president of the joint commission. 

After a careful consideration of the subject, the commission 
decided to lay the plan before Congress. The Legislature of 
Pennsylvania now came to the assistance of the commission, 
and adopted a resolution requesting the Congress of the United 
States to take such action as in its judgment should seem wise 
in favor of an international celebration in the city of Philadel- 



170 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

phia of the one hundredth anniversary of American independ- 
ence. The Legislature also appointed a committee of ten to 
accompany the Philadelphia commission to Washington to 
present a memorial upon the subject to Congress. The memo- 
rial of the committees was presented to Congress by the Hon. 
William D. Kelley, a representative from Pennsylvania, who 
urged its adoption by that body, and the selection of Philadel- 
phia as the scene of the celebration, as that city had witnessed 
the adoption, signing, and proclamation of the Declaration of 
Independence. 

Early in March, 1870, Mr. Daniel J. Morrell, of Pennsyl- 
vania, presented a bill in the lower House of Congress making 
provision for the proposed exhibition. The bill was several 
times amended, and was finally adopted by Congress on the 3d 
of March, 1871. It provided for the appointment by the Presi- 
dent of the United States of a commissioner and alternate com- 
missioner from each State and Territory of the Union, who were 
to be nominated by the Governors of the States and Territories 
from which they were appointed. Philadelphia was selected as 
the place at which the exhibition should be held ; and it was 
expressly declared that the United States should not be liable 
for any of the expenses attending the exhibition. 

The Act of Congress was as follows : 

An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth annireraarj of the 
American Independence, by holding an International Exhibition of Arts, 
Manufactures, and Products of the Soil and Mine, in the citj of Philadelphia, 
and State of Pennsylvania, in the year eighteen hundred and seventy-six. 

Whereas, The Declaration of Independence of the United 
States of America was prepared, signed, and promulgated in the 
year seventeen hundred and seventy-six, in the city of Philadel- 
phia ; and, whereas, it behooves the people of the United States 
to celebrate, by appropriate ceremonies, the Centennial anniver- 
sary of this memorable and decisive event, which constituted the 
Fourth Day of July, Anno Domini seventeen hundred and 
seventy-six, the birthday of the nation; and, whereas, it is 
deemed fitting that the completion of the first century of our 



OP THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 171 

national existence shall be commemorated by an exhibition of 
the natural resources of the country and their development, and 
of its progress in those arts which benefit mankind, in compari- 
son with those of older nations ; and, whereas, no place is so 
appropriate for such an exhibition as the city in which occurred 
the event it is designed to commemorate ; and, whereas, as the 
exhibition should be a national celebration, in which the people 
of the whole country should participate, it should have the sanc- 
tion of the Congress of the United States ; therefore, 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled^ That an ex- 
hibition of American and foreign arts, products and manufac- 
tures shall be held under the auspices of the Government of the 
United States, in the city of Philadelphia, in the year eighteen 
hundred and seventy-six. 

Section 2. That a commission, to consist of not more than 
one delegate from each State and from each Territory of the 
United States, whose functions shall continue until the close of 
the exhibition, shall be constituted, whose duty it shall be to 
prepare and superintend the execution of a plan for holding an 
exhibition, and, after conference with the authorities of the city 
of Philadelphia, to fix upon a suitable site within the corporate 
limits of the said city where the exhibition shall be held. 

Sec. 3. That said commissioners shall be appointed within 
one year from the passage of this act by the President of the 
United States, on the nomination of the Governors of the States 
and Territories respectively. 

Sec. 4. That in the same manner there shall be appointed 
one commissioner from each State and Territory of the United 
States, who shall assume the place and perform the duties of 
such commissioner and commissioners as may be unable to 
attend the meetings of the commission. 

Sec. 5. That the commission shall hold its meetings in the 
city of Philadelphia, and that a majority of its members shall 
have full power to make all needful rules for its government. 

Sec. 6. That the commission shall report to Congress, at the 
first session after its appointment, a suitable date for opening 




172 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 173 

and for closing the exhibition ; a schedule of appropriate cere- 
monies for opening or dedicating the same ; a plan or plans of 
the buildings ; a complete plan for the receptiou and classifica- 
tion of articles intended for exhibition ; the requisite custom- 
house regulations for the introduction into this country of the 
articles from foreign countries intended for exhibition ; and such 
other matter as in their judgment may be important. 

Sec. 7. That no compensation for services shall be paid to 
the commissioners or other officers provided by this act from the 
treasury of the United States ; and the United States shall not 
be liable for any expenses attending such exhibition^ or by reason 
of the same. 

Sec.^ 8. That whenever the President shall be informed by 
the Governor of the State of Pennsylvania that provision has 
been made for the erection of suitable buildings for the purpose, 
and for the exclusive control by the commission herein pro- 
vided for, of the proposed exhibition, the President shall, 
through the Department of State, make proclamation of the 
same, setting forth the time at which the exhibition will open 
Und the place at which it will be held ; and he shall communi- 
cate to the diplomatic representatives of all nations copies of the 
same, together with such regulations as may be adopted by the 
bmmissioners for publication in their respective countries. 

Approved March Sc?, 1871. 

The President having approved the bill it became a law. 
During the year 1871 he appointed the commissioners provided 
for by the act of Congress. They were invited to assemble at 
Philadelphia on the 4th of March, 1872; and on that day com- 
missioners from twenty-four States, three Territories, and the 
District of Columbia, met at the Continental hotel in Philadel- 
phia. A temporary organization was effected by the election of 
David Atwood, of Wisconsin, as chairman, and J. N. Baxter, 
of Vermont, as secretary. The commissioners then repaired in 
a body to Independence Hall, where they were officially received 
and welcomed by Mayor Stokley. General Joseph R. Hawley, 
of Connecticut, responded to this address on behalf of the com- 
missioners, who then repaired to the chamber of the Common 




174 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 175 

Council. After a prayer by the Kev. Dr. Hutter, the commis- 
sioners proceeded to business. On the 5th a permanent organ- 
ization was effected, officers were elected, nine standing com- 
mittees were appointed, and the United States Centennial Com- 
mission was definitely organized. 

Several changes have been made since 1872, and at present 
the commission is constituted as follows ; 

President — Hon. Joseph R. Hawley. 

Vice-Presidents — Hon. Orestes Cleveland, Hon. John Dunbar Creigh, 
Hon. Eobert Lowry, Hon. Robert Mallory, Hon. Thos. H. Coldwell, Hon. 
John McNeill, and Hon. Wm. Gurney. 

Secretary — Professor John L. Campbell. 

Director-General — Hon. Alfred T. Goshorn. 

Counsellor and Solicitor — John L. Shoemaker. 

The members of the Centennial Commission for 1876 are: 

Alabama — Richard M. Nelson, James L. Cooper. 
. Arizona — Richard C. McCormick, John Wasson. 
Arkansas — George W. Lawrence, George E. Dodge. 
California — John Dunbar Creigh, Benjamin P. Kooser, 
Colorado — J. Marshal Paul, N. C. Meeker. 
Connecticut — Joseph R. Hawley, William Phipps Blake. 
Dakotah — J. A. Burbank, Solomon L. Spink. 
Delaware — John K. Kane, John H. Rodney. 
District of Columbia — James E. Dexter, Lawrence A, Gobright. 
Florida — T. H. Osborn, J. T. Bernard. 
Georgia — George Hillyer, Richard Peters, Jr. 
Idaho — Thomas Donaldson, C. W. Moore. 
Illinois — Frederick L. Mathews, Lawrence Weldon. 
Indiana — John L. Campbell, Franklin C. Johnson. 
Iowa — Robert Lowry, Coker F. Clarkson. 
Kansas — John A. Martin, George A. Crawford. 
Kentucky — Robert Mallory, Smith M. Hobbs. 
Louisiana — John Lynch, Edward Pennington. 
Maine — Joshua Nye, Charles H. Haskell. 
Maryland — J. H. B. Latrobe, S. M. Shoemaker. 
Massachusetts — George B. Loring, William B. Spooner, 
Michigan — James Birney, Claudius B. G^ant. 
Minnesota — J. Fletcher Williams, W. W. Folwell. 
Mississippi — O. C. French, M. Edwards. 
Missouri — John McNeil, Samuel Hayes. 
Montana — J. P. Woolman, Patrick A. Largey. 



176 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTOEY. 

Nebraska— Henry S. Moodj, E. W. Furnas. 

Nevada — William Wirt McCoy, Jamas W\ Haines. 

New Hampshire — Ezekiel A. Straw, M. V. B. Edgarly, 

New Jersey — Orestes Cleveland, John G. Stevens. 

New Mexico — Eldridge W. Little, Stephen B. Elkins. 

New York— N. M. Beckwith, Charles P. Kimball. 

North Carolina — Samuel F. Phillips, Jonathan W. Albertsoa, 

Ohio— Alfred T. Goshorn, Wilson W. Griffith. 

Oregon— James W. Virtue, Andrew J. Dufur. 

Pennsylvania — Daniel J. Morrell, Asa Packer. 

Rhode Island — George H. Corliss, Royal C. Taft. 

South Carolina — W^illiam Gurney, Archibald Cameron. 

Tennessee — Thomas H. Coldwell, William F. Prosser. 

Texas — William H. Parsons, John C. Chew. 

Utah — William Haydon, Charles R. Gilchrist, 

Vermont — Middleton Goldsmith, Henry Chase. 

Virginia— F. W. M. Holliday, Edmund R. Bagwell. 

Washington Territory — Ellwood Evans, Alexander S. Abernethy. 

West Virginia — Alexander R. Boteler, Andrew J. Sweeney. 

W^iscoNSiN — David Atwood, Edward D. Holton. 

Wyoming — Joseph M. Carey, Robert H. Lamborn. 

In order to provide the necessary funds for the exhibition, 
Congress, on the 1st of June, 1872, adopted a bill creating a 
" Centennial Board of Finance," which was authorized to issue 
stock in shares of ten dollars each, the whole amount issued not 
to exceed ten millions of dollars. The commissioners adopted 
rules for the organization and government of this board, and 
directed that the books for subscriptions to the stock should be 
opened on the 21st of November, 1872, and should remain open 
for one hundred days. At the same time the President and 
Secretary of the Centennial Commission issued an address to the 
people of the United States, setting forth the objects of the 
exhibition, and asking their support and assistance in carrying 
the enterprise through to success. 

The members of the Centennial Board of Finance were ap- 
pointed by the stockholders at a meeting held in April, 1873. 
A majority of the members of the board were chosen from 
Philadelphia in order that, these gentlemen being residents of 
the city, there might always be a quorum for the transaction of 
business present at the meetings of the board. The board was 
authorized to issue bonds to an amount not to exceed the capi- 



178 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

tal, to be secufed upon the exhibition buildings and other 
property in possession of the commission, and upon its pros- 
pective revenues. The board was also ordered to begin at once 
the work of preparing the grounds and erecting the necessary 
buildings for the exhibition. 

The city of Philadelphia, with the liberality which has char- 
acterized its whole treatment of the exhibition scheme, at once 
set apart the portion of Fairmount Park lying below Belmont 
and George's Hill, and constituting the old Lansdowne estate, 
for the purposes of the exhibition. This magnificent domain 
was formally transferred to the Centennial Commission on the 
4tli of July, 1873. It comprises a tract of four hundred and 
fifty acres, and is in all respects the best suited to the needs of 
the exhibition of any location in the Union. The transfer was 
made in presence of an immense throng of citizens, and with 
imposing ceremonies in which the military and civic organiza- 
tions of Philadelphia took part. The ceremonies were opened 
with a prayer by Bishop Simpson, of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, after which Hon. Morton McMichael, President of the 
Park Commission, formally surrendered the grounds to General 
J. R. Hawlcy, President of the Centennial Commission, in an 
appropriate address. After reciting the reasons which had in- 
duced the city to make this grant, Mr. McMichael concluded as 
follows : 

"General ITawley: To you, sir, as the representative of 
the Centennial Commission of the United States, in the con- 
structive presence of the Chief Magistrate of the nation and the 
actual presence of his constitutional advisers — in the presence 
of the Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and his 
official staff— in the presence of the Mayor and the Councils of 
Philadelphia — in the presence of these dignitaries gathered from 
all parts of the Union to mark the national character of the 
ceremony — in the presence of this multitude of my fellow- 
citizens, who are here to sanction and approve the act — in 
behalf of the Commissioners of Fairmount Park, to whom its 
legal custody has been confided, — I now, publicly and formally, 
transfer to your keeping all the land designated and described 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 179 

in the maps and papers herewith presented. And in the same 
behalf I hereby confer on the Centennial Commission full power 
to hold and possess and employ this land, for so long and in 
such manner as the needs of the International Exposition, instant 
and prospective, may require. And, sir, this transfer, which ful- 
fils an essential provision of the law creating your commission, 
being thus made, who shall doubt that — stirred by memories of 
the turbulent past, urged by knowledge of the flourishing 
present, inspired by anticipations of the promising future — the 
people of the several States, and the States themselves in their 
sovereign capacities, as well as the Congress of the United 
States and all the branches of the Federal Government, will so 
assist your endeavors that in 1876 you will be enabled to pre- 
sent to the world a spectacle which, while typical of the skill 
and culture and ingenuity of the older nations, will conspicuously 
demonstrate what the thrift, intelligence, enterprise and energy 
of our own, under the beneficent rule of free institutions, and 
with a due sense of reverence for Almighty God, have achieved 
in a single century of existence." 

General Hawley responded in an eloquent address of accept- 
ance, at the conclusion of which he said, " In token of the United 
States Centennial Commission now takes possession of these 
grounds for the purpose we have described, let the flag be 
unfurled and duly saluted." The stars and^ stripes were then 
raised, and at the same moment the trumpeter of the City Troop 
gave a signal which was answered by a salute of thirteen guns 
from the Keystone Battery. 

When the applause had subsided, the Hon. John F. Hart- 
ranft. Governor of Pennsylvania, spoke as follows : 

" By the act of Congress creating a commission charged with 
the holding of the Centennial Exhibition in this city in the year 
1876, it was made the duty of the Governor of Pennsylvania to 
certify to the President of the United States the fact that provi- 
sion has been made for the erection of suitable buildings for said 
Exhibition, whenever he became satisfied that such result had 
been achieved. 

" I hold in my hand a joint certificate, signed by General 



180 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



Joseph K. Hawley, President of the Centennial Commission, 
and Mr. John Welsh, Chairman of the Finance Committee of 
said Commission, to the effect that such provision has been made. 
Knowing, as you all know, the wisdom and integrity of these 
gentlemen, I have felt it to be my duty to certify to the Presi- 




ON THE WISSAHICKON. 



dent of the United States, as required by the act of Congress, 
and the certificate reads as follows : 

"'To the President of the United States: 

"'Pursuant to the provisions of section 8 of the act of Con- 
gress approved March 3d, 1871, providing for a National Cele- 
bration of the one hundredth anniversary of American Independ- 
ence, a copy of which act is appended hereto, the undersigned, 



X 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 181 

Governor of the State of Pennsylvania, has the honor to inform 
the President that provision has been made for the erection of 
suitable buildings for the purposes of the International Exhibi- 
tion of Arts, Manufactures and Products of the Soil and Mine, 
proposed to be held in Philadelphia, in the year 1876, and for 
the exclusive control of the said Exhibition by the United States 
Centennial Commission. 

" ^ The undersigned makes this announcement to enable the 
President, in accordance with the requirements of the act above 
mentioned, to issue his proclamation concerning the said Exhibi- 
tion, and to cause official invitations to be given to foreign 
governments to participate therein. 

"^JoHN F. Haetranft. 

" 'Haerisburg, June 24th, 1873.' 

"So far, this grand project has, to some extent at least, 
appeared local — necessarily so by the conditions imposed ; but 
henceforth it will be purely national. If a failure, it will be a 
national failure. If a success, a national success. 

" We have assembled here to dedicate a portion of this beauti- 
ful Park to the uses of this great International Exhibition, which 
is to commemorate the anniversary of our country's birth. Upon 
the threshold of the century to expire in 1876, thirteen poor and 
feeble colonies, with no common ties other than their love of 
liberty and their hatred of oppression, declared their independ- 
ence. These thirteen colonies, with their offspring, now 
increased in number to thirty-seven, stretch their empire across 
a continent, and afford the grandest exhibition of a nation's 
progress in the world's history. In all the wondrous changes 
wrought in the nineteenth century, none are so wondrous and 
conspicuous as the industrious, moral and physical growth of 
this our native land. With those powerful auxiliaries, steam 
and the telegraph, both of which our country gave to mankind, 
we are striding with majestic steps toward a dominion unrivalled 
by any nation on the face of the earth. Let us, then, from every 
State — north, south, east and west — bring to this great city, the 
consecrated place where our liberty was born, the evidences of 



182 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

our culture, the proofs of our skill, and our vast and varied 
resources, that the world may have a glimpse of our enlargement, 
industry, wealth and power. And to the myriads who will 
gather here from every clime we must be ready to accord a 
welcome in keeping with the dignity and magnitude of the 
country. 

" To this city, then, and to the Exhibition the public bids 
welcome the people of every nationality, assuring them of a 
cordial reception, and just and generous recognition. And here, 
too, let our own people gather, and garnering new and fresh ideas 
from a survey of the world's arts and industries, let us dedicate 
ourselves to a higher civilization, to more extensive fields of 
development, to more liberal and more diffused education, to the 
purification of our institutions, and the preservation of the liberty 
which is the foundation-stone of our happiness and prosperity 
as a people." 

The following is a copy of the certificate referred to by Gov- 
ernor Hartranft: 

" The undersigned has the honor to report to the President, 
in order that it may be officially announced in such proclama- 
tion as he may be pleased to issue, under the provisions of sec- 
tion 8 of the act of Congress, approved March 3d, 1871, relating 
to the International Exhibition, to be held in Philadelphia in 
1876, that it was decided by the United States Centennial Com- 
mission, at a meeting held on the 24th of May, 1872, that the 
Exhibition shall be opened on the 19th of April, 1876, and 
closed on the 19th of October, 1876. 

" The undersigned has also the honor to transmit, for the 
information of foreign governments, a copy of the General 
Eegulations adopted by the Commission on the 24th of May, 
1872. 

" Respectfully submitted, 

"J. R. Hawley, 
" President of the United States Centennial Commission. 

" Philadelphia, June 20th, 1873." 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 183 

Hon. Morton McMichael then introduced Hon. George M. 
Robeson, Secretary of the Navy, who appeared as the delegated 
representative of the President of the United States. He said : 

" Prevented himself from being present on this interesting 
occasion, only by the calls of imperative personal duty, the 
President of the United States has directed me, as his represent- 
ative, and as the representative of the State Department for 
the occasion, to make by his authority and in his name the fol- 
lowing proclamation : 

^^By the President of the United States of America, 

"a PROCIiAMATION : 

^'Wiereas, By the act of Congress approved March 3d, 1871, 
providing for a National Celebration of the one hundredth 
anniversary of the Independence of the United States, by the 
holding of an International Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures 
and Products of the Soil and Mine, in the city of Philadelphia, 
in the year 1876, it is provided as follows : 

"That whenever the President shall be informed by the 
Governor of the State of Pennsylvania that provision has been 
made for the erection of suitable buildings for the purpose, and 
for the exclusive control by the Commission herein provided 
for of the proposed Exhibition, the President shall, through the 
Department of State, make proclamation of the same, setting 
forth the time at which the Exhibition will open, and the place 
at which it will be held; and he will communicate to the 
diplomatic representatives of all nations copies of the same, 
together with such regulations as may be adopted by the Com- 
missioners, for publication in their respective countries ; and 

" Whereas, His Excellency, the Governor of the said State of 
Pennsylvania, did, on the 24th day of June, 1873, inform me 
that provision had been made for the erection of said buildings, 
and for the exclusive control, by the Commission provided for 
in the said act, of the proposed Exhibition ; and 

^^WhereaSj The President of the United States Centennial 
Commission has officially informed me of the dates fixed for 
the opening and closing of the said Exhibition, and the place 
at which it is to be held ; 



184 



THE ILLTJSTBATED HISTORY 



" Now, therefore, be it known that I, Ulysses S. Grant, Presi- 
dent of the United States, in conformity with the provisions of 
the act of Congress aforesaid, do hereby declare and proclaim 
that there will be held, at the city of Philadelphia, in the State 
of Pennsylvania, an International Exhibition of Arts, Manu- 
factures, and Products of the Soil and Mine, to be opened on 




r-. 



DUrVE IN FAIEMOUNT PAHK. 



the 19th day of April, Anno Domini 1876, and be closed on 
the 19th day of October in the same year. 

"And in the interest of peace, civilization and domestic and 
international friendship and intercourse, I commend the cele- 
bration and Exhibition to the people of the United States ; and 
in behalf of this government and people, I cordially commend 
them to all nations who may be pleased to take part therein. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL. EXHIBITION. 185 

" In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. 

" Done at the city of Washington, this 3d day of July, 1873, 
and of the Independence of the United States of America the 
ninety-seventh. 

"U. S. Grant. 
*' By the President, 

"Hamilton Fish, Secretary of Stated' 

" genekal kegulations. 

" 1. The International Exhibition of 1876 will be held in 
Fairmount Park, in the city of Philadelphia, in the year 1876. 

"2. The date of opening the Exhibition will be April 19th, 
1876, and of closing will be October 19th, 1876. 

" 3. A cordial invitation is hereby extended to every nation 
of the earth to be represented by its arts, industries, progress 
and development. 

"4. A formal acceptance of this invitation is requested pre- 
vious to March 4th, 1874. 

" 5. Each nation accepting this invitation is requested to 
appoint a Commission, through which all matters pertaining to 
its own interests shall be conducted. For the purpose of con- 
venient intercourse and satisfactory supervision, it is especially 
desired that one member of each such Commission be desig- 
nated to reside at Philadelphia until the close of the Exposition. 

" 6. The privileges of exhibitors can be granted only to citi- 
zens of countries whose governments have formally accepted 
the invitation to be represented and have appointed the afore- 
mentioned Commission, and all communications must be made 
through the Governmental Commissions. 

" 7. Applications for space within the Exposition buildings, 
or in the adjacent buildings and grounds under the control of 
the Centennial Commission, must be made previous to March 
4th, 1875. 

" 8. Full diagrams of the buildings and grounds will be fur- 
ipiished to the Commissioners of the different nations which shall 
accept the invitation to participate. 



186 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



" 9. All articles intended for exhibition, in order to secure 
proper position and classification, must be in Philadelphia on or 
before January 1st, 1876. 

" 10. Acts of Congress pertaining to custom-house regula- 
tions, duties, etc., together with all special regulations adopted 

by the Centennial 
Commission in ref- 
erence to transpor- 
tation, allotment of 
space, classification, 
motive power, in- 
surance, police rules, 
and other matters 
necessary to the 
proper display and 
preservation of ma- 
terials, will be 
promptly commu- 
nicated to the ac- 
credited representa-* 
tives of the several 
governments co-op- 
erating in the Ex- 
position." 
The ceremonies concluded with a grand military review, and 
were followed at night by a display of fireworks in the park. 

On the 5th of July, 1873, the Secretary of State of the United 
States forwarded the President's proclamation to the various 
ministers from foreign countries residing at the national capital, 
together with the following official note : 




ON THE WISSAHICKON DRIVE. 



} 



"Department op State, 
"Washington, D. C, Jvly 5th, 1873. 

" Sir : — I have the honor to enclose, for the information of 
the government of , a copy of the President's procla- 
mation, announcing the time and place of holding an Interna- 
tional Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures, and Products of the 



OF THE CENTENNIAL. EXHIBITION. 187 

Soil and Mine, proposed to be held in the year eighteen hundred 
and seventy-six. 

"The Exhibition is designed to commemorate the Declaration 
of the Independence of the United States, on the one hundredth 
anniversary of that interesting and historic national event, and 
at the same time to present a fitting opportunity for such display 
of the results of art and industry of all nations as will serve to 
illustrate the great advances attained, and the successes achieved, 
in the interest of progress and civilization during the century 
which will have then closed. 

" In the law providing for the holding of the Exhibition, 
Congress directed that copies of the proclamation of the Presi- 
dent, setting forth the time of its opening and the place at which 
it was to be held, together with such regulations as might be 
adopted by the Commissioners of the Exhibition, should be 
communicated to the diplomatic representatives of all nations. 
Copies of those regulations are herewith transmitted. 

"The President indulges the hope that the government of 

will be pleased to notice the subject, and may deem it 

proper to bring the Exhibition and its objects to the attention 
of the people of that country, and thus encourage their co-opera- 
tion in the proposed celebration. And he further hopes that 
the opportunity afforded by the Exhibition for the interchange 
of national sentiment and friendly intercourse between the 
people of both nations may result in new and still greater 
advantages to science and industry, and at the same time serve 
to strengthen the bonds of peace and friendship which already 

happily subsist between the government and people of 

and those of the United States. 

" I have the honor to be, sir, 

" With the highest consideration, 

" Your obedient servant. 



In June, 1874, the following bill requesting the President to 
invite foreign nations to take part in the Exhibition was passed 



188 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 

by both Houses of Congress and approved by the President on 
the 5th of June : 

^^ Whereas, At various International Exhibitions which have 
been held in foreign countries, the United States have been 
represented in pursuance of invitations given by the govern- 
ments of those countries, and accepted by our government, 
therefore, 

^^Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the 
President be requested to extend, in the name of the United 
States, a respectful and cordial invitation to the governments of 
other nations to be represented and take part in the Interna- 
tional Exposition to be held at Philadelphia, under the auspices 
of the government of the United States, in the year 1876. 
Provided, however, that the United States shall not be liable, 
directly or indirectly, for any expense attending such Exposi- 
tion, or by reason of the same." 

The invitation was duly extended by the President to the 
various nations of the world to take part in the Exhibition. 
The nations which accepted this invitation and have taken part 
in the Exhibition are as follows : 



Argentine Confederation. 


Italy. 


Austria. 


Japan. 


Belgium. 


Liberia. 


Bolivia. 


Mexico. 


Brazil. 


Netherlands. 


Chili. 


Norway. 


China. 


Nicaragua. 


Denmark. 


Orange Free State — Africa- 


Ecuador. 


Persia. 


Egypt. 


Peru. 


France, including Algeria. 


Portugal. 


German Empire. 


Russia. 


Great Britain, including her 


Siam. 


Colonies. 


Spain. 


Greece. 


Sweden. 


Gautemala and Salvador. 


Switzerland. 


Hawaii 


Tunis. 


Hayti. 


Turkey. 


Honduras. 


United States of Colombia. 


Venezuela 


f 



s^iiiiiiiiiiiiii 



>i!iiiiiiiiilliSi:> 




190 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

In order to remove all difficulties in the way of the complete 
success of the international character of the Exhibition, Congress 
enacted the following bill, which was approved by the President 
on the 18th of June, 1874, for the purpose of enabling foreign 
exhibitors to enter their goods free of duty : 

"^e it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of Amei'ica in Congress assembled, That all 
articles which shall be imported for the sole purpose of exhibi- 
tion at the International Exhibition to be held in the city of 
Philadelphia, in the year 1876, shall be admitted without the 
payment of duty or of customs, fees, or charges, under such 
regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe: 
Provided, That all such articles as shall be sold in the United 
States or withdrawn for consumption therein at any time after 
such importations, shall be subject to the duties, if any, imposed 
on like articles by the revenue laws in force at the date of 
importation : And provided further, That in case any article 
imported under the provisions of this act shall be withdrawn 
for consumption or shall be sold without payment of duty as 
required by law, all the penalties prescribed by the revenue 
laws shall be applied and enforced against such articles and 
against the persons who may be guilty of such withdrawal or 
sale." 

Previous to this the general government of the United States 
had decided to take part in the Exhibition as an exhibitor, and 
on the 24th of January, 1874, the PVesident issued the follow- 
ing order directing the various executive departments of the 
government to take the necessary measures for their proper 
representation : 

"EXECUTIVE ORDER BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED 

STATES. 

" Whereas, it has been brought to the notice of the President 
of the United States that in the International Exhibition of 
Arts, Manufactures, and Products of the Soil and Mine, to be 
held in the city of Philadelphia, in the year 1876, for the pur- 
pose of celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the Inde- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



191 



pendence of the United States, it is desirable that from the 
Executive Departments of the Government of the United States 
in which there may be articles suitable for the purpose intended, 
there should appear such articles and materials as will, when 
presented in a collective exhibition, illustrate the functions and 
administrative faculties of the government in time of peace, and 
its resources as a war power, and thereby serve to demonstrate 
the nature of our institutions and their adaptation to the wants 
of the people: Now, for the purpose of securing a complete 
and harmonious ar- 
rangement of the 
articles and materials 
desicrned to be ex- 
hibited from the Ex- 
ecutive Department 
of the Government 
it is ordered that a 
board, to be composed 
of one person to be 
named by the head 
of each of the Execu- 
t i v e Departments 
which may have ar- 
ticles and materials 
to be exhibited, and 
also of one person to 
be named in behalf 
of the Smithsonian 

Institution, and one to be named in the behalf of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, be charged with the preparation, arrange- 
ment, and safe-keeping of such articles and materials as the 
heads of the several Departments and the Commissioner of 
Agriculture and the Director of the Smithsonian Institution 
may respectively decide shall be embraced in the collection ; that 
one of the persons thus named, to be designated by the Presi- 
dent, shall be chairman of such board, and that the board 
appoint from their own number such other officers as they may 




BRIDGE OVER THE WISSAHICKON AT VALLEY 
GREEN. 



192 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

think necessary, and that the said board when organized shall 
be authorized under the direction of the President to confer 
with the executive officers of the Centennial Exhibition in 
relation to such matters connected with the subject as may per- 
tain to the respective departments having articles and materials 
on exhibition, and that the names of the persons thus selected 
by the lieads of the several departments, the Commissioner of 
Agriculture, and the Director of the Smithsonian Institution, 
shall be submitted to the President for designation. 
" By order of the President : 

"(Signed) "Hamilton Fish, 

" Secretary of Staze, 
" Washington, Januaiy 23d, 1874." 

In accordance with the above order, the President appointed 
a board composed of a representative from each of the Executive 
Departments of the Government, except the Department of 
State and the Attorney-General's Department; but including 
the Department of Agriculture and the Smithsonian Institution. 
The board is composed as follows : 

War Department — Col. C. S. Lyford (Chairman), Ordnance Bureau. 

Treasury Department — Hon. R. W. Tayler, 1st Controller of the 
Treasury. 

Navy Department — Admiral Thornton A. Jenkins, U. S. Navy. 

Interior Department — John Esiton' Commissioner of Education. 

Post-Office Department — Dr. Chas. F. McDonald, Chief of Money 
Oi'der Department. 

Agricultural Department — Wm. Saunders, Superintendent of Proper 
gating Garden. 

Smithsonian Institution — Prof. S. F. Baird, Assistant Sea-etaiy of the 
Smithsonian Institution and U. S. Fishery Commissioner. 

This board was charged with the duty of perfecting a collec- 
tive Exhibition, that shall illustrate the functions and adminis- 
trative faculties of the government in time of peace and its 
resources as a war power. 

On the 4th of July, 1874, the ground was formally broken 
in Fairmount Park for the Exhibition buildings. The occasion 
was celebrated with the most imposing demonstration ever 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 193 

witnessed in Philadelphia, and in which thousands of the citi- 
zens took part. The celebration being also the ninetj-eighth 
anniversary of the independence of the United States, was largely- 
national in its character, and drew vast crowds from other parts 
of the Union to witness it. It will long be remembered by 
Philadelphia as one of the most memorable days in her history. 
The work being now fairly begun, the following regulations 
were issued by the Director-General. They so fully describe 
the purposes of the projectors of the Exhibition that we quote 
them entire : . 

"GENEEAL KEGULATIONS FOE EXHIBITOES IN THE UNITED 

STATES. 

" The Exhibition will be held in Fairmount Park, in the city 
of Philadelphia, and will be opened on the 10th day of May, 
1876, and closed on the 10th day of November following. 

" The ten departments of the classification which will deter- 
mine the relative location of articles in the Exhibition — except 
in such collective exhibitions as may receive special sanction — 
and also the arrangement of names in the catalogue, are as 
follows : 

" I. Eaw Materials— Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal. 
" II. Materials and Manufactures used for Food, or in the Arts, the result 
of Extractive or Combining Processes. 
" III. Textile and Felted Fabrics ; Apparel, Costumes, and Ornaments for 

the person. 
" IV. Furniture and Manufactures of general use in construction and in 
dwellings. 
"V. Tools, Implements, Machines, and Processes. 
" VI. Motors and Transportation. 
" VII. Apparatus and Methods for the increase and diffusion of knowl- 
edge. 
" VIII. Engineering, Public Works, Architecture, etc. 
" IX. Plastic and Graphic Arts. 

"X. Objects illustrating efforts for the improvement of the Physical, 
Intellectual, and Moral Condition of Man. 

"Applications for space and negotiations relative thereto 
should be addressed to the Director-General, International 
Exhibition, Philadelphia, Penna. 
13 



194 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

" Exhibitors will not be charged for space. 

"A limited quantity of steam and water-power will be sup- 
plied gratuitously. The quantity of each wdll be settled defin- 
itively at the time of the allotments of space. Any power 
required by the exhibitor in excess of that allowed will be fur- 
nished by the Commission at a fixed price. Demands for such 
excess of power must also be settled at the time of the allotment 
of space. 

" Exhibitors must provide, at their own cost, all show-cases, 
shelving, counters, fittings, etc., which they may require; and 
all countershafts, with their pulleys, belting, etc., for the trans- 
mission of pow^r from the main shafts in the Machinery Hall. 
All arrangements of articles and decorations must be in con- 
formity with the general plan adopted by the Director-General. 

^' Special constructions of any kind, whether in the buildings 
or grounds, can only be made upon the written approval of the 
Director-General. 

" The Commission will take precautions for the safe preserva- 
tion of all objects in the Exhibition ; but it will in no way be 
responsible for damage or loss of any kind, or for accidents by 
fire or otherwise, however originating. 

" Favorable facilities will be arranged by which exhibitors 
may insure their own goods. 

^'Exhibitors may employ watchmen of their own choice to 
o;uard their goods during the hours the Exhibition is open to 
the public. Appointments of such watchmen will be subject to 
the approval of the Director-General. 

" Exhibitors, or such agents as they may designate, shall be 
responsible for the receiving, unpacking, and arrangement of 
objects, as well as for their removal at the close of the Exhibition. 

"The transportation, receiving, unpacking and arranging of 
the products for exhibition will be at the expense of the 
exhibitor. 

"The installation of heavy articles requiring foundations 
should, by special arrangement, be begun as soon as the progress 
of the work upon the buildings will permit. The general re- 
ception of articles at the Exhibition buildings will be commenced 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 195 

on January 1st, 1876, and no articles will be admitied after 
March 31st, 1876. 

" Space not occupied on the 1st of April, 1876, will revert to 
the Director-General for reassignment. 

" If products are not intended for competition, it must be so 
stated by the exhibitor ; and they will be excluded from the ex- 
amination by the International Juries. 

" If no authorized person is at hand to receive goods on their 
arrival at the Exhibition building, they will be removed without 
delay, and stored at the cost and risk of whomsoever it may 
concern. 

" Articles that are in any way dangerous or offensive, also 
patent medicines, nostrums, and empirical preparations whose 
ingredients are concealed, will not be admitted to the Ex- 
hibition. 

" The removal of goods will not be permitted prior to the 
close of the Exhibition. 

" Sketches, drawings, photographs, or other reproductions of 
articles exhibited, will only be allowed upon the joint assent of 
the exhibitor and the Director-General ; but views of portions 
of the building may be made upon the Director-General's 
sanction. 

"Immediately after the close of the Exhibition, exhibitors 
shall remove their effects, and complete such removal before 
December 31st, 1876. Goods then remaining will be removed 
by the Director-General and sold for expenses, or otherwise 
disposed of under the direction of the Commission. 

" Each person who becomes an exhibitor thereby acknowl- 
edges and undertakes to keep the rules and regulations estab- 
lished for the government of the Exhibition. 

" Special regulations will be issued concerning the exhibition 
of fine arts, the organization of international juries, awards of 
prizes, the sale of special articles within the buildings, and on 
other points not touched upon in these preliminary instructions. 

"An Official Catalogue will be published in four distinct 
versions, — viz., English, French, German and Spanish. The 
sale of catalogues is reserved to the Centennial Commission. 



196 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

" Communications concerning the Exhibition should be ad- 
dressed to ^The Director-General, International Exhibition, 
1876, Philadelphia, Penna/ 

'' The Centennial Commission reserves the right to explain 
or amend these regulations, whenever it may be deemed neces- 
sary for the interests of the Exhibition. 

"A. T. GosHORN, Director -General, 
" John L. Campbell, Secretary. 
" Philadelphia, July ^th, 1874." 

"GENERAL EEGULATIOXS FOR FOREIGN EXHIBITORS. 

" The Exhibition will be held at Fairmount Park, in the 
city of Philadelphia, and will be opened on the 10th day of 
May, 1876, and closed on the 10th day of !N'ovember following. 

" All governments have been invited to appoint Commis- 
sions, for the purpose of organizing their departments of the 
Exhibition. The Director-General should be notified of the 
appointment of such Foreign Commissions before January 1st, 
1875. 

" Full diagrams of the buildings and grounds will be fur- 
nished to the Foreign Commissions on or before February 1st, 
1875, indicating the localities to be occupied by each nation, 
subject, however, to revision and readjustment. 

"Applications for space and negotiations relative thereto 
must be conducted with the Commission of the country where 
the article is produced. 

" Foreign Commissions are requested to notify the Director- 
General, not later than May 1st, 1875, whether they desire any 
increase or diminution of the space offered them, and the 
amount. 

" Before December 1st, 1875, the Foreign Commissions must 
furnish the Director-General with approximate plans showing 
the manner of allotting the space assigned to them, and also 
with lists of their exhibitors, and other information necessary 
for the preparation of the Official Catalogue. 

" Products brought into the United States, at the ports of 
New York, Boston, Portland, Me., Burlington, Yt., Suspen- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 197 

sion Bridge, N. Y., Detroit, Port Huron, Mich., Chicago, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk, New Orleans and San Fran- 
cisco, intended for display at the International Exhibition, will 
be allowed to go forward to the Exhibition buildings, under 
proper supervision of customs officers, without examination at 
such ports of original entry, and at the close of the Exhibition 
will be allowed to go forward to the port from which they are 
to be exported. No duties will be levied upon such goods, un- 
less entered for consumption in the United States. 

" The transportation, receiving, unpacking, and arranging 
of the products for exhibition will be at the expense of the 
exhibitor. 

" The installation of heavy articles requiring special founda- 
tions or adjustment should, by special arrangement, begin as 
soon as the progress of the work upon the buildings will 
permit. The general reception of articles at the Exhibition 
building will commence on January 1st, 1876, and no articles 
will be admitted after March 31st, 1876. 

" Space assigned to Foreign Commissions and not occupied 
on the 1st of April, 1876, will revert to the Director-General 
for reassignment. 

" If products are not intended for competition, it must be so 
stated by the exhibitor, and they will he excluded from the 
examination by the International Juries. 

"An Official Catalogue will be published in four distinct 
versions, — viz., English, French, German and Spanish. The 
sale of catalogues is reserved to the Centennial Commission. 

" The ten departments of the classification which will deter- 
mine the relative location of articles in the Exhibition— except 
in such collective exhibitions as may receive special sanction — 
and also the arrangement of names in the catalogue, are as 
follows : 

" I. Kaw Materials — Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal. 
" II. Materials and Manufactures used for Food, or in the Arts, the result 
of Extractive or Combining Processes. 
" III. Textile and Felted Fabrics ; Apparel, Costumes, and Ornaments for 
the person. 



198 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

" IV. Furniture and Manufactures of general use in construction and in 
dwellings. 
" V. Tools, Implements, Machines, and Processes. 
" VI. Motors and Transportation. 

*' VII. Apparatus and Methods for the increase and diffusion of knowl- 
edge. 
" VIII. Engineering, Public Works, Architecture, etc. 
" IX. Plastic and Graphic Arts. 

"X. Objects illustrating efforts for the improvement of the Physical, 
Intellectual, and Moral Condition of Man. 

" Foreign Commissions may publish catalogues of their re- 
spective sections. 

" Exhibitors will not be charged for space. 
"A limited quantity of steam and water-power will be sup- 
plied gratuitously. The quantity of each will be settled defini- 
tively at the time of the allotment of space. Any power 
required by the exhibitor in excess of that allowed will be fur- 
nished by the Centennial Commission at a fixed price. De- 
mands for such excess of power must also be settled at the time 
of the allotment of space. 

" Exhibitors must provide at their own cost, all show-cases, 
shelving, counters, fittings, etc., which they may require; and 
all countershafts, with their pulleys, belting, etc., for the trans- 
mission of power from the main shafts in the Machinery Hall. 
All arrangements of articles and decorations must be in 
conformity with the general plan adopted by the Director- 
General. 

" Special constructions of any kind, whether in the buildings 
or grounds, can only be made upon the written approval of the 
Director-General. 

" The Centennial Commission will take precautions for the 
safe preservation of all objects in the Exhibition ; but it will in 
no way be responsible for damage or loss of any kind, or for 
accidents by fire or otherwise, however originating. 

"Favorable facilities will be arranged by which exhibitors or 
Foreign Commissions may insure their own goods. 

" Foreign Commissions may employ watchmen of their own 
choice to guard their goods during the hours the Exhibition is 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 199 

open to the public. Appointmeuts of such watch.men will be 
subject to the approval of the Director-General. 

" Foreign Commissions, or such agents as they may designate, 
shall be responsible for the receiving, unpacking and arrange^ 
ment of objects, as well as for their removal at the close of the 
Exhibition ; but no person shall be permitted to act as such 
agent until he can give to the Director-General written evidence 
of his having been approved by the proper commission. 

" Each package must be addressed ' To the Commission for 
[iiame of country] at the International Exhibition of 1876, 
Philadelpliia, United States of America,' and should have at 
least two labels affixed to different but not opposite sides of each 
case, and giving the following information : 

^^(1) The country from which it comes; (2) name or firm of 
the exhibitor; (3) residence of the exhibitor; (4) department to 
which objects belong; (5) total number of packages sent by that 
exhibitor; (6) serial number of that particular package. 

"AVithin each package should be a list of all objects. 

" If no authorized person is at hand to receive goods on their 
arrival at tlie Exhibition building, they will be removed without 
delay, and stored at the cost and risk of whomsoever it may 
concern. 

'^\rticles that are in any way dangerous or offensive, also 
patent medicines, nostrums, and empirical preparations whose 
ingredients are concealed, will not be admitted to the Ex- 
hibition. 

^' The removal of goods will not be permitted prior to the 
close of the Exhibition. 

"Sketches, drawings, photographs or other reproductions 
of articles exhibited, will only be allowed upon the joint assent 
of the exhibitor and the Director-General ; but views of portions 
of the building may be made upon the Director-General's 
sanction. 

"Immediately after the close of the Exhibition, exhibitors 
sliall remove their effects, and complete such removal before 
December 31st, 1876. Goods then remaining will be removed 
by the Director-General and sold for expenses, or other- 



200 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

wise disposed of uuder the direction of the Centennial Com- 
mission. 

"Each person who becomes an exhibitor thereby acknowledges 
and undertakes to keep the rules and regulations established for 
the government of the Exhibition. 

"Special regulations will be issued concerning the Exiiibition 
of fine arts, the organization of international juries, awards of 
prizes, and sale of special articles within tlie buildings, and on 
other points not touched upon in these preliminary instructions. 

"Communications concerning the Exhibition should be 
addressed to ^ The Director-General, International Exhibition, 
1876, Pliiladelphia, Pa., U. S. A.' 

"The Centennial Commission reserves the right to explain or 
amend these regulations, whenever it may be deemed necessary 
for the interests of the Exhibition. 

"A. T. GosHORN, Director- General. 
"John L. Ca^ipbell, Secretary, 
" Philadelphia, July ith, 1874." 

On the 3d of October, 1874, the Secretary of the Treasury 
issued the following order prescribing the mode of the free 
admission of goods for the Exhibition : 

"KEGULATIOXS GOVERNING THE FREE IMPORTATION OF 
GOODS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1876, 
AT PHILADELPHIA. 

" Treasury Department, 
" Washington, D. C, October Sd, 18"; 

"An act of Congress approved June 18th, 1874, entitled ^An 
act to admit free of duty articles intended for the International 
Exhibition of eighteen hundced and seventy-six,' provides as 
follows : 



574./ 



u ( 



Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all 
articles which shall be imported for the sole purpose of exhibi- 
tion at the International Exhibition to be held in the city of 
Philadelphia in the year 1876, shall be admitted without the 
payment of duty or of customs fees or charges, under such 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 201 

regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe: 
Provided, That all such articles as shall be sold in the United 
States or withdrawn for consumption therein at any time after 
such importation shall be subject to the duties, if any, im- 
posed on like articles by the revenue laws in force at the 
(late of importation : And provided further, That in case any 
articles imported under the provisions of this act shall be with- 
drawn for consumption, or shall be sold without payment of 
duty as required by law, all the penalties prescribed by the 
revenue laws shall be applied and enforced against such articles 
and against the person who may be guilty of such withdrawal 
or sale/ 

" In pursuance of the provisions of this act the following 
regulations are prescribed : 

"1. No duty or customs fees or charges being required on 
any such importations, a new form of entry is prescribed, which 
will be employed in all cases at the port where such goods are 
received. 

" 2. The ports of New York, Bostvin, Portland, Me., Burling- 
ton, Vt., Suspension Bridge, N. Y., Detroit, Port Huron, Mich., 
Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk, New Orleans and 
San Francisco, will alone constitute ports of entry at which 
importations for said Exhibition will be made free of duty. 

" 3. All articles designed for such Exhibition must be for- 
warded, accompanied by an invoice or schedule of the numbers, 
character, and commercial value of each shipment, which state- 
ment shall be attested before a consul of the United States or a 
civil magistrate of the country in which they are produced or 
from which they are shipped to the United States. Such veri- 
fied bill of contents and values will be transmitted in triplicate, 
one copy to the collector of customs at the port where it is 
desired to make entry, which will be retained for the files of his 
office ; one copy to some duly authorized agent, either of the 
owners, or of the Foreign Commission of the country from which 
shipment was made, which agent must in all cases be recognized 
by the Director-General of the Exhibition, who will, by virtue 
of that authority, verify the goods and made entry; and one 



202 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

copy to the collector at the port of Philadelphia; and all pack- 
a;>;es and enclosures containing goods destined for such Exhibi- 
tion must be plainly and conspicuously marked with the words 
'For the International Exhibition of 1870, at Philadelphia.' 

" 4. All goods arriving so marked and rei)rescnted, either at 
the time of arrival or at any time while remaining in the custody 
of the collector of customs at the port of arrival on general order, 
will, when entered at the port of arrival, be delivered without 
examination to such recognized agent or agents, to be by him or 
them forwarded from the port of arrival by bonded line of 
transportation to Philadelphia, there to be delivered to the 
custody of the collector of that port. 

'' 5, Entry for warehouse will be made for all such trans- 
ported packages on arrival at the said port of Philadelphia, and 
original entry for warehouse will be made of all goods directed 
by first shipment to Philadelphia. Warehouse entry having 
been made, the packages will be held in the custody of the said 
collector until the Exhibition building, or some building erected 
by and in the custody of the officers controlling the said Exhi- 
bition, and suitable for secure custody as a warehouse under the 
authority of the United States, is ready to receive them. 

" 6. Separate and complete records of all packages so trans- 
mitted and received by the collector at Philadelj)hia will be 
made by the storekeeper at the port of Philadelphia in a book 
prepared for the purpose, in which will be entered, so far as 
known, the owner's name, the agent's name representing the 
articles, the country from' which shipped, the date of such ship- 
ment, the name of the importing vessel, and the date of arrival, 
the general description and value of the goods, and the 
specific marks and numbers of the packages. Such record will 
also be kept in duplicate by a special inspector of customs who, 
under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, shall be 
appointed to identify, forward, and care for packages so properly 
marked, and intended in good faith for the Exhibition, but 
which may not be properly represented by an owner or agent. 

" 7. When the said Exhibition building, or a warehouse 
suitable for secure custody of articles intended for the Exhibi- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 20S 

tion, duly authorized for receiving bonded goods, shall be ready 
to receive articles then in the custody of the collector of the 
port of Philadelphia, descriptive permits, in duplicate, shall be 
issued by the said collector to the storekeeper of the port, 
directing the delivery of packages as required by the owner or 
agent, or by the officers of the said Exhibition — one copy of 
which permits shall be preserved by the said storekeeper, the 
second copy to be delivered with the goods to a proper officer 
of the customs stationed at the said Exhibition building or 
warehouse, to be there kept as a record of goods entered for 
such Exhibition in addition to the duplicate required to be 
kept in a book of proper form as before referred to. And all 
packages shall be opened in presence of an officer of the customs, 
who shall verify the contents from and upon such descriptive 
list, correcting and completing it as the facts may require. 

"8. In case of receipt by the collector at Philadelphia of 
packages imperfectly described or verified, or in regard to which 
information may be received questioning the good faith of the 
persons forwarding the same, the said collector may direct an 
examination, in proper form, for the purpose of determining 
the question, and if, on conference with the Director-General, 
the goods are found to have been forwarded not in good faith 
for said Exhibition, they will be charged with duty according 
to their value and classification, and held by the said collector, 
subject to appeal to tlie Secretary of the Treasury, to await 
proper claim and payment of duty by their owners. 

" 9. All charges for transportation, drayage, and freight, 
accruing on goods arriving for the said Exhibition, will be 
required to be paid by the owner or agent at the time of their 
delivery into the custody of the collector of customs at Phila- 
delphia, or if on packages of small bulk or weight, not accom- 
panied by the owner or agent, or consigned to a foreign com- 
missioner, and not exceeding $5 in amount, will be charged 
against the goods as so delivered into the custody of the col- 
lector at Philadelphia, to be paid with other charges subse- 
quently accruing before the permit is issued for their delivery 
to the Exhibition building; and on all packages exceeding 



204 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

fifty pounds in weight, half storage, as provided, by regulation 
for the storage of ordinary merchandise in the public warehouse 
at the port of Philadelphia, will be charged against the goods 
received and stored therein from the time of receipt to the time 
of delivery to the Exhibition building. ]N^o fees for entry, 
permit, or other official act, and no duties will be charged upon 
or against such packages until after their withdrawal from such 
Exhibition, for sale, at its close or during its continuance. 

" 10. All articles received and entered at such Exhibition in 
the manner hereinbefore provided may, at any time consistently 
with the regulations controlling said Exhibition, be withdrawn 
for sale or delivery to other parties than the owner or agent 
concerned in their importation, on payment of the duties prop- 
erly accruing on said goods according to the laws in force at 
the time of the importation thereof; and for the purpose of 
assessment and determination of such duties, and for proper 
identification of the articles, an officer of the appraiser's 
department of the port of Philadelphia shall be detailed to 
make due exj^mination of the articles so withdrawn or sold, 
verifying them by the record of their introduction, and charg- 
ing upon a proper form, to be prepared for such purpose, the 
said rate and amount of duty ; and on payment of the duty so 
charged, but without fee or other expenses, the owner or agent 
shall receive a permit for their removal from the Exhibition. 

"11. Articles designed to be returned to the foreign country 
from which the same were imported, or to be removed from the 
United States, will, at the close of the Exhibition, or at such 
time as shall be directed by the officers of such Exhibition, be 
verified by the customs officer in charge at the Exhibition, re- 
enclosed, duly marked, and forwarded, under permit of the 
collector at Philadelphia, to any other port for export, or may 
be directly exported to Philadelphia. Export entries for such 
use will be prepared, corresponding to the import entries under 
which the goods were originally received. 

" 12. A special inspector of customs will, under the direction 
of the Secretary of the Treasury, report at intervals to the col- 
lectors of the ports of Philadelphia and of New York, or of 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 205 

such other ports as he may be directed to visit, for the purpose 
of applying the regulations herein provided. 

" rSiffned.l _ ^^ _ 

^ ^ '-• " B. H. Bristow, Secretary. 

Immediately after the passage of the act of Congress estab- 
lishing the United States Centennial Commission, the work of 
preparing for the Exhibition was begun. It was understood 
from the first that the most difficult portion of this task would 
be the providing of the funds necessary for carrying on the 
work. Congress had expressly stipulated that the general 
government should not be responsible for any of the debts 
contracted on account of the Exhibition, and had given the 
friends of the scheme to understand that they need not expect 
any aid from the treasury of the United States. Whatever 
money was to be provided must come from private individuals, 
or from the various States and cities of the Union. It was 
necessary, therefore, in order to inspire the people of the coun- 
try with confidence enough to induce them to contribute to- 
ward the enterprise, that the management of the financial part 
of it should be placed in the hands of proper parties, who 
should be vested w^ith certain powers and brought under cer- 
tain restrictions. Accordingly, the friends of the Exhibition 
obtained the passage of an act of Congress, which was approved 
by the President on the 1st of June, 1872, establishing the 
Centennial Board of Finance. The following are the 
principal sections of this bill : 

" Whereas, Congress did provide by an act entitled ^ An act 
to provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of 
American Independence by holding an International Exhibi- 
tion of Arts, ^Manufactures, and Products of the Soil and Mine, 
in the city of Philadelphia, and State of Pennsylvania, in the 
year eighteen hundred and seventy- six,' approved March third, 
eighteen hundred and seventy-one, for the appointment of Com- 
missioners to promote and control the exhibition of the national 
resources and their development, and the nation's progress in 
arts which benefit mankind, and to suggest and direct appro- 
priate ceremonies by which the people of the United States 



206 THE ILLUSTRATED UISTOUY 

may commemorate that memorable and decisive event, tbe 
Declaration of American Independence by the Congress of the 
United Colonies, assembled in the city of Philadelphia, on the 
fourth day of July, Anno Domini seventeen hundred and 
seventy-six ; and, whereas, such provisions should be made for 
procuring the funds requisite for the purposes aforesaid, as will 
enable all the people of the United States, who have shared the 
common blessings resulting from national independence, to aid 
in the preparation and conduct of said International Exhibition 
and memorial celebration under the direction of the Commis- 
sioners of the United States : Therefore, 

^'Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Bcpresentaiives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there 
is hereby created a body corporate, to be known by the name 
of the Centennial Board of Finance, and by that name to have 
an incorporate existence until the object for which it is formed 
shall have been accomplished ; and it shall be competent to sue 
and be sued, plead and be impleaded, defend and be defended 
in all courts of law and equity in the United States ; and may 
make and have a corporate seal, and may purchase, take, have, 
and hold, and may grant, sell, and at pleasure dispose of all 
such real and personal estate as may be required in carrying into 
effect the provisions of an act of Congress, entitled Mn act to 
provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of 
American Independence by holding an International Exhibi- 
tion of Arts, Manufactures, and Products of the Soil and Mine, 
in the city of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania, in 
the year eighteen hundred and seventy-six,' approved March 
third, eighteen hundred and seventy-one, and an act supple- 
mentary thereto. 

" Sec. 2. That the said corporation shall have authority, and 
is hereby empowered to secure subscriptions of capital stock to 
an amount not exceeding ten million dollars, to be divided into 
shares of ten dollars each, and to issue to the subscribers of said 
stock certificates therefor under the corporate seal of said cor- 
poration, which certificates shall bear the signature of the Presi- 
dent and Treasurer, and be transferable under such rules and 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



207 



regulations as may be made for the purpose. And it shall be 
lawful for any municipal or other corporate body existing by 
or under the laws of the United States to subscribe and pay for 
shares of said capital stock ; and all holders of said stock shall 
become associates in said corporation, and shall be entitled to 
one vote on each share. 

" Sec. 8. That the Centennial Board of Finance shall have 
authority to issue bonds, not in excess of its capital stock, and 
secure the payment of 
the same, principal 
and interest, by mort- 
gage upon its proper- 
ty and prospective in- 
come. 

"Sec. 9. That it 
shall be the duty of 
the Secretary of the 
Treasury of the United 
States, as soon as prac- 
ticable after the pas- 
sage of this act, to 
cause to be prepared, 
in accordance with a 
design approved by 
the United States Cen- 
tennial Commission 
and the Secretary of 
the Treasury a suffi- ^^^^^^ over wissahickon, near mount airy. 

cient number of certificates of stock to meet the require- 
ments of this act; and any person found guilty of counter- 
feiting, or attempting to counterfeit, or knowingly circulating 
false certificates of stock herein authorized, shall be subject to 
the same pains and penalties as are or may be provided by 
law for counterfeiting United States currency; but nothing 
in this act shall be so construed as to create any liability 
of the United States, direct or indirect, for any debt or ob- 
ligation incurred, nor for any claim by the Centennial Inter-. 




208 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

national Exhibition, or the corporation hereby created, for aid 
or pecuniary assistance from Congress or the treasury of the 
United States, in support or liquidation of any debt or obli- 
gations created by the corporation herein authorized : And 
i:)rovidedy That nothing in this act shall be so construed as to 
override or interfere with the laws of any State; and all con- 
tracts made in any State for the purposes of the Centennial 
International Exhibition shall be subject to the laws thereof: 
And provided farther y That no member of said Centennial lioard 
of Finance assumes any personal liability for any debt or obli- 
gation which may be created or incurred by the corporation 
authorized by this act. 

"Sec. 10. That as soon as practicable after the said Exhi- 
bition shall have been closed, it shall be the duty of said cor- 
poration to convert its property into casli, and, after the pay- 
ment of all its liabilities, to divide its remaining assets among 
its stockholders, pro rata, in full satisfaction and discharge of 
its capital stock." 

Under the above act the Centennial Board of Finance was 
organized, and as now constituted is as follows : 

CENTENNIAL BOARD OF FINANCR 

President — John Welsh, Philadelphia. 

Vice-Presidents— William Sellers, Philadelphia ; John S. Barbour, Vir- 
ginia. 

Secretary and Treasurer — Frederick Fraley. 

Auditor — H. S. Lansing. 

Directors— Samuel L. Felton, Philadelphia ; Daniel M. Fox, Philadelphia ; 
Thomas Cochran, Philadelp'nia ; Clement M. Biddle, Philadelphia ; N. Parker 
Shortridge, Philadelphia ; James M. Eobb, Philadelphia ; Edward T. Steel, 
Philadelphia; John Wanamaker, Philadelphia ; John Price AVetherill, Phila- 
delphia ; Henry Winsor, Philadelphia ; Henry Lewis, Philadelphia ; Amos 
R. Little, Philadelphia ; John Baird, Philadelphia ; Thomas H. Dudley, New 
Jersey; A. S. Hewitt, New York; John Cummings, Massachusetts; John 
Gorham, Rhode Island ; Cliarles W. Cooper, Pennsylvania ; William Bigler, 
Pennsylvania ; Robert M. Patton, Alabama ; J. B. Drake, Illinois ; George 
Bain, Missouri. 

Financial Agent— William Bigler. 

In the organization of the Board of Finance a majority of its 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 209 

members were chosen from Philadelphia in order that, being 
on the ground, they might be able to devote their whole time to 
the work intrusted to them. 

The Board of Finance was authorized by the act of incor- 
poration to issue certificates of stock to the amount of ten mil- 
lion dollars. It was estimated that apart from the subscrip- 
tions of the various States and cities, it would be necessary to 
sell stock to the amount of §3,500,000. The shares were fixed 
by the board at ten dollars each, a sum suited to the means of 
all classes, and calculated to make the subscriptions to the stock 
of the Exhibition popular in character. The holder of each cer- 
tificate is entitled to a share in the profits of the Exhibition. All 
the net income of the six months' display, together with the 
proceeds of the sale of all the available property remaining at 
the close of the Exhibition, will be divided proportionately 
amonrj: the holders of the stock. 

The act of Congress directed the Secretary of the Treasury 
to cause certificates of the stock of the Exhibition to be engraved 
and printed at the treasury of the United States and delivered 
to the Board of Finance. These certificates were duly delivered 
to subscribers to the stock of the Exhibition, and each is to re- 
main forever the property of its holder as a memorial of the 
great enterprise and of the liberality with which the American 
people carried it through to success. The certificate is in all 
respects a beautiful specimen of the highest branch of steel en- 
graving. "The plate is twenty-four by twenty inches, on the 
best bank-note paper. The design is pyramidal, America form- 
ing the apex, with Fame and Art personified sitting at her feet; 
the busts of Washington and Grant on either side, typical of 
the commencement and end of the century. America is repre- 
sented as welcoming the representatives of foreign nations, who 
bear symbols of their national industries and resources. Inde- 
pendence Hall and the National Capitol are in the background. 
Beneath the former stand Fulton and Fitch, with the^'r steam- 
boat models, and under the latter are Franklin and Morse, with 
electric and telegraphic instruments. On the right, facing the 
figure of America, is Howe offering his sewing-machine, also a 
14 



210 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

shipwright with a model of a clipper. Tlie freedman, Conti- 
nental and Federal soldier, and mechanic, form a group on the 
right, and the farmer, planter, miner, trapper and Indian, all 
presenting symbols of their avocations, the group on the left. 
The centre of the base is Trumbull's painting of the 'Signing 
of the Declaration of Independence,' on the right of which is 
exemplified progress — the busy man ufactii ring city in contrast 
with the neglected windmill. To the left of the base is repre- 
sented civilization, combining the railroad, telegraph, steamship 
and reaping-machine, in contrast with the Concstoga wagon, 
mail rider, sailing vessel and laborer with a sickle. The legend 
in the body of the certificate was engraved by a new and inge- 
nious process, the invention of G. W. Casilear, Superintendent 
of tiie Engraving Department of the Treasury, and is most 
creditable, as is also the printing — the department being deter- 
mined to make the work worthy of the nation and the grand 
commemorative occasion. The designs and arrangement are 
due to Messrs. Ferris and Darley, American artiste." 

The efforts of the Board of Finance to dispose of the stock of 
the Exhibition succeeded but slowly at first. The stock had to 
contend in the market with that of a hundred other schemes 
which promised a larger rate of interest and a quicker return. 
Still, it did not go begging. The adjacent State of Xew Jersey 
gave new^ life to the effort by a subscription of $100,000, and 
was followed by subscriptions from Xew Hampshire, Connect- 
icut and Delaware for $10,000 each. The city of Wilmington, 
Delaware, subscribed for $5000, and in a short time a subscrip- 
tion of about $250,000 was made up in the city of New York. 

This did not meet the demand, however, and as it was found 
impossible to carry on tlie work of raising funds through the 
agency of the banks, as was at first proposed, it was decided by 
the Board of Finance to create a Bureau of Revenue, which 
should devote all its energies to the task of raising funds, thus 
leaving the Board of Finance free to attend to its other duties. 
The Bureau of Revenue was, therefore, duly organized on the 
1st of July, 1874, and was constituted as follows : 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBII'IOX. 211 

Clement M. Biddle, Chairman Philadeipliia* 

"William Bigler, Financial Agent Pennsylvania, 

Edmund T. Steel Philadelphia. 

Amos E. Little '' 

John Wanamaker " 

Daniel M. Fox " 

James M. Eobb " 

JohnBaird " 

Thos. H. Dudley New Jersey. 

John Cummings Massachusetts. 

William L. Strong New York. 

George Bain Missouri. 

C. B. Xorton, Secretary, 

The work which was thus intrusted to the Bureau of Revenue 
was important and laborious in the highest degree. The panic 
of 1873 had almost paralyzed the finances of the country, and 
the people had become timid and hesitating in supporting 
schemes of any kind which required an outlay of money. It be- 
came necessary for the Bureau of Revenue to win the confidence 
of the people in the scheme they were asked to assist, as the 
basis of all its operations. It had by this time become evident 
that the various States of the Union could not be depended upon 
to furnish their respective proportions of the funds, and that the 
Exhibition must depend for its success mainly upon private- 
subscriptions. 

The Bureau of Revenue at once set to work. Its efforts to 
popularize the stock of the Exhibition were systematic and well 
directed. How well they have succeeded is shown by the mag- 
nificent sum subscribed by the people of the Union in response 
to their appeals — a sum amounting to nearly three million dol- 
lars. To each member of the bureau is due his share of praise 
for this splendid success, but the credit is chiefly due to the 
able and efficient Secretary, General Charles B. Norton, upon 
whom has devolved the principal portion of the labor of the 
board, and whose wide experience and fertile genius have 
suggested the happiest and most successful methods by which 
this success has been won. 

As a means of facilitating the work in hand, and of securing 
as nearly as possible the exact quota originally assigned to each 



212 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



State by the Board of Finance, auxiliary boards were organized 
by the bureau in States, counties and districts. These were 
composed of volunteers, whose patriotic interest in the Exhibi- 
tion induced them to give their services gratuitously to the 
cause. One of their duties was to select responsible and ener- 
getic men in their respective communities for the sale of stock 
and medals. The plan was eminently successful. 

As a further means of obtaining a revenue, and at the same 
time of providing a permanent, appropriate, inexpensive and 
yet handsome memorial of the Centennial year, the Board of 

Finance obtained the 
passage of an act of 
Congress, approved 
June 16th, 1874, author- 
izing the board to have 
coined at the United 
States Mint at Phila- 
delphia a series of 
Memoria I Medals in 
bronze and gilt, and 
silver. These medals 
were furnished by the 
mint at cost, and were 
sold bv the Bureau of 
Revenue and its agents 
at a fair profit. Persons 
whose means did not permit them to purchase the ten dollar 
certificates of stock were thus enabled by the purchase of one or 
more of these medals to contribute towards the success of the 
great enterprise, and at the same time to possess a beautiful and 
enduring memorial of the Centennial year and Exhibition. 

These " Memorial Medals " are of four descriptions, to bring 
them within the taste and means of all, viz. : In large bronze, at 
$2; large gilt, at $5; small silver, at $3; and small gilt, at $1. 
In addition, the four medals can be had neatly arranged in one 
case, price $11. The fac-simile annexed is of the size of the 
first and second of these, the small silver and gilt being the size 




CENTENNIAL MEDAL — REVERSE. 



OF THE CENTEXXIAL EXHIBITION. 



213 



of the American dollar, with the same obverse design, but 
bearing on the centre of the reverse the inscription : " In Com- 
memoration of the Hundredth Anniversary of American Inde- 
pencjence, 1876," surrounded by the words: "By authority of 
the Congress of the United States." 

The design of the "obverse" on all of the medals represents 
the Genius of American Independence rising from a recumbent 
position, grasping with her right hand the sword which is to 
enforce her demands, and raising her left in appealing pride to 
the galaxy of thirteen stars, which, indicating the original col- 
onies and States, are 
blazino; in the firma- 
ment. Beneath is the 
date, 1776. The "re- 
verse " on the large 
medals displays the 
Genius of Liberty, with 
the now ornamental 
sword buckled to her 
girdle, the shield of the 
stars and stripes leaning 
at rest, while with either 
hand she extends a wel- 
come and a chaplet to 
the Arts and Sciences 
assembled with evi- 
dences of their skill and craft to do honor to the date 1876, 
which is inscribed upon the platform. The history of our great 
nation is depicted in these two designs ; and as a work of art, 
a memento of the Centennial, or as a means of contributing to 
* its celebration, these Memorial Medals should be objects of 
universal appreciation. 

The State of Pennsylvania at an early day came forward to 
the assistance of the Exhibition with an appropriation of 
§1,000,000. This was followed by appropriations by the city 
of Philadelphia araountinor to §1,500,000. Besides these a])- 
propriations, the city of Philadelphia may be regarded as a 




CENTENNIAL MEDAL — OBVERSE. 




214 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



215 



contributor to the success of the Exhibition in the erection of 
the magnificent bridges over the Schuylkill at Callowhill street 
and Girard avenue, at a cost of over $2,500,000; in the various 
improvements it has made in Fairmount Park on account of the 
Exhibition ; and in its splendid donation of the Exhibition 
grounds. Apart from all this, however, the direct appropria- 
tions of the State and 
city, together with the 
subscriptions of private 
individuals to the stock 
of the enterprise, swell 
the contribution o f 
Pennsylvania to the 
Exhibition to more than 
four million dollars — 
fully one-half of the en- 
tire cost of the prepara- 
tion and administration 
of the Exhibition. 

In spite of the clause 
of the act of Congress 
incorporating the Exhi- 
bition, which stipulated 
that the United States 
should not be respon- 
sible for any of the ex- 
penses of the enterprise, 
the Centennial Commis- 
sion, in the spring of 
1874, made an appeal to 
Congress for an appro- 
priation in behalf of the scheme. A bill was introduced in 
the House of Representatives appropriating the sum of three 
million dollars to the Exhibition. It was argued by the friends 
of the scheme that as the United States had by its invitations 
to foreign powers to participate in the Exhibition given to it 
an international character, and had become responsible for its 




MONSTER PINES, .WEST PARK. 



216 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

success, Congress was morally bound to aid the enterprise by 
a liberal appropriation, if for no other reason, for the simple 
purpose of sustaining the credit of the country in the eyes of the 
world. It was also argued that as the single State of Pennsyl- 
vania had voluntarily assumed fully half of the cost of the 
Exhibition, Congress might reasonably be expected to con- 
tribute the sum asked for on account of the nation at large. 
The bill was put upon its final passage on the 6th of May, 
1874, and was defeated by a vote of 139 against it to 90 in its 
favor. The defeat of the bill was owing chiefly to the 
Western States, which cast their votes almost solidly against 
it. The vote of the various sections stood as follows : The 
Eastern States, for the bill, 43 votes; against it, 27 votes; the 
Southeiii States, for the bill, 36 votes; against it, 22 votes; the 
Western States, for the bill, 11 votes; against it, 90 votes. The 
Western vote against the bill thus equalled the combined vote 
in its favor. 

The defeat of the appropriation bill by Congress, instead of 
disheartening the friends of the Exhibition, merely stimulated 
them to fresh exertions. They were resolved that the scheme 
should not fail in their hands. Thanks to the liberal action of 
the Stater of Pennsylvania and the city of Philadelphia, and the 
cordial manner in which the people of the country responded to 
the appeals of the Board of Finance and the Bureau of Revenue 
for aid, the w^ork upon the great Exhibition buildings was 
promptly begun, and steadily carried forward. On the 1st of 
December, 1875, the Board of Finance was able to make the 
following encouraging showing of its work : 

SmiMAKY.OF RECEIPTS. 

Total stock subscriptions, reliable $2,357,750 

In which are included : 

New Jersey $100,000 

Delaware 10,000 

Connecticut 10,000 

Kew Hampshire 10,000 

Wilmington, Del 5,000 

$135^000 

> 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 217 

Gifts, concessions and interest $230,000 

Further receipts from concessions 100,000 

Appropriation by Pennsylvania 1,000,000 

Appropriation by Philadelphia 1,500,000 

Deficiency 1,537,100 

Total cost of preparation to May 10th, 1876 $6,724,850 

EXPENDITURES. 

The expenditures have been as follows : 

Main Building, or Industrial Hall $1,113,793 22 

Memorial Hall 834,218 80 

Machinery Hall 577,637 25 

Horticultural Hall 231,466 60 

Agricultural Hall 26,641 14 

Administration offices 25,787 48 

Boundary fence 8,638 55 

Water supply 35,331 87 

Lansdowne and Belmont bridges 20,821 00 

Judges' Hall 7,047 50 

Grading and drainage 163,801 29 

Railroads 11,166 16 

"Women's Pavilion 6,750 00 

Engineers and architects 53,780 56 

Insurance and police 1,258 55 

Fire Department 2,348 13 

Ceremonials on Fourth of July, 1873 and 1875.. . . 6,003 56 

Advertising and printing 31,043 17 

Expenses of the Centennial Board of Finance 91,456 07 

Expenses of the United States Centennial Com- 
mission 199,027 70 

Medals 9,227 56 

Available means on hand 36/ ,926 03 

$3,824,172 19 

♦Vliich were provided from the following sources : 

Payment on subscriptions to stock $1,852,649 30 

Gifts 58,015 91 

Concessions for privileges 146,050 00 

Interest on deposits 24,374 71 

State of Pennsylvania towards Memorial Hall. . . . 456,890 73 

City of Philadelphia towards Memorial Hall 302,812 24 

City of Philadelphia towards Machinery Hall 490,795 37 

City of Philadelphia towards Horticultural Hall. . 191,082 29 
Percentage retained to secure the fulfilment of 
contracts 301,431 64 

$3,824,172 19 



218 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 

ESTIMATED FUTURE EXPENDITURES. 
Estimate of the sum required for the completion of the 
grounds and buildings up to the 10th of May, 1876, when the 
International Exhibition will be opened. The Memorial, 
Machinery and Horticultural Halls being provided for by the 
State of Pennsylvania and city of Philadelphia, are not 
included : 

For tlie Main Industrial Hall $000,000 

Agricultural Hall 275,000 

Adminiritration offices 20,000 

Judges' Hall 25,000 

Lansdowne and Belmont bridges 60,000 

AVomen's Pavilion 25,000 

Four additional buildings to meet enlarged de- 
mands 190,000 

Grading, draining, metaling roads and walks, 
preparations for gardens, fountains, and other 
ornaments, including gas and additional water 

supply 400,000 

Boiler-house creation and distribution of power, 

shafting, etc • 110,000 

Expenses of the United States Centennial Commis- 
sion, and those of all its bureaus up to May 10th. 400,000 

Expenses of the Board of Finance 40,000 

Retained percentages to be paid on completion of 
contracts, not including those to be paid by the 
State of Pennsylvania and city of Philadelphia. 160,000 

Contingencies : 200,000 

Total requirements up to May 10th, 1876 $2,505,000 

RESOURCES. 

Available means on hand $367,900 

Subscriptions to stock yet to 1)6 paid 500,000 

Probable receipts from concessions : 100,000 

967,900 

Deficiency $1,537,100 

This statement is submitted with confidence that it is as close 

an approximate as can be made. 

John Welsh, 

President Centennial Board of Finance, 
Philadelphia, December 1st, 1875. 




219 



220 THE ILLUSTRATED IILSTOUY 

In the meantime the sales of the stock and medals was car- 
ried on steadily, and it became at length apparent that the 
Exhibition would be financially a success. The work of prep- 
aration was paid ibr by the Board of Finance as it progressed, 
and no heavy and embarrassing debt was allowed to accumulate. 
It was the aim of the managers of the scheme from the first to 
open the doors of the Exhibition jrce from debt, and this pur- 
pose has been steadily adhered to. 

It was found that the Exhibition could not be opened on the 
19th of April, 187(j, the day originally a])pointed, and the 
opening day was changed to the 10th of May. A correspond- 
ing change of the date of closing the Exhibition was also made 
from October 19th to November 10th, 1876. 

The success of the Exhibition being secured, the Congress of 
the United States appropriated the sum of $505,000 to enable 
the general government to erect a building of its own on the 
Exhibition grounds, and to exhibit in it the articles necessary 
for the proper illustration of '^the functions and administrative 
faculties of the government in time of peace and its resources 
as a war power.'' 

Many of the States also made appropriations for the erection 

of State buildings on the Exhibition grounds, and for defraying 

the expenses of their State Boards of Centennial Managers. 

These appropriations amount in the aggregate to over $400.- 

000. The principal were as follows : 

Pennsylvania $50,000 

Massachusetts 50,000 

New York 25,000 

Ohio 13,000 

Nevada 20,000 (gold) 

Illinois 10,000 

Delaware 10,000 

Indiana 10,000 

Michigan 7,500 

West Virginia 20,000 

New Jersey 10,000 

Arkansas 5,000 

Kansas 5^000 

Maryland . .^ 15,000 

Colorado , 4,000 

Arizona 5,000 

Mnnfnnn =; nnn 



CF TUE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. '221 

The foreign powers to whom the invitations of the Govern- 
ment to participate in the Exhibition were addressed, re- 
sponded cordially and favorably, as we have stated. Their 
appropriations for the purpose of defraying the expenses of their 
share of the display were largely in excess of the most sanguine 
expectations of the friends of the enterprise. The appropria- 
tion of Great Britain (including Australia and Canada) was 
§250,000 in gold ; that of France (including Algeria) §120,000 ; 
Germany, §171,000; Austria, §75,000; Italy, §76,000, of 
which §38,000 is from the government, and §38,000 from the 
Chamber of Commerce; Spain, §150,000; Japan, §600,000; 
Sweden, §125,000; Norway, §44,000 ; Ecuador, §10,000 ; and 
the Argentine Confederation, 860,000. Egypt, China, Brazil, 
Chili, Venezuela, Russia, and other nations, have made appro- 
priations for the expenses of their exhibitors, the exact amount 
of which is unknown. In all about forty governments have 
contributed to the expenses of the Exhibition. Their total 
outlay will exceed two million dollars in American money. 
This sum, it should be remembered, is distinct from the eight 
millions and a half, estimated as the pro})er cost of the Exhibi- 
tion. Each government taking part in the Exhibition is repre- 
sented by a board of commissioners appointed by it, and con- 
sisting of a number of its most distinguished citizens. They 
are charged with the management and display of the exhibits 
of their respective countries. 

The success of the Exhibition being now assured, the Centen- 
nial Commission resolved to make a final appeal to Congress for 
aid. Soon after the opening of the session of 1875-76, a bill 
was introduced appropriating one million five hundred thousand 
dollars in aid of the Exhibition. There was a general demand 
from the press and people of the country that the bill should 
]>ass. The Exhibition had been carried so nearly to success by 
private and State subscriptions, that it was felt that the honor 
of the nation required that the general government should 
make up the sum which was still needed to place the Exhibi- 
tion on an assured basis of success. After considerable discus- 
sion, the bill passed both Houses of Congress, and was approved 
by the President on the 16th of February, 1876. 



222 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



The bill required the sum of one million five hundred thou- 
sand dollars to be paid by the Treasurer of the United States to 
the President and Treasurer of the Centennial Board of Finance 




BUILDING OF THE NEW YORK MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE 

COMPANY. 

as follows : one-third immediately after the approval of the act 
by the President, and the remainder in four equal monthly pay- 
ments. Before any portion of the appropriation could be paid 



OF THE CEXTEXXIAL EXHIBITION. . 223 

out of the Federal Treasury, the President and Treasurer of the 
Board of Finance were required to give security for the proper 
use of the money paid them in a bond of five hundred thousand 
dollars. The bond was given on tiie 3d of March, 1876, and 
the sureties affixed to it consisted of the names of one hundred 
prominent citizens of Philadelphia, whose aggregate wealth 
amounted to over $60,000,000. The act of Congress required 
that the general government should be reimbursed out of the 
first profits of the Exhibition, thus placing it in the position of 
a preferred creditor, an act w^orthy of the Forty-fourth Congress. 

The million and a half dollars appropriated by Congress 
placed the Centennial authorities in possession of the full sum 
needed by them to carry out their grand idea of opening the 
Exhibition free from debt. This amount was sufficient, to- 
gether with the sum already obtained from other sources, to 
pay the cost of preparing the grounds, erecting the buildings, 
and making all the necessary preparations for the opening of 
the Exhibition. After the opening of the doors to the public, 
the *^ running expenses'^ were to be defrayed from the daily 
receipts. ♦ 

The third annual report of the Board of Finance, dated 
April 19th, 1876, gave the following gratifying statement: 

"So many agencies are in action, drawing the various parts 
of our preparatory work to a close, that it is impossible to speak 
otlier than approximately of the outlay. We see no reason to 
vary the estimate heretofore made, which was eight million five 
hundred thousand dollars, from the beginning to the final wind- 
ing up. It must be borne in mind that the expenditure incident 
to an Exhibition on so large a scale can, in advance, only be 
given conjecturally. 

" The whole outlay will be provided from the following sources : 

State of Pennsylvania . . $1,000,000 

City of Philadelphia 1,500,000 

Concessions, gifts, and interest 500,000 

Stock subscriptions 2,500,000 

Appropriation by the United States 1,500,000 

$7,000,000 



224 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

"As this shows a deficiency of one raiUion five hundred thou- 
sand dollars, that amount must be supplied from admission lees. 

"Assuming that our present assured means are equal to the 
payment of everything up to the opening, and that for the 
expenses of the Exhibition until the final winding up of its 
afiairs there will be required one million five hundred thousand 
dollars from the receipts for admission fees, then whatever sum 
beyond that shall be realized from admissions, together witli 
the value of the materials after its close, will be applicable to 
the repayment of the capital stock and the United States appro- 
priation ; the interests of the State oi Pennsylvania and the City 
of Philadelphia being represented by their respective buildings, 
the Machinery, Memorial, and Horticultural Halls." 

The item given as concessions in the above report comprises 
the sales by the Board of Finance of the privilege of selling 
various articles upon the grounds of the Exhibition. The total 
sum received for these privileges was 8450,000, and was made 
up as follows : 

Tlie Centennial Catalogue Company, exclusive right of 

printing and selling the Official Catalogue $100,000 

Narrow Gauge Railway 20 000 

French Restaurant g qOq 

German Restaurant g qqq 

Royalty on beer, $3 per barrel, to be collected at the 

gates ; estimated at 5q qqo 

Exclusive right to sell soda water 52 000 

" " cigars and tobacco. 18,000 

'* " pop corn 7.000 

Glass factory for supplying exhibitors 3,000 

Telegraph and messenger service 35 OOO 

Department of Public Comfort 16,150 

Other privileges ,....* 136,850 

$450,000 

The great work was at length completed, and the Centennial 
Exhibition was an accomplished fact. It had been throughout 
a series of triumphs for those encraored in it. The sino-leness of 

CD CD S 

purpose, the systematic energy, and the rapidity with which its 
projectors carried it through to success have no parallel even 



OF THE CENTEN^'IAL EXHIBITION 



225 



in the history of our own enterprising country. It is fitting 
that the enterprise destined to commemorate the great achieve- 
ments of the American people in the arts of peace should be in 
itself one of the most remarkable of those achievements. 

The work on the great buildings was pushed forward steadily 
from the time of its commencement. It was watched with the 
deepest interest by 
thousands who daily 
visited the grounds, 
and even to those who 
beheld its daily pro- 
gress it seemed almost 
incredible that so 
much should have 
been done in so short 
a time. Machinery 
Hall was the first 
completed, and this 
was followed by the 
Main Building, the 
Horticultural, Agri- 
cultural and Memo- 
rial Halls. 

All things being 
in readiness the re- 
ception of articles 
for the Exhibition 
was begun on the 
5th of January, ravine in western park, sweetbriar vale. 
1876. This work 

was greatly facilitated by the co-operation of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company. A line of track was laid from the main 
line of that road into the Exhibition grounds, and was carried 
into each of the principal buildings. By this means the cars 
loaded with the materials for the construction of the buildings 
were enabled to discharge their contents on the exact spot, and 
when the structures were completed the articles intended for 
15 




226 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTOPwY 

exhibition were transported to the proper buildings on the cars 
and unloaded within a few yards of the location assigned to 
them. Goods arriving from abroad were transferred from the 
steamer in which they were originally shipped to the cars along- 
side the vessel, and transported direct to the Exhibition build- 
ings. 

The work of installation was pressed forward with vigor, and 
it was hoped that it would be ended by the time appointed for 
the opening of the Exhibition. So great and so numerous were 
the delays on the part of the exhibitors that the Exhibition, like 
its predecessor at Vienna, was opened before this work was 
completed. The opening ceremonies were held on the 10th of 
^lay, 1876, and will be noticed at length in another chapter. 

The Exhibition being competitive in character, great care was 
given by the Centennial Commission to the preparation of a 
system of awards. At a meeting of the executive committee 
held on the 13th of October, 1875, a report was made with 
reference to this matter and a system of awards finally decided 
upon. We quote the following extract from the report : 

"Awards have generally been made by an international jury 
of six hundred members. The apportionment of jurors to 
countries was tried on various bases, but was usually made on 
the basis of relative space occupied by products of each country 
respectively in the Exhibition. The great jury was divided 
into numerous small juries, who examined the products and 
prepared lists of names of persons whom they proposed for 
awards, and the proposals thus made were confirmed or rejected 
by higher juries. This system brought together, unavoidably, 
many individuals unqualified for the work. The basis of rep- 
resentation was apparently, fair, but its results were delusive. 
The countries nearest the Exhibition occupied the largest space. 
Numerous remote countries filled smaller spaces. The number 
of jurors allotted to the latter body left them in many instances 
without jurors on many classes, and thus in voting on awards 
they had no voice, and the awards were in effect decreed by the 
few contiguous countries. Written reports were not usually 
made by juries, and if made, were not printed, consequently no 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 227 

person outside the jury knew on what ground awards were 
made. Medals, when distributed, were silent verdicts, and 
awards thus made conveyed little useful information. Awards 
were based upon anonymous reports or reports not published, 
and final decisions were recorded in vague and mystic language 
not satisfactory to producers or public. 

*^ The method of awards adopted by the Centennial Commis- 
sion differs from this system. It dispenses with the interna- 
tional jury, and substitutes a body of two hundred judges, one- 
half foreign, chosen individually for high qualifications. It 
dispenses also with the system of awards by graduated medals, 
and requires of the judges written reports on the inherent and 
comparative merits of each product thought worthy of award, 
setting forth its properties and qualities, and presenting the con- 
siderations forming the ground of the award. Each report has 
the signature of its author. The professional judgment and 
moral responsibility of the judges being thus involved, the 
integrity of the reports is assured. The success of this method 
absolutely depends upon the judicious selection of judges, and 
to this point I desire to call particular attention." 

The following is the 

SYSTEM OF AWARDS; 

"1. Awards shall be based upon written reports attested by 
the signatures of their authors. 

" 2. Two hundred judges shall be appointed to make such 
reports, one-half of whom shall be foreigners and one-half 
citizens of the United States. They will be selected for their 
known qualifications and character, and will be experts in 
departments to which they will be respectively assigned. The 
foreign members of this body will be appointed by the commis- 
sion of each country and in conformity with the distribution and 
allotment to each, which will be hereafter announced. The 
judges from the United States will be appointed by the Centen- 
nial Commission. 

" 3. The sum of one thousand dollars will be paid to each 
commissioned judge for personal expenses. 



228 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

"4. Reports and awards shall be based upon merit. The 
elements of merit shall be held to include considerations relatintr 
to originality, invention, discovery, utility, quality, skill, work- 
manship, fitness for the purposes intended, adaptation to public 
wants, economy, and cost. 

" 5. Each report will be delivered to the Centennial Commis- 
sion as soon as completed, for final award and publication. 

"6. Awards will be finally decreed by the United States 
Centennial Commission, in compliance with the act of Congress, 
and will consist of a diploma with a uniform bronze medal and 
a special report of the judges on the subject of the award. 

"7. Each exhibitor will have the right to reproduce and 
publish the report awarded to him, but the United States Cen- 
tennial Commission reserves the right to publish and dispose of 
all reports in the manner it thinks best for public information, 
and also to embody and distribute the imports ^s records of the 
Exhibition. "A. T. GosHORN, Director- General. 

"John L. Campbell, Secretary J* 

The following is the Exhibition Calendar determined upon by 
the Executive Committee : 

Keception of Articles coramencea January 5th. 

Reception of Articles ends April 19th. 

Unoccupied space forfeited April 26th. 

Main Exhibition opens May 10th. 

Grand Ceremonies on Exhibition Grounds, July 4th. 

Trials of Harvesting Machines, June and Julv. 

Trials of Steam-Plows and Tillage Implements, September and October. 

Exhibit of Horses, Mules, and Asses, September 1st to September loth. 

Exhibit of Horned Cattle, September 20th to October 5th. 

Exhibit of Sheep, Swine, Goats and Dogs, October 10th to October 25th. 

Exhibit of Poultry, October 28th to November 10th. 

Main Exhibition closes November 10th. 

Exhibits must be removed by December 31st. 

There will also be a number of celebrations during the year, 
connected with and growing out of the Exhibition. The most 
important are as follows : 

Knights Templar (Masons), Annual Conclave, May 30th. 
Knights Templar (Masons), Grand Parade, June 1st. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



229 



Order of Good Templars, Special Gathering, June ISth. 

International Kegatta (New York Harbor), June 22d. 

Yacht Regatta, Delaware Kiver, in June. 

Sons of Temperance, Special Gathering, June. 

International Series of Cricket Matches, June and September. 

Ck)ngress of Authors in Independence Hall, July 2d. 

Parade of Irish Socieaes (Dedication of Fountain), July 4th. 

Parade of Military Organizations, July 4th. 

United American Mechanics, Parade, July 8th. 

Knights of Pythias, Parade, August 22d. 

International Rowing Regatta, August 20th to September 15th. 

International Rifle Matches, in September. 

International Medical Congress, September 4th. 

Independent Order of Odd-Fellows, Parade, September 20th. 




JOHN WANAMAKER's NEW CIX)TltINO HOUSE — MAKKKT feT. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE MANAGEMENT OF THE EXHIBITION. 

A List of the OflScera of the Centennial Exhibition, and the Commissioners 

from Foreign Countries. 



OFFICERS OF THE UNITED STATES CENTENNIAL COMMISSION. 

President — Joseph R. Hawley, Colonnade Hotel, citj. 

Vice-Presidents -.—Orestes Cleveland, Jersey City, N. J. ; John D. Creigh, 
San Francisco, Cal.; Robert Lowry, Davenport, Iowa; Thomas H. Coldwell, 
Shelby ville, Tennessee; John McNeil, St. Louis, Mo.; William Gurney, 
Charleston, S. C. 

Director-General — Alfred T. Goshorn, Continental Hotel, city. 

Secretary — John L. Campbell, 318 South Broad street, city. 

Assistant Secretaries — Myer Asch, Dorsey Gardener. 

Counsellor and Solicitor — John L. Shoemaker, Esq., 611 Vine st., city. 

Office of the Commission— No. 903 Walnut .street. 

BUREAUS OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Chiefs of Bureaus. 

Foreign — Direction of the foreign representation, A.T. Goshom, Myer Asch. 

Installation — Classification of application for space, allotment for space 
in Main Building, supervision of special structures, Henry Pettit. 

Transportation — Foreign transportation for goods and visitors, transpor- 
tation for goods and visitors in the United States, local transportation, ware- 
housing and customs regulations, Dolphus Torrey. 

Machinery — Superintendence of the Machinery Department and building, 
including allotment of space to exhibitors, John S. Albert. 

Agriculture — Superintendence of the Agricultural Department, building, 
and grounds, including allotment of space to exhibitors, Burnet Landreth. 

Horticulture — Superintendence of Horticultural Department, conserva- 
tory, and grounds, including allotment of space to exhibitors, Charles H. 
Miller. 

Fine Arts — Superintendence of the Fine Art Department and building, 
including allotment of space to exhibitors, John Sartain. 
230 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 231 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Daniel J. Morrell (Johnstown), Pennsylvania, Chairman; Alfred T. Gos- 
horn (Continental Hotel), Ohio; N. M. Beckwith (New York city), New 
York ; Alexander R. Boteler (Shepherdstown), West Virginia ; Richard C. 
McCormick (Washington, D. C), Arizona; John Lynch (New Orleans), 
Louisiana ; Charles P. Kimball (Brewster & Co.), New York city ; Samuel F. 
Phillips (Washington, D. C), North Carolina; George B. Loring (Salem), 
Massachusetts; Frederick L. Matthews (Carlinville), Illinois; William Phipps 
Blake (Philadelphia), Connecticut; James E. Dexter (Washington), Dist. of 
Columbia ; J. T. Bernard (Tallahassee), Florida. 

Myer Asch (Philadelphia), Secretary. 

CENTENNLiL COMMISSION— CEXTENNIAL BOARD OF 

FINANCE. 

President— John Welsli, Philadelphia. 

Vice-Presidents— William Sellers, Philadelphia ; John S. Barbour, Vir- 
ginia. 

Directors— Samuel L. Felton, Philadelphia ; Daniel M. Fox, Philadelphia; 
Thomas Cochran, Philadelphia ; Clement M. Biddle, Philadelphia; N. Parker 
Shortridge, Philadelphia ; James M. Robb, Philadelphia ; Edward T. Steel, 
Philadelphia; John Wanamaker, Philadelphia; John Price Wetherill, Phila- 
delphia; Henry Winsor, Philadelphia; Henry Lewis, Philadelphia; Amos 
R. Little, Philadelphia ; John Baird, Philadelphia ; Thomas H. Dudley, New 
Jersey; A. S. Hewitt, New York; John Cummings, Massachusetts; John 
Gorham, Rhode Island ; Charles W. Cooper, Pennsylvania ; William Bigler, 
Pennsylvania; Robert M. Patton, Alabama; J. B. Drake, Illinois; George 
Bain, Missouri. 

Secretary and Treasurer — Frederick Fraley, Philadelphia. 

Financial Agent — Hon. William Bigler. 

Chief Bureau of Revenue — General C. B. Norton. 

Auditor — H. S. Lansing. 

Engineers and Architects — Henry Pettit, Joseph M. Wilson, H. J. 
Schwarzmann. 

OFFICERS OF THE WOMEN'S CENTENNIAL EXECUTIVE 

COMMITTEE. 

Mrs. E. D. Gillespie, President; Mrs. John Sanders, Vice-President; Mrs. 
Frank M. Etting, Secretary ; Mrs. S. A. Irwin, Treasurer. 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BOARD. 

War Department, Ordnance Bureau — Col. S. C. Lyford, Chairman. 
Treasury Department — Hon. R. W. Taylor, First Controller of the 
Treasury. 




232 



SCENE NEAR TYRONE, ON THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION, 233 

Navy Department — Admiral Thornton A. Jenkins. 

Interior Department— Hon. John Eaton, Commissioner of Education. 

Post-Oefice Department — Dr. Charles F. McDonald, Chief Money- 
Order Department. 

Agricultural Department ^ William Saunders, Superintendent of 
Propagating Department. 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

Prof. S. F. Baird, Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and 
United States Fishery Commission ; William A. DeCaindry, Secretary. 

BUILDING COMMITTEE. 

Thomas Cochran, Chairman ; John Baird, Clement M. Biddle, William 
Sellers, Samuel M. Felton, James M. Robb. 

TELEGRAPHIC DIRECTOR, W. J. Phillips. 
DIRECTOR FIRE DEPARTMENT, Atwood Smith. 
CHIEF BUREAU OF AWARDS, Dr. C. J. Stills. 

COMMITTEE ON CONCESSIONS. 

John Price Wetherill, Chairman ; N. Parker Shortridge, Henry Winsor. 
CHIEF BUREAU OF ADMISSIONS, David G. Yates. 

FOREIGN COMMISSIONS ACCREDITED TO THE INTERNA- 
TIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1876. 

Argentine Republic — Carlos Carranza, President, New York ; Edward 
Shippen, Vice-President, Philadelphia; Ed w. T. Davison, Treasurer, Consul 
General, New York ; Diego de Castro, Secretary, New York ; Deputy Member, 
E. Mara Davison. 

Central Committee — Ernesto Oldendorf, President, Buenos Ayres ; Eduardo 
Olivera, Buenos Ayres; Onesirao Leguizamon, Buenos Ayres; Diego de la 
Fuente, Buenos Ayres ; Lino Palcois, Buenos Ayres ; Ricardo Newton, Buenos 
Ayres ; Leonardo Pereyra, Buenos Ayres ; Jose M. Jurafdo, Buenos Ayres ; 
Emilio Duportal, Buenos Ayres; Julio Victorica, Secretary, Buenos Ayres. 

Austria — Rudolf Isbary, Vice-President of tlie Chamber of Commerce, 
President, Vienna; Franz Ritter von Liebig, member of the Cliamber of Com- 
merce, First Vice-President, Reichenberg; Micliael Matscheko, Manufac- 
turer, Second Vice-President. Members: Eugene Felix, President of the 
Society of Arts ; Edward Kanitz, member of the Chamber of Commerce ; Karl 
von Oberleitner, member of the Chamber of Commerce, Olmutz ; Otto von 
Bauer, member of the Chamber of Commerce, Brunn ; Ernst von Pontzen, 
Engineer ; Dr. Emil Hornig, Counsellor ; Dr. F. Migerka, Imperial and Royal 
Counsellor; Theo. A. Havemeyer, Austro-Hungarian Consul-General, New 
York. 



23-t THE ILLUSTRATED HISTOEY 

Africa — Oeange Fbee State — Charles W. KQey, Consul-General, 
Pliiladelphia. 

Belgium — Baron Gustave de Woelmont, Senator, President, Brussels; 
Alexander Robert, Historical Painter, member of the Belgium Academy of 
Fine Arts, Letters and Sciences, Vice-President, Brussels ; Ch. de Smet-de Smet, 
Manufacturer, President of the Industrial and Commercial Society, Vice-Presi- 
dent, Ghent; I. Clerfeyt, Chief of Bureau, Ministry of the Interior, Secretary 
of the Upper-Consul of Industry and Commerce, late Secretary of the Belgian 
Commission and Juries of the International Exhibition of Paris, London, and 
Vienna, Secretary, Brussels ; Alfred Ancion, Manufacturer of Arms, Liege ; 
A. J. Belpaier, Inspector-General of Railways and Telegraphs; L. de Curte, 
Architect, member of the Royal Commission of Monuments, and Council for the 
Improvement of the Arts of Design, Brussels; Felix Duhayon, Lace Manu- 
facturer, Judge of the Tribunal of Commerce, and member of the Chamber of 
Commerce, Brussels; E. Duisberg, Director of the Paper Manufactories of 
Messrs. Godin & Co., at Huy, member of the Chamber of Commerce, Liege; 
Jos. Fayn, Mining Engineer, Consul of the Netherlands, Liege ; P. F. Ghys- 
Bruneel, Lace Manufacturer, Gramraont; Jules Havenith, Ship-Owner, Counsel 
of Austria, Hungary, Antwerp ; J. Kindt, Inspector-General of Industry, Minis- 
try of the Interior ; Eugene Meeus, Manufacturer, member of the Chamber of 
Representatives, Antwerp ; Alph. Morel, Director of the Glass Works, Lodelin- 
sart, Charleroi ; Henri Morel, Flax Manufacturer, Gand ; Remy Paquot, 
Director of the Company of Bleyberg-es-Montzen, Verviers ; Edm. Piirmentier, 
Manufacturer, Brussels; Ferdinand Pauwels, Historical Painter, Antwerp; 
Aug. Ronnberg, Director-General of Agriculture and Manufactures, Ministry 
of the Interior; E. Sadbine, Director-General of Works, Seraing-lez-Liege ; 
Jules Sauveur, Director-General of Public Instruction, Ministry of the Interior ; 
E. E. A. Schaar, Chief Engineer, Director of the Arsenal and Railways of the 
State, Malines ; Alfred Simonis, Cloth Manufacturer, member of the Chamber 
of Representatives, Verviers. 

Resident Commissioners in Philadelphia — Count d'Oultremont, Director-Gen- 
eral; Mr. J. Van Bree, Chief of Fine Art Department; Mr. J. Gody, Ministry 
of Public Works ; Mr. J. Beco, Engineer, Brussels. 

Brazil — His Highness Gaston d' Orleans, Conde d' Eu, Marshal of the 
Army, President; Viscount de Jaguary, First Vice-President; Viscount de 
Bonn-Retiro, Second Vice-President ; his Excellency A. P. de Carvalho Borges, 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of his Majesty the Em- 
peror of Brazil, Washington, D. C. ; Viscount de Souza Franco Joaquin An- 
tonio de Azevedo. 

Chili — Mr. Rafael Lorrain, Mr. !\faximiano Errazuriz, Mr. Tgnacio Dom- 
eyko, Mr. Armando Philippi, Mr. Francisco Solano Asta-Buruaga, Mr. Euge- 
nio Figuerad, Mr. Lamo Barros, Edward Shippen, Esq., Philadelphia, Joseph 
P. Root, Esq., Francisco Gonzalez, Esq., J. Patterson Burd, Esq., Secretary and 
Treasurer, Philadelphia. 

China — Edward B. Drew, Commissioner of Customs, Chefoo ; Gustave Diet- 
ring, Commissioners of Customs, Ningpo ; Charles Hannen, J. L. Hammond, 
Commissioner of Customs, Swatou. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 235 

Denmark — Jacob Holmblad, Manufacturer, President ; Olaf Hansen, U. S. 
Vice-Consul, Vice-President ; Job Hansen, Austrian Consul-General, Treasurer ; 
C. C. ^urmeister. Manufacturer ; V. Christesen, Manufacturer ; V. Fieldskon ; 
Sculptor ; Charles Hansen, Manufacturer ; William Hammer, Artist ; Thomas 
Schmidt, New York ; Th. Green, Secretary. 

Ecuador — Edward Shippen, Esq., Consul, President, Philadelphia ; Gabriel 
Obarrio, New York ; J. J. Ribon, New York ; J. M. Munoz, New York ; J. R. 
de la Espriella, New York. 

Egypt — His Highness Prince Mohammed Tawfic Pacha, President, Cairo; 
His Excellency Cherif Pacha, Minister of Commerce, Vice-President, Cairo ; 
H. Brugsch Bey, Commissioner-General, Cairo. Commissioners — General 
Stone, Cairo ; M. Mahmoud Bey, Astronomer, Cairo ; M. Mariette Bey, Director 
of the Museums of Antiquities, Cairo ; M. Gastinel Bey, Professor in the Medical 
School, Cairo; M. Rogers, Director in the Ministry of Public Instruction, 
Cairo ; M. Acton, Chief of Division, Ministry of Commerce, Cairo ; M. Baudry, 
Architect, Cairo ; M. Delchevalerie, Attache, Cairo. 

Resident Members in Philadelphia — H. Brugsch Bey, Cairo, Commissioner- 
General ; Brugsch, Cairo, Chief of Transportation and Installation ; Behmert, 
Attache, Cairo, Secretary; Edward Elias, Cairo, Secretary and Interpreter; 
M. Danninos, Attache, Cairo. 

France — M. M. Ozenne, Counsellor of State, Secretary-General of the 
Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, Commissioner-General of International 
. Exhibitions; Du Somraerard, Director of the Museums of Thermes and Cluny, 
Commissioner-General of International Exhibitions. 

Committee — Organized under the Presidency of the Minister of Agriculture and 
Commerce — M. Duclerc, Vice-President of the National Assembly, member of 
the Committee on International Exhibition?; Marquis de Tulhouet, Deputy ; 
Baron de Soubeyran, Deputy ; Mr. Wolowski, Deputy ; ^larquis de Lafayette, 
Deputy ; M. Bonnet, Deputy ; M. Flotard, Deputy ; M. Laboulaye, Deputy ; M. 
Dietz-Monin, Deputy; M. Count de Bouille, Deputy ; Viscount d'Haussonville, 
Deputy ; M. De Chabrol, Deputy ; M. Jullien, Deputy ; the Secretary-General 
of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, the Director-General of Customs, 
the Director of the Academy of Fine Arts, the Director of Consulates and 
Commercial Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs ; M. Outrey, Minister 
Plenipotentiary ; M. Du Sommerard, Director of the Museum of Thermes and 
31uny, the As^sistant Director of Foreign Commerce, the President of the Paris 
Chamber of Commerce; M. Guillaume, member of the Institute; Marquis de 
Rochambeau, Baron Alphonse de Rothschild, M. Sieber, M. Mame (Alfred), 
M. Laveissiere (Jules), Dealer in Metals; M. Roulleaux Dugage, Secretary; 
M. de Fallois, late Chief of Bureau, Ministry of Public Works, Assistant 
Secretary. Pesident Commissioners — Mr. de Laforrest, Consul-General of 
France, Commissioner-General, New York ; Mr. Ravin d'Elpeux, Vice-Consul, 
Philadelphia ; Capt. Anfrye, Military Attache, French Legation, Washington. 

German Empire — Dr. Jacobi, Royal Prussian Actual Privy-superior Gov- 
ernment Counsellor and Ministerial Director, President ; Dr. Stuve, Royal Prus- 
sian Privy-Government Counsellor and Counsellor in the Ministry of Commerce ; 
Dr. Wedding, Royal Prussian Counsellor of Mines ; Mr. Reither, Royal Bava- 



236 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

rian Counsellor of Legation ; Mr. Von Nostitz-Wallwitz, Royal Saxon Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary ; Baron Von Spitzeraberg, Royal 
Wurtemburg Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary ; Dr. Neid- 
hardt, Grand Ducal Hessian Ministerial Counsellor; Mr. Kauffmann, Royal 
Prussian Counsellor of Commerce ; Dr. Kruger, Hanseatic Minister Resident; 
Mr. Von Holloben, Royal Prussian Superior Tribunal Counsellor ; Mr. Nieber- 
ding, Counsellor in the Office of the Chancellor of the Empire; Baron Von 
Zedlitz, Royal Prussian Provincial Counsellor. Resident Commissioners — 
John D. Lankenau, Esq., Pliiladelphia; Charles H. Meyer, Esq., Consul, 
Philadelphia; Gustavus Remak, Esq., Philadelphia; Dr. Fred. Voick, Baltimore. 

Great Britain and Colonies — His Grace the Duke of Richmond, K. G., 
Lord-President of the Council. Joint Execuiivi Commissioners — Col. Herbert 
Sandford, R. A., Professor Thomas C. Archer, F. R. S. E., A.J. R. Trendell, Esq., 
Secretary, Philadelphia. Superintendents — T. A. Wright, Industrial Depart- 
ment ; John Anderson, LL. D., Machinery Department ; B. T. Brandreth Gibbs, 
Agricultural and Horticultural Departments; J. M. Jopling, Fine Art Depart- 
ment; J. H. Cundall, Engineer, Philadelphia. Clerical Assistants — Hugh 
Willoughby Sweny, Ernest Charrington, Philadelphia ; Ernest E. Cooper, Phila- 
delphia ; John M. Brett, Philadelphia. 

Canada— Senator-Luc Letellier de St. Just, Minister of* Agriculture, Presi- 
dent, Ottawa. Honorary Commissioners — Hon. Adam Crooks, Provincial 
Treasurer, Ontario; Hon. P. A. Garneau, Minister of Agriculture, Quebec; 
Hon. P. Carteret Hill, Provincial Secretary, New Brunswick ; Hon. J. J. Eraser, 
Provincial Secretary, New Brunswick ; Hon. L. C. Owen, Attorney-General, 
Prince Edwards Island ; Hon. W. J. Armstrong, Minister of Agriculture, British 
Columbia ; Hon. Mr. Nolin, Minister of Agriculture, Manitoba. Executive Com' 
missioners — Hon. E. G. Penny, Senator, Montreal, Quebec; Hon. R. D. AVilmot, 
Senator, Sanbury, New Brunswick ; D. Macdougall, Esq., Berlin, Ontario ; J. 
Perrault, Esq., Secretary, Ottawa. 

New South Wales — His Honor Sir James Martin Knight, Chief Justice, 
President ; Hon. John Hay, President of the Legislative Council, Vice-President; 
Hon. George Wigram Allen, Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, Vice-Presi- 
dent ; Hon. Sir Edward Deas Thomson, C. B., K. C. M. G., M. L. C, Vice- 
President. Comynissioners — The Rev. Charles Badham, D. D., Samuel Bennett, 
Esq., James Byrnes, Esq., R. W. Cameron, Esq., The Hon. G. H. Cox, M. L. C, 
J. R. Fairfax, Esq., Andrew Garran, Esq., LL. D., Hon. S. D. Gordon, M. L C, 
Henry Halloran, Esq., Edw. S. Hill, Esq., Hon. Thomas Hoet, M. L. C, P. A. 
Jennings, Esq., G. W. Lord, Esq., M. P., Hon. Sir William Macarthur, Knight, 
M. L. C, William Macleay, Esq., F. L. S., T. S. Mort, Esq., Benjamin Palmer, 
Esq., Mayor of Sidney ; Commander Thomas Stackhouse, R. N., Alexander 
Stuart, Esq., M. P., George Thornton, Esq., J. P., William Wallis, Esq., James 
Watson, Esq., M. P., Hon. J. B. Watt, M. L. C, Fitz William Wentworth, Esq., 
J. H. Williams, Esq., John Williams, Esq., W. C. Windeyer, Esq., Robert 
Wisdom, Esq., M. P., John Woods, Esq., W^illiam Wolfen, Esq., Charles 
sRobinson, Esq., Secretary. 

Victoria — Sir Redmond Barry, Acting Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 
President ; Hon. J. J. Casey, M. P., Hon. J. F. Sullivan, M. P., Hon. C. J. Jenner, 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 237 

M. L. C, James Munro, Esq., J. Mcllwraith, Esq., L. J. Sherrard, Esq., Count 
de Castelnau, Hon. S. H. Bindon, James Bosisto, Esq., M. P., James Gatehouse, 
Esq., Mayor of Melbourne ; J. I. Bleasdale, D. D., Hon. Sir John O'Shanassy, 
K. C. M. G., Hon. Sir James McCulloeh, M. P., Hon. John Alexander Mac- 
pherson, M. P., Hon. John Thomas Smith, M. P., Leslie James Sherrard, Esq., 
John Danks, Esq., George Collins Levey, Esq., Secretary. 

South Australia (Adelaide) — His Excellency, A. Musgrave, Esq., C. M. G., 
Cliairman ; Hon. AV. Everard, Commissioner of Crown Lands ; Hon. H. E. Bright, 
M. L. C, J. P., Commissioner of Public Works ; Hon. John Crozier, M. L. C, J. P., 
Hon. Wentwood Cavanagh, Esq., M. P., J. P., Hon. Josiah Boothly, Esq., J. P., 
Hon. E. W. Andrews, Esq., J. P., Hon. S. Davenport, Esq., J. P., Hon. Joseph 
Crompton, Esq., J. P., Hon. George McEwan, Esq., J. P., Dr. Schomburg, D. P., 
J. P., Caleb Peacock, Esq., J. P., E. D. Ro.=^.s, Esq., M. P., J. P., E. S. Smith, 
Esq., M. P., J. P., Walter Hackel, Esq., I. A. Holden, Esq., J. P., S. V. Pozey, 
Esq., C. J. Coates, Esq., F. G. Waterhouse, Esq., C. I. Coates, Honorary Secretary. 

Cape of Good Hope — Mr. C. Crawford Coate.s, Executive Commissioner 
and Agent, Philadelphia. 

Greece — Dr. Botassis, Special Representative, Consul-General, New York. 

Guatemala and Salvador — His Excellency Don Yincente Dardon, 
Minister Plenipotentiary, Wa.shington, D. C. 

Honduras— Governor Don Francisco Bardales, General Don E. de Salignac, 
Don Jose Maria Fiallos, Don Juan Ramon Yalenzuela. JResident Commissioners — ■' 
Don Yincente Dardon, Minister Plenipotentiary, Washington, D. C. ; T. 
Ansoatigin, Consul, New York. 

Italy — H. E. Baron Blanc, Minister Plenipotentiary, Washington, D. C. ; 
Count B. Litta, First Secretary of Legation, Washington, D. C. ; M. Angelo 
Gianelli, Agent, Philadelphia. 

Japanese Empire — His Excellency Okubo Toshimichi, Minister of the 
Interior and Privy Counsellor, President; His Excellency Lieutenant-General 
Saigo Yorimichi, Imperial Army, Yice-President ; Mr. Kawase Hideharu, 
Yice-President Bureau of Agriculture and Industry, Commissioner-General •, 
Mr. Tanaka Yoehio, Minister of the Interior ; Mr. Sekizawa Akekio, Bureau 
of Industry; Mr. Yamataka Nobuakira, Bureau of Industry; Mr. Shioda 
Masashi, Bureau of Industry ; Mr. Ishihara Toyoyasu, Bureau of Industry ; 
Mr. Ishida Tametake, Bureau of Industry ; ^Mr. Yamao Tsunetaro, Bureau of 
industry ; Mr. Kubo Hiromichi, Minister of the Interior; Mr. Notomi Skejiro, 
Bureau of Industry ; Mr. Shibata Hircshi, Bureau of Industry; Mr. Makiyama 
Kolie, Bureau of Industry ; Mr. Ishii Yoshitaka, Bureau of Industry ; Mr. 
Asahi Nobori, Ministry of the Interior ; Mr. Kawara Noritachi, Bureau of 
Industry; Mr. Sasashe Motoakira, Bureau of Industry; Mr. Takeda, Bureau 
of Agriculture and Industry ; Mr. Sugiyama Katsunari, Bureau of Agriculture 
and Industry; Mr. Hitaka Giro, Lieutenant Imperial Army ; Mr. Omori Ichiu, 
Bureau of Agriculture and Industry ; Mr. Asami Tadatsune, Bureau of Agri- 
culture and Indu.stry ; Mr. Fukui Mokoto, Bureau of Agriculture and Industry ; 
Mr. Fritz Cunlifie Owen, Attache, Philadelphia. 

Liberia — J. S. Payne, Esq., Monrovia; Edward 8. Morris, Esq., Consul, 
Philadelphia. 



238 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Mexico — Mr. Romero Rubio, President, city of Mexico; Ramon y Alcaraz, 
city of Mexico ; Gabriel Mancera, city of Mexico ; Rafael Martinez de la 
Torre, city of Mexico ; Julio Zarate, city of Mexico ; Antonio del Castillo, city 
of Mexico ; Sebastian Camacho, city of Mexico ; Eduardo E. Zarate, Secretary, 
city of Mexico. Special Commissioner, Mr. E. Avila, Washington, D. C. 

Netherlands — Dr. E. H. von Baumhauer, Honorary Professor, Secretary 
of the Dutch Society of Sciences, Director of the Society for the Advancement 
of Industry in the Netherlands, President, Haarlem ; F. de Casembroot, Rear 
Admiral Aid-de-camp in Extraordinary Service to His Majesty the King of 
the Netherlands, and Member of the States General, Second Chamber, Tlie 
Hague; A. H. Eigeman, Industrial President of the Society of Dutch Indus- 
trials, Leiden ; P. Harsten, Chairman of the Amsterdam Board of Commerce, 
Amsterdam ; J. E. Van Heemskerck Van Beest, Dutch Royal Navy, The 
Hague; Dr. W. T. A. Jonckbloet, President of the Committee of Superin- 
tendence of the Academy of Imitative Arts, Amsterdam ; D. Van der Kel- 
len, Jr., Member of the Administration Society Arti et Amicituz, Amsterdam ; 
L. C. Van Kerkwyk, Pensioned Lieutenant-Colonel Corps of Engineering, 
Member of the Council of Administration of the Royal Institution of En- 
gineers, The Hague; M. M. de Monchy, President of the Board of Commerce, 
Rotterdam; Dr. J. Th. Mouton, Vice President of the Society to Promote 
Manufactures and Trade- Industry in the Netherlands, The Hague; C. T. Van 
der Oudermeulen, President of the Dutch Society of Agriculture, The Hague ; 
Baron AV. G. Brantsen van de Zyp, LL. D,, Lord in Waiting to His Majesty 
the King of the Netherlands, Arnheim ; Dr. M. W. C. Gori, Doctor of Medi- 
cine, late Medical Officer of the Netherlands Army, Ophthalmic Surgeon, 
Amsterdam; R. C. Burlage, Consul-General of the Netherlands, New York; 
L. Westergaard, Consul of the Netherlands, Philadelphia ; C. Muysken, Civil 
Engineer, Secretary, Haarlem. 

Norway— Herman Baars, Bergen; William C. Christopherson, Buenos 
Ayres; Gerhard Gade, United States Consul, Christiania. 

Peru— Jose Carlos Tracy, President, New York ; Frederick L. Barreda, 
Edward Villena, Charles Nasy. 

Russia— Privy Councillor Butoffsky, President; Privy Councillor Kobeko, 
Director; Councillor of State Yermakof, Vice- Director of the Department of 
Commerce and Manufactures; Councillor of State Vijshnegradsky, Director 
of the Technological Institute; Councillor of State, Beilsky, Special Official 
Department of Commerce and Manufactures, Commissioner-General; Coun- 
cillor of State Podobiedof, Director of Section Department of Commerce and 
Manufactures ; Councillor of State Ilin, Professor in the Technological Insti- 
tute; Councillor of State Behr, Special' Official, Ministry of Finance; Coun- 
cillor of the College Timiriazef, Director of Section Department of Commerce 
and Manufactures. 

Sandwich Islands— Hon. S. G. Wilder, Minister of the Interior, Honolulu; 
Hon. J. U. Kawainui ; Elisha H. Allen, Jr., New York. 

SiAM — J. H. Chandler, Commissioner, Bangkok. 

Spain — Colonel Lopez Fabra, Royal Commissioner-General ; Don Joaquin 
Oliver, Secretary ; Don Alvarado de la Gandara, Director of the Industrial 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 239 

Department ; Count del Donadio, Director of the Department of Fine Arts ; 
Don Jose Jordana y Morera, Director of the Agricultural Department. Chiefs 
of Bureaus — Don Enrique Brotons, Don Alfredo Escobar, Don Enriqiie Borrell. 
CJiiefs of Installation — Don Bernardo Forzano, Don Francisco Foranzo, Don 
Francisco Parody, Interpreter; Don Juan Morphy, Consul General of Spain, 
Member of the Commission ; Don Julian A. Principe, Vice-Consul, Attache; 
Don jSIiguel Gonzales, Attaclife ; Don Jose Fonrodona, Attache. 

Sweden— P. A. Bergstrom, late Minister of Interior, President Board of 
Domains, President, Stockholm ; C. O. Troilius, Director-General of Govern- 
ment Kailways, Vice-President, Stockholm ; F. L. von Dardel, Director- 
General Board of Public Buildings, Stockholm ; Ch. Dickson, M.D., Goteborg ; 
Baron A. H. E. Fock, Chief of Board of Controls, Stockholm ; Professor F. W. 
Scholander, Academy of Fine Arts, Stockholm; C. F. Lundstrom, Manufac- 
turer, Stockholm; N. H. Elfving, Consul-General, Stockholm; S. Stenberg, 
Professor Carolinian Medico-Chirurgical Institution, Stockholm ; A. R Acker- 
man, Professor of School of Mines, Stockholm ; J. Bolinder, Manufacturer, 
Stockholm ; J. Lenning, Manufacturer, Norrkoping ; C. L. Lundstrom, Manu- 
facturer, Goteborg; Ch. G. Breilholtz, Colonel of Artillery, Stockholm; K. 
Peyron, Captain in the Navy, Chamberlain, Stockholm; E. AVidraark, Chief 
of the Board of Public Education, Stockholm ; H. "NVidcgren, Superintendent 
of Fisheries, Stockholm ; P. E. Sidenbladh, Secretary of the Central Board 
of Statistics, Stockholm; Y. Norman, Captain of Engineers, Secretary, Stock- 
holm ; E. Brusewitz, Engineer, Mining and Metallurgy. 

Resident Commissioners in Philadelphia— C. Juhlin Dannfelt, Commissioner- 
General, Stockholm ; L. Westergaard, Consul, Assistant Commissioner, Phila- 
delphia ; Dr. J. Ph. Lindahl, Secretary, Lund ; M, Issens, Architect, Stock- 
holm ; W. Hoflfstedt, Engineer, Stockholm; A. E. Jacobi, Engineer, Stock- 
holm. 

Special Commissioners — C. J. Meijerberg, Superintendent of Primary Schools, 
Educational Department, Stockholm ; G. W. Bergman, Captain of Artillery, 
Army Department, Stockholm ; Baron O. Hermelin, Fine Art Department, 
Stockholm. 

Switzerland — Colonel H. Rieter, Commissary-General, "Winterthur; Dr. 
Emile Schumacher, Assistant Commissioner ; N. I. Andersson, Professor Royal 
Academy of Science, Educational Department ; Arnold Steinmann, Secretary 
of Commerce, Zurich ; Dr. Adolph Hirsoh, Director of the Observatory, Neuf- 
chatel; Colonel Siegfried, Chief of the Federal Topographical Bureau, Berne; 
Dr. Frederic de Tochndi, St. Gall; Mr. Edward Guyer, Secretary-General, 
Zurich ; Mr. John Icely, Engineer, Basle; Mr. Rud. Koradi, Consul, Resident 
Commissioner, Philadelphia. 

Tunis — His Excellency Sidi Heussein, General of Division, Minister of 
Instruction and Public Works, President. 

Turkey — His Excellency G. d'Aristarchi, Minister Plenipotentiary, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Venezuela — Mr. Leon de la Cova, Consul, 218J Walnut street, Philadel- 
phia , Dr. Adolphus Ernst, Professor University at Caracas. 



CHAPTER VII. 

GETTING TO THE EXHIBITION — ACCOMMODATIONS FOR 

VISITOPtS. 

Rush of Visitors to Philadelphia — Arrangements for Transportation of Visitors 
by the Railroads of the United States — Settlement of the Question of Fares — 
Arrangements of the Railroads leading into Philadelphia — How to reach 
the Exhibition Grounds from the city — The Pennsylvania Railroad — Mag- 
nificent equipment of the Road — The Model Railroad of the Union — 
Arrangements of the Pliihidelphia & Reading Railroad— The Schuylkill 
Steamboats — The Street Railway arrangements — Cabs and Carriages — Reg- 
ulations concerning them— The Philadelphia Hotels— Their Capacity for 
accommodating Guests — The Centennial Lodging-House Agency — Boarding 
Houses — Suburban Hotels — Circular of the Centennial Commission with 
reference to Accommodations for Visitors. 

IT HE opening of the Centennial Exhibition has naturally 
drawn thousands of visitors to Pliiladelphia. As thou- 
sands are yet to come, it will be both interesting and 
useful to glance for a moment at the means provided 
by the various railroad lines of the country for reaching 
Philadelphia, at the means of reaching the Exhibition grounds 
from the city, and at the arrangements that have been made 
for accommodating the vast throng of strangers who will 
crowd the city of Philadelphia during the continuance of the 
Exhibition. 

The arrangements for. transporting visitors from the various 
parts of the country to Philadelphia are admirable. The bulk 
of the passenger traffic is controlled by the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, the most perfect organization of its kind in this country. 
By its main line visitors are brought from all parts of the West, 
and are set down at the Exhibition doors. By its New 
Jersey Division visitors from New York and the Eastern State? 
are brought to the same spot. This company has granted the 
240 .* . 




THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 241 

use of the new depot it has erected opposite the Exhibition 
grounds to the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Rail- 
road, by which visitors from South and Southwest may reach 
the Exhibition. The Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Com- 
pany have erected a new passenger station within the limits 
of the Park,, at the foot of the hill on which Memorial Hall 
stands. Passengers from central Pennsylvania and the AVest 
can reach the Exhibition gates by this road, without loss of 
time. 

The officials of all the railroads terminating in Philadelphia 
were busy for months preparing for the increased amount of 
travel which the Exhibition w^ould draw to that citv. Their 
tracks were overhauled and put in order ; new cars were built ; 
and every arrangement made by which the comfort and safety 
of large bodies of travellers could be secured. By the arrange- 
ments now in force 145,000 visitors can be transported daily 
from the various points of the Union to Philadelphia. 

A few months before the opening of the Exhibition a meeting 
of the General Ticket Agents of the great trunk lines between 
Philadelphia and the West was held at Louisville, Kentucky, 
to consider the question of fares. Nearly every principal road 
in the Union was represented, one hundred agents being in 
attendance. They agreed upon a rate which may be generall" 
stated as follows : 

To New York. Phila. Phi la. via N. Y. 

Reduction. Reduction. Increase. 

From Detroit » . .25 p. c $1 §1 

" Toledo 25 p. c 1 1 

" Cleveland 25 p. c 1 1 

" Crestline 25 p. c 1 1 

" Columbus 25 p. c 1 1 

" Cincinnati 25 p. c 1 1 

The round-trip tickets to New York from the above places 
may be sold at points west thereof, and east of Omaha, and at 
competitive points south of the Ohio river, at a reduction of 25 
per cent, from convention rates ; to Philadelphia at $1 less than 
round-trip rates to New York ; to Philadelphia via New York 
at $1 more ; and from territory east of those points the basis of 
16 




SCENE AT ALLEGRIPPAS, PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 



242 



THE CENTENNIAL. EXHIBITION. 243 

reduced rates aud limit for round-trip tickets is to be fixed by 
trunk lines, and from competitive points between trunk lines in 
said territory the rate to Philadelphia via New York is to be 
two dollars less than rates to Philadelphia by direct or short 
line. 

Fares from the principal points in the East have been 
reduced twenty-five per cent, for the round trip. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad, in order to accommodate the 
enormous traffic between that city and Philadelphia, will 
run on the New York aud Philadelphia branch, during the 
continuance of the Exhibition, two regular excursion trains 
daily, in addition to the usual express and mail trains; and 
will also sell round-trip tickets good for all trains, except "the 
limited express,'' at reduced rates. Tickets, good only for the 
day of issue, will be sold at $4 for the round trip ; tickets good 
for fifteen days at $5. The first daily Centennial excursion train 
is second-class, and leaves New York at 5.25 in the morning, 
arriving at the Exhibition grounds at 9.30 A. M. Second-class 
round-trip tickets for this train cost $3. Third-class tickets 
will also be issued for this train, the round trip costing $2. 
Third-class passengers will be supplied with box cars provided 
with hard seats, and will not have an opportunity to start on 
the return trip until after 7 P. m. They will thus have nine 
hours of daylight for the Exhibition. The first-class excursion 
train, to which will be attached second-class cars, will leave 
New York daily, at 6.25 A. M., arriving at the Exhibition 
grounds daily at 9.30, the returning time being an hour less 
than that of the second-class excursion train. First-class round 
tickets, good only on the day of issue, will be ^4; second-class 
tickets, $3. Half-rate excursion tickets are to be sold for chil- 
dren between the ages of five and twelve years. 

The new line from New York to Philadelphia, by way of the 
North Pennsylvania and New Jersey Central roads, will not 
run excursion trains, but round trip tickets will be sold, good 
for one day at $4 ; good for fifteen days at $5. This road does 
not extend to the Centennial grounds, but passengers by it can 
connect with the cheap trains of the Pennsylvania road between 



244 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Kensington and the Exhibition. The connection is made at the 
North Penn junction on the Pennsylvania Raih'oad. 

The Philadelphia, Wihiiington & Baltimore Railroad will 
run an excursion train from Baltimore daily during the Exhibi- 
tion. The train will leave Baltimore at 6 o'clock A. M., and 
will arrive at the Pennsylvania Railroad depot opposite the 
Exhibition gates at 9.30. Returning, it will leave the Penn- 
sylvania depot at 6.55 P. M., and will reach Baltimore about 
10.30 P. M., giving visitors an entire day at the Exhibition. 
The round trip fare by this train will be $4. By the regular 
trains round trip tickets good for two days will be $5. 

The Philadelphia & Reading Railroad will also run several 
daily excursion trains from Reading, Allentown, Bethlehem, 
and other points on the main line at reduced rates. 

Thus it will be seen that there is ample accommodation for 
all who choose to visit Philadelphia during the Exhibition. 

The most interesting question to the stranger in Philadelphia 
is how to reach the Exhibition grounds. From what follows 
it will be seen that the transportation facilities are fully equal 
to any demand that may be made upon them. 

The Exhibition buildini^s are located on the west bank of the 
Schuylkill, about two and a half miles from the centre of the 
city. The Schuylkill is crossed by ten bridges, all of which 
can be used as approaches to the Centennial grounds. Four of 
these are used exclusively by steam railroads, a fifth by a steam 
railroad and horse vehicles, and the remaining five by horse 
vehicles and pedestrians. 

The Pennsylvania Hailroad will run excursion trains from 
the Kensington depot as follows : 

PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 

Centennial Accommodation Trains. 

On Wednesday, May 10th, and thereafter, trains will be run from Kensington 
to tlie Centennial Depot, as follows : 

Leave Kensington at 6, 6.25, 7, 7.30, 8, 8.30, 9.05, 9.30, 10, 10.45, and 
11.55 A. M., and at 12.30, 1, 1.35, 2, 5.40, 6.10 and 6.40 p. m. 

Leave Germantown Junction at 6.23, 6.48, 7.23, 7.53, 8.23, 8.53, 9.28, 9.53, 
10.23, 11.08 A. M., and 12.18, 12.53, 1.23, 1.58, 2.23, 6 and 7 p. m. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 245 

Arrive Centennial Depot at 6.35, 7, 7.35, 8.05, 8.35, 9.05, 9.40, 10.05, 10.35 
and 11.20 A. m., and 12.30, 1.05, 1.35, 2.10, 2.35, 6.10, 6.40 and 7.10 p. m. 

Returning, leave Centennial Depot at 6.45, 7.45, 8, 8.15, 8.45, 9.15, 10, 10.30 
A. M., and 12 m., and 12.30, 1.15, 4.50, 5.20, 5.50, 6.20, 6.50 and 7.4C p. m. 

These trains stop at Frankford road and Ridge avenue. 

Fare for single trip, 15 cents ; round trip, 25 cents. Cliildren between the 
ages of five and twelve, single trip, 10 cents; round trip, 15 cents. 

Tickets sold at Kensington, Germantown Junction, and at Centennial Depot. 
Conductors sell tickets from stations where there are no agents. Exchange 
tickets sold on street cars at 20 cents ; children, 15 cents, good in either direc- 
tion on Centennial trains. 

The same road will also run excursion trains from tlic south- 
ern part of the city, leaving Washington street wharf, and 
stopping at Broad street, the United States Arsenal, and AA^est 
Philadelphia, as follows : 

PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 

WasJiington Avenue Centennial Accommodation Trains. 

On .and after Wednesday, May 10th, trains will run from Washington street 
wharf to the Centennial Depot as follows: 

Leave Washington street wharf at 8, 8.30, 9, 9.30, 10, 10.30 A. M., and 12 M., 
and 1, 1.30, 2, 3, 3.30 p. m. 

Trains stop at Broad street, United States Arsenal and West Philadelphia. 

Returning, leave Centennial Depot at 8.55, 9.25, 9.55, 10.25, 10.55, 11.25 
A. M., and at 12.55, 1.55, 4.30, 4.55, 5.25, 5.55, 6.30 and 7 p. M. 

Rates of Fare : Single trip, 15 cents ; round trip, 25 cents. Children between 
five and twelve years, single trip, 10 cents ; round trip, 15 cents. Exchange 
tickets are sold on street cars, full rate, 20 cents; half rate, 15 cents, good in 
cither direction on Centennial trains. Tickets between "Washington platform, 
West Philadelphia and Centennial Depot, 7 cents, or ten tickets for fifty cents. 
Tickets are sold at all stopping-places of trains. Five cents additional to above 
rates charged when fare is paid on the cars. 

The extraordinary arrangements made by the Penns^^lvania 
Railroad for transporting passengers from all parts of the Union 
to Philadelphia will warrant a brief reference to this great 
"American institution," at this point. It was begun in 1846 
and completed in 1854. " It was," says Mr. Sipes, in his inter- 
esting account of the road, "constructed in a superior manner, 
and with the improvements since made, is undoubtedly the most 
perfect road in America. Notwithstanding it had to overcome 



246 THE JJ.LUSTRATED HISTORY. 

the great Allegheny mountains, a barrier which for a quarter 
of a century had been considered insurmountable by a railroad 
without inclined planes, yet it was carried across by engineering 
skill wilh a facility really astonishing. The road commences a 
gradual ascent at Harrisburg, where it is 310 feet above tide, 
and rises regularly. At Lewistown it is 480 feet above tide ; at 
Huntingdon it has ascended to 610 feet; at Tyrone it has 
climbed to an altitude of 886 feet; and at Altoona, where it 
reaches the base of the mountain proper, it is at an elevation of 
1168 feet. Up to this point the heaviest gradient per mile has 
not exceeded twenty-one feet. From a short distance west of 
Altoona this gradient is increased to ninety-five feet per mile 
on straight lines, and eighty-two feet per mile on curves. Thus 
ascending, it reaches its culminating point at the west end of the 
great tunnel, where its altitude above tide is 2161 feet. Its 
maximum gradient is twenty-one feet per mile less than the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and is equalled by several rail- 
roads in the New England States. The highest gradient' west 
of the tunnel is fifty-two and eight-tenths feet per mile, and the 
average gradient on that end is twenty-six and four-tenths feet 
per mile. At Johnstown the elevation above tide is 1184 feet; 
at Greensburg it is 1091 feet; and at Pittsburgh it is 748 feet, 
beino- 438 feet higher at its western terminus than at Harris- 
burg, where it commences to overcome the barrier presented by 
the mountains.'' 

The Pennsylvania Railroad extends from Philadelphia to 
Pittsburgh, with a number of branches, giving it a total mileage 
of 888 miles. By the purchase of the New Jersey, Camden & 
Amboy, and Philadelphia & Erie Railroads, an additional mile- 
age of 763 miles was gained, making the total number of miles 
owned and operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad, 1651, and 
giving it outlets at New York and upon Lake Erie. A number 
of branches or feeders had been acquired west of Pittsburgh, by 
lease and purchase, extending the line of the road to Chicago, 
St. Louis, Cincinnati, and Louisville. In order to simplify and 
render more efficient the management of these western connec% 
tions, a charter was procured '^rom the Legislature of Pennsyl^ 




ft 
< 
o 

A 

< 

P3 



>< 

> 

p 
o 



247 



248 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

vania incorporating the "Pennsylvania Company," to which all 
the interests of the Pennsylvania Railroad west of" Pittsburgh 
\vere transferred on the 1st of March, 1871. The Pennsylvania 
Railroad retained a controlling interest in the new company. 
The total number of miles of road owned and controlled bv the 
''Pennsylvania Company " is 1715. .The Pennsylvania Rail- 
road has also a controlling interest in the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati 
& St. Louis Railroad, better known as "The Panhandle 
Route," which with its connections embraces a total of 1150 
miles, and in the St. I^ouis, Vandalia, Terre Haute & Indian- 
apolis Railroad, with a mileage of 238 miles. Thus the total 
number of miles of railroad owned, operated, or controlled by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company is GG15. It will be seen 
from this showing that the Pennsylvania Railroad Company is 
the largest and most ])owcrful corporation in the world. 

The main line of the Pennsylvania road is in all respects the 
most s]>lendid piece of railroad engineering in America. The 
road-bed is perfect and the track is laid with a solidity and 
care that render a high rate of speed compatible with safety. 
The discipline is of the most rigid and thorough character, and 
a faithful performance of duty is exacted from ev^ery employd. 
The rolling stock is mainly constructed at the company's shops 
at Altoona. The passenger trains are supplied with the " West- 
inghouse Air-brake," and are lighted with gas. The cars are 
handsome and are luxuriously upholstered. The sleeping and 
parlor cars are of the Pullman class, and "Pullman Hotel 
Cars," in which meals are furnished passengers while the train 
is in motion, have recently been placed on the line. Tiie 
"AVharton Patent Switch" is used on the entire line, and 
furnishes a perfect guard against accidents from misplaced 
switches. 

"Another improvement in use upon the road is the Trade 
Tank, which enables a locomotive to supply itself with water 
while the train is in motion. This is an English invention, 
and in practice here is found to work satisfactorily. Hereto- 
fore much .time has been lost by the frequent stoppages neces- 
sary to fill the water-tank ; and, in consequence, express trains 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



249 



had to acquire an extremely high rate of speed between stations 
to make up for this loss. As now arranged, but two stoppages 
are necessary between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh — at Harris- 
burg, after a run of one hundred and five miles, and at Al- 
toona, after a run of one hundred and thirty-two miles, leaving 
a run of one hundred and seventeen miles to Pittsburgh.^' 

The tank is a trough of wood laid in the centre of the track, 
and is about eighteen inches in width and six inches in depth, 
with an inclined plane at each end from the bottom to the top 




TRACK TANK, PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 



of the tank. It is filled with clear water. As the locomotive 
reaches the first end of the tank, a pipe is let down which slides 
down the inclined plane into the trough. The momentum of 
the train forces the water through this pipe up into the reser- 
voir of the tender. As the end of the tank is reached the 
pipe slides up the incline, and is caught up in its place in the 
tender. 

The great number of fast trains which pass over the main 



250 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

line and the New Jersey Division daily have induced the com- 
pany, as an additional measure of safety, to adopt the system 
of Block Signals. As this system will be of the deepest in- 
terest to the thousands who will this year owe their safety 
to it, we present an account of it as conducted on the New 
York Division, merely adding that the system is the same 
on the main line. "The whole line is divided into sections 
of two or three miles in length, and each subdivision is sup- 
plied with telegraph operators and signal men on constant 
duty. At the commencement of each section is placed a frame 
or apparatus for displaying signal-targets or lights, and by 
these the engineers are guided with perfect safety, when other- 
wise it would be necessary to intrust the lives of the travelling 
public to the probabilities of all trains being on time, or all 
conductors knowing the full extent of their duty. The manner 
in which these signals are classified and read is exceedingly 
simple. When the section is entirely clear,'a white light or 
target is shown ; but when the train enters a section — or 
' block,' as it is termed — a red one is displayed, and this indi- 
cates that no other train can follow until the white color shows 
that the division is again clear. Presuming that a train has 
just entered a 'block,' and the red light debars all others from 
immediately following, let us in imagination whirl along with 
the moving cars and note the next movement. Only a few 
moments are required to pass over the block, and as the white 
light at the next section is displayed the iron horse speeds 
rapidly on from the first division to the second. The instant 
it passes the line the fact is telegraphed back to the commence- 
ment of the block, the red light is superseded by the white, and 
the next train dashes in. Before the rear train has cleared the 
first block the first engine has passed into the third section, 
and, as the telegraph says and the white light indicates that the 
second block is again clear, the rear train can speed along into 
the second without danger. Thus section after section is occu- 
pied by train after train, and as they dash onward there is a 
constant pulsation of intelligence all along the line between the 
two cities, of which the passengers on the trains are totally 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 251 

unconscious. They do not realize, as they sweep on with the 
speed of the wind, that their every movement is recorded by 
the finger of electricity, shooting back and forth with the 
velocity of light. Should any delay occur the trains would be 
obliged to stop on whatever block they happened to occupy, 
and, as every subdivision of the road belongs to the train -which 
is in it at the time, there can be no possibility of collisions or 
danger from trains in the rear. When the obstruction is re- 
moved the delayed engine passes on, the telegraph notes the 
fact, white lights take the place of red, and again all are whirl- 
ing along to their destination. Besides the numerous passenger 
trains, there is a great number of freight trains constantly in 
motion. These have to make their way along as best they can, 
being careful to keep always out of the way of passenger trains. 
Knowing just what time they can make, and also when the 
passenger trains are due at any point, the conductors and 
engineers always manage to make some convenient side-track 
in time to escape collision. When a freight train is running 
on any block or section, a green signal is shown, which indi- 
cates that succeeding trains may follow with caution. If the 
next train carries passengers, it is the business of the freight to 
get out of the way; if it is also a freight train, it will probably 
not overtake its predecessor. Some of the principal side-tracks 
have telegraph stations at both ends, so that no time need bt 
lost by the train hands. There are probably more than fifty 
telegraph offices scattered along the ninety miles of road. The 
arrangements usually work so perfectly that it is seldom neces- 
sary for any train to halt before entering a block. Signal 
follows signal in quick succession along the line, indicating 
perfect safety upon the crowded highway. At the superin- 
tendent's office, in Jersey City, a large chart is kept, on wliich 
is marked a record of the progress of each train upon the road 
as recorded by telegraph. The officers are thus able to see the 
position of affairs at all times. A train cannot be a minute 
behind at any station without the fact being instantly known at 
head-quarters. It will be seen from this that not only are all 
the eno;ineers and conductors in constant cosrnizance of th^ 



252 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

movement of the trains both ahead and behind them, but their 
own position can be determined at a glance by those to whom 
they are directly responsible. When, in addition to all these 
precautions, it is remembered that, us a general thing, con- 
ductors and engineers are intelligent and experienced men, 
some adequate idea can be gained of the marvellous progress 



BLOCK SIGNAL STATION, PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 

recently made in the management of the great railroads of the 
country." 

The scenery on the main line of the Pennsylvania road ha3 
long been famous for its beauty. The road is in all respects 
the ''Model Railroad of America,'^ and as such will constitute 
one of the greatest objects of interest to visitors to the Ex- 
hibition. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 253 

Thft PhUadelphia d- Reading Railroad constitutes one of 
the main lines from the city to the Exhibition grounds. Its 
trains start daily from its three depots as follows ; 

PHILADELPHIA AND BEADING RAILEOAD. 
JSteam Trains to and from Centennial Exhibition daily, commencing May 7 th, 1876. 

Leave Broad and Callowhill every fifteen minutes, from S a. m. to 7.45 p. m. 

Leave Nintli and Green every fifteen minutes, from 8 A. M. to 7.3U p. m. 

Leave Riclimond street every tliirty minutes, from 8.10 a.m. to 7.10 p.m. 

Trains will leave Centennial Station at similar intervals. 

Broad street trains stop at Eighteenth street, Twenty-third street and Brown 
rstreet. 

Ninth street trains stop at Girard and Columbia avenues. 

Eichmond trains stop at Trenton Crossing, Frankford road, Kensington 
avenue, Second street, Tioga street, Nicetown. 

Single fare, 15 cents. Package tickets, five for 50 cents. Exchange tickets 
^ith street car lines, 15 cents. 

A line of steamboats has been established on the Schuylkill 
between the landing at old Fairmount and the Exhibition 
-grounds. The boats run at intervals often minutes during the 
day, and land passengers at the foot of the hill below the Hor- 
ticultural building. A broad plank walk has been constructed 
from the river to the entrance to the grounds. The fare is ten 
■cents each Avay, or fifteen cents for the round trip. This is one 
of the pleasantest routes to the Exliibition. 

The Street Railroads. — The street railway system of Phila- 
delphia is admitted to be the most perfect in the world. All 
the prominent lines have extended their tracks to the entrances 
to the Exhibition grounds on Elm avenue, and transport pas- 
sengers thither from the various parts of the city. A well- 
devised system of tracks has been laid on Elm and Belmont 
avenues, by which all crowding is prevented, and the cars arrive 
and depart w^ithout confusion. It is estimated that three hun- 
dred cars per hour may arrive and depart from this point. The 
various street car lines transported on the day of the opening of 
the Exhibition over 200,000 people without an accident. The 
rates of fare are as follows: Single fares, seven cents; four 
tickets, twenty-five cents, these tickets being good on all the 



254 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

city roads; children under ten years, four cents; exchange 
tickets, nine cents. 

Exchange tickets are sold by all the conductors (except those 
of the Union and Ridge avenue lines) ; so that a person going 
north or south can exchange with a car going east or west (or 
vice versa) and thereby avoid paying two full fares. All roads 
having branch lines give transfer tickets or ^' passes ^^ without 
additional charge. 

Nisrht cars are run on tfie Chestnut and Walnut streets, Tenth 
and Eleventh streets. Thirteenth and Fifteenth streets and 
Union lines after midnight. The Market street line also run 
cars from the West Philadelphia depot upon the arrival of 
trains after midnight. The fare is ten cents, and no exchange 
tickets are sold or received on the night cars. 

Lines of omnibuses, hacks and other vehicles have been 
established between the city and the Centennial grounds. The 
following is the city ordinance relating to the rates of fare : 

The rates of fare, except when otherwise expressly agreed 
upon before starting, are to be as follows : 

For carrying one passenger any distance not exceeding one 
mile, the sum of seventy-five cents; two passengers, one dollar 
and twenty-five cents; and for every additional passenger, 
twenty-five cents. 

For conveying one passenger any distance more than a mile, 
and not exceeding two miles, one dollar and a quarter; two 
passengers, one dollar and seventy-five cents, and for every 
additional passenger, twenty-five cents. 

For carrying a passenger any distance over two miles, for any 
additional mile or part of a mile, the sum of fifty cents in ad- 
dition to the fare for the first two miles, and for every additional 
passenger, fifty cents. 

For the use of a carriage by the hour, with one or two pas- 
sengers, for the purpose of going from place to place, and 
stopping as often as may be required, one dollar and a half per 
hour, and for each additional passenger, twenty-five cents. 

Where the hirinsr of a hacknev-carria2:e or carria2:es is not at 
the time specified to be by the hour, it shall be deemed to be by 



OF THE CE^'TENKIAL EXHIBITION. 255 

the mile ; but in case the distance shall be more than four miles, 
the rate to be charged for each additional mile shall be fifteen 
cents for each passenger, as herein provided. A mile shall be 
taken and construed to mean twelve blocks of one hundred 
numbers on numbered streets. 

Whenever any hackney-carriage or carriages, not engaged by 
the hour, shall be detained by the passenger or passengers, the 
owner or owners, or driver, shall be allowed at the rate of 
5eventy-five cents per hour, in addition to the rates hereby 
established. 

For children between five and fourteen years of age half price 
is only to be charged, and for children under five years of age 
no charge is to be made, if not more than one such child to two 
adults. 

Every driver, or owner or owners, of a hackney-carriage shall 
carry, transport, and convey in and upon his carriage, in addi- 
tion to the person or persons therein, one trunk, valise, saddle- 
bag, carpet-bag, portmanteau, or box, not exceeding one hun- 
dred pounds in weight, if requested to do so, without charge or 
compensation therefor; but for every additional trunk, or other 
articles above enumerated, shall be entitled to demand and re- 
ceive ten cents. 

It is further provided, that on a card to be conspicuously 
placed in each carriage must be printed in English, French, 
Spanish and German, the above rules, the registered number of 
the coach, and also the name and residence of the o^vner. In 
section eighth of the ordinance it is provided, that if any owner 
or driver of a coach shall demand or receive any greater sum 
than he or they may be legally entitled, all claim for compensa- 
tion shall be forfeited. 

The Exhibition Transfer Company run a line of fifty or sixty 
handsome coaches from the depots and principal hotels to the 
main entrance to the Exhibition. Fare fifty cents. 

The Hamilton Omnibus Company run also about fifty vehicles 
from the principal points in the city to the Exhibition grounds. 
Fare fifty cents. It is estimated that the Transfer and Omnibus 



256 



THE ILT.USTRATED HISTORY 



companies and the hacks, cabs and coupes can transport about 
60,000 people daily. 

Thus it will be seen that the facilities for transporting visitors 
at moderate rates from any point in the city to the Exhibition 
gates are equal to any demand that may be made upon them. 




BRYN MAWR STATION, PENNSYIiVANIA RAILROAD. 

With regard to the accommodations for visitors in Phila- 
delphia, the most ample arrangements hav^e been made. At 
least 150,000 visitors can be provided with comfortable quar- 
ters in Philadelphia, at moderate rates. The following is a list 



OF THE CEXTE^'XIAL EXHIBITION. 257 

of the liotels of Philadelphia, with their locations, capacity for 
accommodating visitors, and the prices announced by their 
proprietors : 

Niini' or tliat Terms 
Hotel. Location. Nr.niLer <::i le.a-ctiu- per 

o: rouuis. iiiuiii.ii d. daj'. 

Continental 9th and Chestnut sts 500.... Io0(' $4.50 

Girard House 9th and Chestnut sts .... 400 ..1500 3.50 

Colonnade.....' ....T5th and Chestnut sts.... 314 500 3.50-5.00 

Trans-Continental Elm and Belmont avs 500 1200 5,00 

Globe Elm and Belmont avs... .1000 4000 5.00 

La Pierre Broad near Chestnut st. 130 325 3.50-5.00' 

St. Cloud Arch ab. 7th st 165 350 3.00 

United States 42d and Columbia av. ... 325 600 4.00 

Hotel Aubrey 33d and Walnut sts 400 3000 European 

Atlas Elm av. op. Machinery 

Hall 1500 3000 1.00-3 00 

Grand Exposition Girard & Lancaster avs.. 1325 4000 European 

Masonic Hall Chestnut ab. 7th st 1000 3.00 

St. Stephens' Cliestnut ab. 10th st 118 350... 3.50-5.00 

Bingham 11th and Market sts 150 400 3.50 

Merchants' Fourth bel. Arch st 300 850 3.00 

Washington Chestnut ab. 7th st 200 450 3.00-3.50 

American Chestnut ab. 5th st 300 600 3.00 

St. Elmo 317 and 319 Arch st 225 500 2^0-3.00 

Merchants' House 413 N. 3d st 90 300 European 

Mansion House 621 Arch st 100 .. 300.... 3.00-3.50 

Irving House 915 Walnut st 140.. 200 3.00-5.00 

Central Avenue 831 Market st 125 300.-.. European 

Alleghany 814 Market st 150 300.. 2.00-3.00 

St. Denis 13th and Walnut sts 100.. 1.50-2.50 

Arch Street House 1 Arch st.... 75 200 2.50-3.00 

^Montgomery Cth and Willow sts 75 150 2.50 

Ridgway House 1 Market st 150 250 2.00-3.00 

Revere House 923 Chestnut st 125 200 2.00-3.00 

Commercial 826 Market st 150 300 2.00-2.50 

Clarendon 8th bel. Chestnut st 50 150 1.00-2.00 

Red Lion 472 2d st 125 250 2.00-2.50 

Keystone Broad st. opposite New 

Masonic Temple 50 100 European 

St. George Broad and Walnut sts... 1:5 300 5.00 

Petry's X. W. cor. Broad and 

Walnut sts 60 European 

West End Chestnut ab. 16th st 90 ISO " 

Guy's 7th and Chestnut sts .... 60 150 " 

Marble Terrace 23d and Chestnut 15 50 " 

Eagle 227 N. 3d st 400 600 2.50 

Bald Eagle 416 N. 3d st 75 175 1.75-2.25 

Barley Sheaf 257 N. 2d st 125 1.75-2.00 

Philip Hohl's Hotel Callowhill st. bel. 5th 300 European 

17 



258 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Number that Terms 
Hotel. Location. Number can he accom- per 

of rooms, modated. day. 

Penn Manor 8th & Spring Garden sts. 80 300 2.50 

Sorrel Horse 268 N. 4th st 35 150 

Smedley House 1227 Filbert st 50 150 2.50 

White Bear 5th and llace sts 35 80 

White Horse 316 N. 3d st 10 20 1.75-2.50 

National House 1404 S. Penn Square 10 30 1.50 

Howard House 2001 Chestnut st 20 50 1.75-2.50 

Johnson's Hotel 1115 Market st 150 1.75-2.5U 

Germania 2330 Market st 150 

Mercantile 23 S. 10th st 100 European 

New Market .1619 Market st 54 150 

William Peuii 3S17 Market st 83 150 

Pennsylvania Farmers'....346 N 3d st 60 150 1.75-2.50 

Lincoln House 319 N. 4th st 15 40 1.75-2.50 

London 15 and 17 Darby road..,. 33 100 European 

Zeiss' Hotel 820 Walnut st 7U 150 

Markoe House 919 Chestnut st 50 150 1.50-4.00 

Allen House 1220 Market st 100 

Black Bear 425 N. 3d st 63 .. 150 2.00 

Black Horse 352 N. 3d st 100 300 2.00 

Bull's Head 1205 Market st 200 

Binder's Hotel 312 Pace st 60 125....' 

Columbia House lllN.Broadst 48 150 2.50 

Clinton House 1608 Eidge av 45... 175 2.00-3.00 

Davis' Hotel 6 and 8 S. Delaware av. 50 200 2.00 

Union Hotel 13l4Archst 100 3.50 

Fairmount Avenue Hotel.701 N. 4th st 

Tiger 327 Vine st 50 160 2.00 

The coaches of the Exhibition Transfer Company run 
between each of the above-named hotels and the Exhibition 
grounds. 

In addition to the hotels, Philadelphia is provided with 
numerous boarding-houses, in which thousands will find com- 
fortable and cheap accommodations. The Centennial Lodging- 
house Agency {Limited), of Philadelphia, has been organized to 
provide visitors with a ready and expeditious means of securing 
board in the city. Arrangements have been made by this 
company with the various boarding-houses of the city to fur- 
nish accommodations at a fixed rate. The agency will have 
tickets on sale at all the leading railroad offices of the country, 
securing the purchaser comfortable accommodations at Phila- 
delphia. Upon reaching the city the purchaser will be met on 



OP THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 259 

i)Oiird the train by the agents of the company, who will give 

the necessary information as to the location of the lodgings and 

the best means of reaching them, and will attend to the delivery 

of baggage. The office of the agency is at 1010 Walnut street. 

In addition to the hotels and boarding-houses of the citv, the 

vicinity of Philadelphia contains numerous suburban hotels and 

summer resorts, situated on the main lines leadinoj direct to the 

Exhibition grounds. These offer a delightful place of abode 

to summer visitors, and will furnish accommodations at from 

.$3.50 to §5 per day, with fair discounts to weekly and monthly 

boarders. 

SUBUEBAN HOTELS. 

Pennsylvania Railroad, 

Capacity. 

Bryn Mawr Hotel, Bryn Mawr 250 

Baum's House, Ardmore 75 

White Hall Hotel, Bryn Mawr 80 

Summit Grove House, Bryn Mawr 80 

Old Buck House, Bryn Mawr 40 

Corbin House, Bryn Mawr 25 

Brookfield House, Bryn Mawr 20 

ShallioU House, Bryn Mawr 15 

Bullock House, Bryn Mawr , 25 \ 

Carr's Boarding-house, Eosemont 50 

Harnian's Boarding-house, Eosemont 40 

Arthur's Boarding-house, Eosemont 25 

Warner's Boarding-house, Eosemont 15 

Eachns' Boarding-house, Eosemont 25 

McKee's Boarding-house, Villa Nova 7 

Deal's Boarding-house, Villa IsTova 5 

Marsh's Boarding-house, W^ayne 12 

Garrett's Boarding-house, Wayne 35 

Zeiss' Boarding-house, Wayne 15 

Jones' Boarding-house, Overbrook 10 

Maxwell's Boarding-house, Overbrook 15 

Smith's Boarding-house, Overbrook 25 

Duffield's Boarding-house, Merion 7 

Wild Wood Boarding-house, Elm 10 

Wayne Hotel, Elm 30 

Ardmore Hotel, Ardmore 30 

Morgan's House, Ardmore 8 

Wildgoss House, Haverford College 20 

Eagle Hotel, Eagle 20 



260 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

SUBURBAN HOTELS, PENNSYLVANIA K. B.—Conlinued. Capacity. 

Eagle Boarding-house, Eagle 50 

Bockwood House, Eagle 12 

Wild's House, Eagle. 10 , 

Cleaver's House, Keeseville 35 

Leeds' House, Eeeseville ^ 10 

Stetson's House, Eeeseville 20 

Jjobb's House, Keeseville 40 

Paoli Hotel, Pjioli 12 

Eavenson's House, Paoli 20 

Coates' House, Paoli 12 

Thompson's House, Paoli 25 

Ogden's House, Paoli 15 

Beale's House, Green Tree 25 

Thomas' House, Malvern 12 

Williams' House, Malvern 10 

Dunwoody House, Glen Loch 50 

Stone's House, Glen Loch 15 

Doan's House, Glen Loch 20 

Barry's House, Glen Loch 15 

Oakland Hotel, Oakland 40 

Lionville Hotel, Lionville 20 

Lionville Boarding-house, Lionville 10 

Pennsylvania Railroad Hotel, Downingtown 50 

Hines' House 20 

Roberts' House, Downingtown 12 

• Total 1170 

West Chester Railroad. 

Capacity. 

Swarthmore College, Swarthmore 350 

White Horse, Moore's station 25 

Lamb Hotel, near Clifton station 50 

Cherry-Tree House, Baltimore turnpike 25 

Wallingford station, West Chester 40 

Heckley's House, Media 150 

Total 640 

North Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Capacity. 

Old York Road Hotel (York road station) 25 

Lady Washington (York road station) 20 

Eagle (York road station) 22 

Sorrel Horse (York road station) 20 

Eagle, Jenkintown 25 



OF THE CE2sTE2s"2fIAL EXHIBITIOX, 261 

SUBURBAN HOTELS, NORTH PENN. R. Ti.-Ci,iiiinued. Capacity. 

Union, Jenkintown 20 

Welden House, Abington , 25 

Montgomery House, Abington 25 

Eagle House, Abington 25 

Fitzwater House, Edgehill 25 

Jarrettown House, Edgehill 25 

Fort Washington House iqq 

Clifton House, Fort Washington 5q 

Ambler Park Hotel qq 

William Penn Hotel, Gwynedd 100 

Franklinville Hotel, Gwynedd 5q 

Lukens' Hotel, North Wales 35 

Philadelphia Hotel, North Wales. 50 

Central Hotel, Nx)rth Wales. 50 

Junction Hotel, Lansdale SO 

American Hotel, Lansdale 30 

Sackett Hotel, Lansdale 3q 

Kulpsville Hotel, Lansdale 30 

Hatfield Hotel, Hatfield 25 

Franconiaville Hotel, Hatfield 25 

Sender's Hotel, Souder's 20 

Franconia Square, Sender's, 25 

County Line Hotel, Telford 20 

Telford Hotel, Telford , \\ * * 22 

Washington Hotel, Sellersville 25 

Sellersville Hotel, Sellersville 25 

White Horse Hotel, Sellersville 25 

Bridgetown Hotel, Sellersville. 20 

Perkasie Hotel, Perkasie 20 

Bush House, Quakertown "^q 

Bed Lion, Quakertown 5q 

Eagle Hotel, Coopersburg ^ 

Baldwin Hotel, Coopersburg. 35 

Total ^^ 

Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad. 

Capacity. 

Eidley Park Hotel 15q 

Paschalville Hotel 75 

Drove Yard Hotel, near Darby IOq 

Blue Bell Hotel, near Darby 30 

Crum Lynn Hotel 75 



Total. 



430 



262 THE II.LUSTKATED HISTORY 

In addition to the arrangements already made, or being per- 
fected, by our city and suburban landlords for the reception 
and proper entertainment of the expected throng, the country 
for miles around is awakening to the importance of assisting 
as far as possible in making the Centennial a success by con- 
tributing to the welfare and comfort of those who may over- 
run our built-up limits and overflow the surrounding region. 
Within a radius of sixty miles from Philadelphia 75,000 per- 
sons can be comfortably lodged, housed and fed at the almost 
numberless rural homes on the several lines of railway entering 
the park from all directions. The facilities afforded by these 
lines will permit visitors to enjoy the delights of a summer 
residence in the most beautiful portions of the Chester and 
Lancaster valleys, and yet be within easy reach of the Cen- 
tennial grounds, to which they can be conveyed in almost as 
short a space of time as from the heart of the city. The fame of 
such charming country-side resorts as Bryn Mawr, Ridley Park, 
Media, West Chester, Chester, Haddonfield, Beverly, Burling- 
ton, Norristown, etc., etc., and their elegant and spacious hotels, 
is known to every Philadelphian, and is suggestive of good fare, 
prompt and polite attendance, pleasant company and a hearty 
desire on the part of the whilom host to make his guests feel 
perfectly at home. 

The Centennial Commission, at their recent session, in order 
to put an end to the reports of insufficient accommodations for 
visitors, issued the following notice to the people of the Union : 

"Philadelphia, Pa., May Ath, 1876. 
"To the Public: 

"The United States Centennial Commission, charged with 
the duty on behalf of the United States of preparing and exe- 
cuting a plan for holding the United States Centennial Cele- 
bration and Exhibition of 1876, notify the public: 

That the hotels of Philadelphia will accommodate (above 

the present regular occupancy) (guests) . .150,000 

Tlie Centennial Lodging-house Agency 20,000 

Accommodations by relatives and friends 40,000 

Boarding-houses 13,000 



OF THE CENTENXIAI. EXHIBITION. 263 

Patrons of Husbandry (for Grangers) 5,000 

Camp Scott (for military organizations) 5,000 

Camp in Fairmount Park (for military) 5,000 

Suburban hotels 20,000 

"There is no doubt of Philadelphia being able-to entertain, 
if necessary, at reasonable prices, 100,000 persons, and, if 
farther pressed, to comfortably lodge and care for 200,000 
persons. Hotel prices, from §5 to $1.50 per day ; boarding- 
houses, from §1 to $2.50 per day; Centennial Lodging-house 
Agency lodgings, $1.25 per day; breakfast, supper and lodg- 
ings, $2.50 per day. 

"Patrons of Husbandry Camp at Elin Station will accom- 
modate 5000 persons of that order at §1.50 per day; three 
miles, by Pennsylvania Railroad, from Exhibition grounds. 
Fare, round trip, 15 cents. Address V. E. Piolett, Elm 
Station, Pa. 

"Camping-ground for military organizations in Fairmount 
Park, under the laws of Pennsylvania, near Exhibition 
grounds. Address Adjutant-General J. W. Latta, Harrisburg. 

"Camp Scott, for civic and military organization^, one mile 
from Exhibition ; fare same as street-car rates. Horses cared 
for and furnished, and meals provided. Postal and telegraphic 
facilities. Address J. Y. W. Yandenburgh, Camp Scott, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

"As an instance of the preparations for the accommodation 
of visitors, the Centennial Lodging-house Agency is mentioned. 
It has rooms for 20,000 guests, wdiich can be increased to 
50,000. Tickets for lodgii:gs and meals will be sold at all im- 
portant points in the country and on all passenger trains 
approaching Philadelphia. Persons who have purchased such 
tickets will be furnished a card by the train agent, assigning 
them to proper quarters. This agency is in the hands of com- 
])etent managers. Address Wm. Hamilton, General Superin- 
tendent, No. 1010 Walnut street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

"By steam and horse cars, Avith present facilities, 20,000 
persons per hour can reach the Exhibition from any part of the 
city of Philadelphia. If it is necessary, 40,000 persons per 
hour can be moved. Fares, 6 J and 9 cents. 




264 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 265 

'^Tlie Exhibition Transfer Company (Limited), whose agents 
will be on all passenger trains, transport by carriage passengers 
Avithin limits of four or five miles for 50 cents each; baggage at 
like reduced rates. Hundreds of hackmen and omnibus com- 
panies, as well as private individuals, will perform the same 
service at same rates. 

*' One minute after tlie arrival of trains on all main lines 
entering Philadelphia, passengers can be within the Exhibition. 
We confidently expect that during the year the railroads of the 
United States will make such further reductions in their rates 
as will enable every person who desires to visit the Exhibition 
at a very small expenditure, and thus put the opportunity 
within reach of all. Incidentally we note as an evidence of this 
the fact that the Pennsylvania Hailroad has ordered a train 
between Isew York and Philadelphia at the rate of $2 for the 
round trip. 

*' The sanitary condition of Philadelphia is good. Eational 
amusements have been provided. Arrangements for protection 
from fire, thieves, etc., are as nearly perfect as it is possible in 
a great city. Within the Exhibition every precaution has 
been taken for the safety, comfort, happiness and pleasure of 
the public. 

"The buildings of the Exhibition are in order. The Exhi- 
bition will promptly open on the 10th of May, and is an 
assured fact. All preparations have been made on a gigantic 
scale. Philadelphia and her citizens have spent millions in 
preparing for the reception and care of guests. There is no 
disposition or evidence of extortion. Increased business at 
usual rates is considered sufficient compensation for the vast 
amount of capital and labor expended. Living is as cheap, if 
not cheaper, than in any large city in America. Accommoda- 
tions are unsurpassed. All grades of society can be accommo- 
dated. Railroad and transportation facilities are unequalled. 
It now needs but the presence of the public to crown with 
triumph the greatest International Exhibition in history, com- 
memorating the one hundredth year of the nation's life. 

"Acting for the government and the people we invite all to 



2G6 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 

aid by their presence no less than by their exhibits, and to 
come from all parts of the world and meet us at this assemblage 

of the nations of the earth. 

"J. R. Hawley, President 
" For the Commission." 

The accommodations are ample for all who will come. No 
one need stay away for fear there is not room for him, or that 
he will not be comfortable. Tiiere is abundant room, as we 
have shown ; the accommodations are excellent, and there is a 
hearty welcome for each and all. 

Since these pages went into the printer's hands many rumors 
have been circulated throughout the country that the visitor to 
the Centennial Exhibition is sure to fall a victim to extortion 
of all kinds, and that his expenses while in Philadelphia will 
average at least ten dollars per day. This is far froui being the 
case. Good boafd can be obtained for from six to eight dollars 
a week at a comfortable boarding-house ; the admission to the 
Exhibition is fifty cents, and covers everything ; so that one can 
visit Philadelphia, see the Exhibition comfortably, and have 
something left for amusements, for from two and a-half to three 
dollars per day. These prices are for comfortable but plain ac- 
commodations and fare. Those who are able can of course 
increase them according to their means. 




CHAPTER VIII. 

THE OPENING OF THE EXHIBITION. 

Arrangements for the Opening — Programme Issued by the Centennial Com- 
mission — Scenes in Philadelphia on the 9th of May — The Opening Day — 
The Rush to the Grounds — Arrival of Visitors from Distant Points — The 
Gates Thrown Open — The Grand Stands — A Brilliant Scene — Arrival of 
the President of the United States — Wagner's Centennial March — Bishop 
Simpson's Prayer — Whittier's Hymn — Enthusiasm of the Multitude — 
Transfer of the Exhibition to the Centennial Commission — The Centennial 
Cantata — Address of General Hawley — President Grant Declares the Exhi- 
bition Open — The Flag Unfurled — The President's Tour Through tlie 
Buildings — The Starting of the Great Engine — Scenes in the Exhibition 
Grounds — Illumination of the City. 

-'^HE 10th of May, 1876, was the day appointed for the 
opening of the International Exhibition. On the 
8th the Centennial Commission issued the following 
order : 

UNITED STATES CENTENNIAL COMMISSION, 
International Exhibition^ 1876, Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia, May Sth, 1876. 
The United States Centennial Commission announces the 
following orders and programme for the opening of the Inter- 
national Exhibition on the 10th instant. 

The Commission, with the concurring counsel of the Board 
of Finance, instructed its officers to give formal invitations only 
to persons in official positions, to those officially connected with 
the Exhibition and to members of the press, by reason of the 
impossibility of discriminating among the numerous and gen- 
erous supporters of the enterprise. 

All the gates, except those at the east end of the Main Build- 
ing, will be open to the public at 9 A. M. at the established rate 

of admission. 

267 




268 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

The Main Building, Memorial Hall and Machinery Hall 
Avill be reserved for guests and exhibitors until the conclusion 
of the ceremonies, about 1 P. M., when all restrictions will be 
withdrawn. 

The President of the United States will be escorted to the 
Exhibition by Governor Hartranft, of Pennsylvania, with a 
division or more of troops from Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 

Invited guests will enter the Main Building from the carriage 
concourse at the east end, or by the south-middle entrance on 
Elm avenue. The doors will be open to them at 9 A. M. They 
will pass to the platform in front of Memorial Hall through the 
north-middle doors of the Main Building, and should occupy 
their places before 10.15 A. M. All the space in the vicinity of 
the platform, save what may be needed for passage, will be open 
to the public. Seats on the platform for the ladies invited are 
provided, and it is expected that they will join the procession 
if they choose. 

The orchestra of one hundred and fifty pieces and the chorus 
of one thousand voices will be under the direction of Theodore 
Thomas, assisted by Dudley Buck. 

PROGRAMME. 

1. 10.15 A. M. — National Airs by the Orchestra. 

2. 10.30— Arrival of the President of the United States. 
8. Centennial Inauguration March, by Richard Wagner. 
4. Prayer, by the Right Reverend Bishop Simpson. 

, 5. Hymn, by John Greenleaf Whittier. 

Music, by John K. Paine, of Massachusetts. 
Organ and Orchestral accompaniment. 

6. Presentation of the Buildings to the Commission by the President of the 

Centennial Board of Finance. 

7. Cantata, by Sidney Lanier, of Georgia. 

Music, by Dudley Buck, of Connecticut. 
Basso Solo, by Myron W. Whitney, of Boston. 

8. Presentation of the Exhibition to the President of the United States by the 

President of the Centennial Commission. 

9. Address by the President of the United States. 

10. Unfurling of the Flag, Hallelujah Chorus, Salutes of Artillery and Ring- 

ing of the Chimes. 

11. Procession through the Main Building and Machinery Hall. 

12. Reception by the President of the United States in the Judges' Pavilion. 



OF THE CEXTEXNIAL EXHTBITIOX. 269 

No flags or ensigns, except such as are permanently fixed in 
the buildings, will be displayed on the morning of the 10th until 
the signal be given. The organs and other musical instruments 
and the bells will await the same notice. 

When the President of the United States declares the Exhi- 
bition open, the flag on the staff near him will be unfurled as a 
signal for the raising of all other flags and ensigns, the ringing 
of the chimes, the salute of one hundred guns on George's Hill, 
and the singing of the Hallelujah Chorus of Handel by the 
chorus, with organ and orchestral accompaniment. 

Immediately upon the announcement, the Foreign Commis- 
sioners will pass into the Main Building and take places upon 
the general avenue opposite their respective sections. 

The President of the United States, conducted by the Director- 
General of the Exhibition, and followed by the guests of the day, 
will pass through the Main Building. As the President passes 
the Foreign Commissioners they will join the procession, and 
the whole body will move to Machinery Hall. 

On his way the President will be saluted by his military 
escort, formed in two lines between the buildings. 

In Machinery Hall, when the procession shall, as far as pos- 
sible, have entered the building, the President, assisted by 
George H. Corliss, will set in motion the great engine and the 
machinery connected therewith. No further formal order of 
procession will be required. 

The President, and such of the guests as may choose to fol- 
low, will be escorted by way of the north main aisle of Ma- 
chinery Hall to the doors of the eastern tower and to the 
Judges' Pavilion. 

The passage in return to the Main Building will he kept for 
half an hour. 

The President of the United States will hold a brief reception 
in the Judges' Pavilion. 

Should the weather render it impossible to conduct the exer- 
cises in the open air, they will be held in the Main Building, 
and the best regulations the circumstances may permit will be 
communicated to the guests upon their arrival. T. B. P. Dixey 




270 



I 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 271 

is an::ounced as Master of Ceremonies. He will wear a white 
sash. He will be assisted by twenty-five aids, who will wear 
blue sashes. 

By order of the Centennial Commission. 

Joseph E. Hawley, President. 

John L. Campbell, Secretary. 

Philadelphia was in a whirl of excitement for several days 
previous to the 10th. The hotels began to fill up as early as 
the 7th, and by the night of the 9th were full to overflowing. 
On the 9th of May a steady rain fell during the day, but in 
spite of this Chestnut street was alive with people eager to be- 
hold the arrivals of distinguished visitors and the various visit- 
ing military organizations that came in during the day. Great 
anxiety was manifested lest the storm should continue through 
the next day and interfere with the opening ceremonies. To- 
wards nightfall the rain increased, and it seemed almost useless 
to hope for fair weather the next day. 

The dawn of Wednesday, May 10th, found the rain still fall- 
ing and the sky covered with heavy clouds in w^hich no rift was 
visible. In spite of this, however, the city was lavishly and 
beautifully decorated with flags and streamers. Chestnut, 
Market and Walnut streets, and all the principal thoroughfares, 
were literally alive with flags. The stars and stripes were 
naturally the most prominent, but every nation of the globe was 
represented in the display. As the morning advanced the rain 
ceased, and about eight o'clock the sun shone out and soon 
scattered the clouds across the sky. 

From an early hour in the morning the street cars, steam cars 
and other conveyances to the Exhibition grounds were crowded, 
and long before nine o'clock, the hour for opening the gates to 
the public, arrived, the entrances were surrounded by dense 
throngs eager for admission. All through the morning excur- 
sion trains from New York, Baltimore, and points along the 
railroads leading to Philadelphia, were arriving at the Centen- 
nial depots of the Pennsylvania and Reading Railroads and 



272 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

dischar^iiifr thousands of visitors to swell the crowds in the 
Exhibition grounds. 

" Hundreds of those who waited at the gates, which were so 
soon to admit them to an assembled world, had not before been 
near the grounds since the enclosure had consisted only of a 
half-erected fence and the skeletons of a few of the larger build- 
ina"S ; and their looks of glad surprise and expressions of aston- 
ishment can easily be imagined by those who have had the good 
fortune to gaze upon the mighty cosmos in all its completed per- 
fection. The picture presented even from the outside of the 
grounds was interesting from its peculiarity, entertaining from 
its novelty, and bewildering from its dazzling variety. The 
inconceivable expanse of the Main Building, enriched through- 
out all its acres of length and breadth with the most brilliant 
decorations, was yesterday rendered doubly magnificent by the 
addition of myriads of flags of all colors, shapes, sizes and na- 
tions, and from every inch of available space floated red-white- 
and-blue streamers. The national and international insignias 
over the entrances were almost covered with the grouped 
banners of every nation, and even the golden motto, ' Virtue, 
Liberty, and Independence,' seemed to have grown brighter 
since the dawn of the 10th of May. Machinery Hall was less 
elaborately decorated than its neighbor, and the larger banners, 
like those on all the other buildings, were kept furled until the 
formal opening of the Exhibition. There were, however, 
myriads of miniature flags and streamers dancing in the breeze, 
and the great structure in which had been collected the triumphs 
of the inventive ingenuity of all races presented a gala appear- 
ance well befitting the occasion. The chaste, imposing beauty 
of Memorial Hall Avas enhanced by the gracefully-intertwined 
colors which decked the southern fagade, while far into the 
grounds could be seen countless thousands of furled standards 
and waving streamers. The arriving trains of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad came in quick succession, bringing thousands of pas- 
sengers from the Kensington and Washington avenue stations 
to swell the crowd already assembled, and the handsome depot 
south of Machinery Hall soon became a scene of fascinating 



OP THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 273 

animation as the increasing visitors hastened out of the numer- 
ous cars and poured in living streams of humanity to the still- 
closed entrances. The arrival of trains at the same structure 
from points along the main line and its connections, bringing 
guests from Xew York, Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, and interme- 
diate stations, added new interest to the inspiriting scene, and 
the plateau between the building and the Centennial offices 
became almost immediately packed with men, women and chil- 
dren, all waiting anxiously for the hour of nine. The Philadel- 
phia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad trains also landed at 
the Pennsylvania depot, bringing car after car loaded with pas- 
sengers. At the new depot erected by the Reading Railroad 
Company, at the foot of the bluff on which stands IMemorial 
Hall, long trains of cars every few moments dashed in loaded 
with passengers from Broad and Callowhill streets, Ninth street 
and Columbia avenue, and Ninth and Green streets stations, in 
addition to the thousands of visitors from Germantown, Norris- 
town, Reading, Pottsville, and more distant points. The wide 
platform of over fifteen hundred feet in length was continually 
covered with visitors, none of whom lost a moment in pressing 
onward to the various entrances. On these trains arrived al- 
most all of the one thousand choristers who had so long been 
preparing for their important part in the opening ceremonies, 
and so complete had been all the arrangements that all the 
singers were conducted to the seats they were to occupy without 
material delay. As the hour of nine approached, the throngs of 
visitors increased still more rapidly; and from the eastern end 
of the Main Building to the western boundary of the passenger 
railroad concourse the Elm avenue tracks were for the next half 
hour filled with incoming and outgoing street cars, and the 
roadway was crowded with rapidly-driven vehicles hastening to 
or returning from the carriage concourse. In spite of this con- 
stant danger to pedestrians, thousands of persons of both sexeSy 
all ages and classes abandoned the closely-packed sidewalks and 
made their way along the street towards the main entrance. 
Every moment this method of locomotion became more difficult 
and more dangerous, until the once quiet avenue was converted 
18 



274 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



into an indescribable confusion of restive horses, yelling drivers, 
moving street cars, frantic old ladies, rumbling wagons, dis- 
tracted women, enthusiastic gamins and laughing children. 
The little folks were, of course, present in full force, and no 
amount of physical discomfort or personal danger seemed to 




INTERIOR OF A PARLOR CAR — PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 



disconcert them. They were out for a grand holiday, and, on 
the principle of Mhe more the merrier,^ they seemed to have 
found the height of juvenile felicity in the midst of this general 
melee. Belmont avenue presented much the same appearance, 
I'lt as on this thoroucrhfare everybody was hastening in the snmo 
dire(.tion there was less confusion. The thousands assembled 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 275 

and assembling represented every possible class of society, every 
profession, trade, or vocation in the world, and almost all the 
nations on the globe. Hundreds of men who had come from 
other countries, either as exhibitors or as workmen, were 
mingled with the throng, and as most of them had again donned 
their national costumes in honor of the occasion, the moving 
spectacle was indeed one of rare interest. Americans and Eng- 
lishmen, Germans and French, Norwegians and Turks, Irish- 
men and Japanese, red Indians and dark-skinned Moors, 
Chinamen and Mexicans, Egyptians and Arabs, were all to be 
found mingled with the heterogeneous collection of humanity, 
and here, there, and everywhere at once were heard innumerable 
fakirs loudly expatiating on the incomparable virtues of their 
articles of merchandise. A certain proportion of the visitors so 
closely packed together were, of course, obliged to submit to no 
little personal inconvenience and more or less physical discom- 
fort ; but the pleasure of being among the thousands who were 
to witness the final blossoming of the nation's Centennial plant, 
and the general excitement and ever-changing variety of the 
wondrous display, overcame for the time the selfishness of weak 
human nature, and as the few churlish entities who at first 
scowled at the closed gates, growled at the heat, and sullenly 
glared at the incoming crowds, had either moved off to more 
congenial quarters or been compelled to forget their acerbity 
by the magnetic sympathy of exultant multitudes, the scene soon 
became one of universal good nature, pleasant anticipation, and 
general rejoicing." 

At nine o'clock the entrances to the grounds were opened, and 
the people were admitted upon payment by each one of a fifty 
cent note or a silver half dollar. The multitude passe<l in 
rapidly, and soon the grounds were thronged. The crowds 
pressed up eagerly around the stands which had been erected 
for the accommodation of those who were to take part in the 
opening ceremonies. 

The site selected for the opening ceremonies was the open 
space between the Main Building and Memorial Hall. A plat- 
form for the Centennial authorities, the President of the Unite<l 



276 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

States and other distinguished guests was erected in front of the 
latter building, and another, rising like an amphitheatre from 
the level of the terrace in front of Memorial Hall to the second 
row of arches in the central pavilion of the Main Building, was 
provided for the accommo<lation of the orchestra and chorus of 
•a thousand voices which were to render the musical portion of 
the exercises. 

The reserved places were jealously guarded by a detachment 
of the Centennial guard, and only persons provided with com- 
plimentary tickets were admitted to them. Every place was 
filled before the hour for the commencement of the ceremonies 
struck, and every available foot of ground without the enclosure 
was occupied by the public generally. 

On the grand stand in front of Memorial Hall were assembled 
the Congress of the United States, the Governors of a number 
of the States, officers of the army and navy of the United States, 
the Emperor and Empress of Brazil, the Ministers from foreign 
countries, and a large number of distinguished persons from our 
own and other lands. The display of uniforms was brilliant, 
and the rich toilettes of the ladies on the stand gave to the scene 
a pleasing and picturesque aspect. The Emperor and Empress 
of Brazil were given seats on the central platform on the right 
of the chair reserved for the President of the United States. 

The decorations of the grand and orchestra stands, which 
were located directly opposite each other, were of the simplest 
description, consisting only of the colors of the United States 
and the various European nations. Hundreds of flags fluttered 
from the pinnacles of the Exhibition buildings, but the larger 
flagstaffs were conspicuously bare. 

As the distinguished guests were seated, there was a slight 
commotion on the orchestra stand, and immediately Theodore 
Thomas took his place at the conductor's desk, and waved his 
baton as a signal for the music to begin. Under the leadership 
of this master the orchestra rendered in fine style the national 
airs of all the nations represented in the exhibition. 

"After having stated,'^ says the Philadelphia Press, in its 
admirable account of the opening ceremonies, " that the immense 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 277 

multitude was composed of representatives of all civilized coun- 
tries on the globe, it is scarcely necessary to describe the effect 
of this succession of hymns which, in times past, had roused 
whole nations to activity, called to the defence of their country 
millions of brave men, sustained the drooping energies of soldiers 
on forced marches, stimulated them in battle, comforted the 
dying, infused new courage after defeat, and celebrated the most 
brilliant victories — national hymns which had been learned in 
childhood, loved in youth, and venerated in old age. Nor need 
it be added that as the first familiar strains of each air were 
touched by the orchestra more than one face became illuminated 
with looks of joyous recognition, and more than one mind 
reverted to times and scenes when the simple air sent the warm 
blood thrilling through his veins and made him worship the 
country he had already learned to love. The second selection, 
the Austrian national hymn, has long been familiar to citizens 
of all European and American governments, as it is much used 
in church music. But how widely different must have been 
the thoughts suggested by its sweet melody to different auditors ! 
To English and American citizens it recalled, not some great 
national occasion, but the holy sanctuary where on the concordant 
voices of devout worshippers pseans of praise were wafted heav- 
enward; to the Austrians the same strains doubtless brought 
vividly to mind their country's trials, dangers, and triumphs, 
and perhaps to not a few its harmonies were overpowered by the 
memory of terrible conflicts with their country's foes, long hours 
of almost mortal suffering, rewarded at last by the consciousness 
of having been one of the few who bravely fought and yet lived 
to celebrate a glorious victory. When the Brazilian national 
hymn was played both the emperor and empress gave to the 
orchestra a look of glad surprise in recognition of the compli- 
ment, and then, as the musicians glided into the stirring ^Mar- 
seillaise,' Americans and Frenchmen clasped hands, in spirit if 
not in reality, for this peerless national hymn is aluiost equally 
loved in both countries. Its martial measure and exciting 
strains are always infectious, but w^hen played as the Thomas 
orchestra yesterday performed it tlie effect was irresistible. 



278 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



Amoiiff the thronar were thousands who had either come direct 
from France or had been brought up in the land of the * Mar- 
seillaise/ and it was easy to see that, as the old familiar summons 
to the defence of Liberty was being grandly repeated, hundreds 
of the impulsive Frenchmen within sound of the orchestra 
would have danced for joy had there been room enough. But 
there was not, and the lovers of the noble hymn were compelled 
to content themselves with waving their hats, shouting ^ Vive 
la France,' and looking volumes. The Germans who had been 
anxiously waiting for the ^ Wacht am Rhine' were surprised 
though not disappointed when the familiar melody of ' Was ist 




TJKTTL^a^SMIiTH. . 



CENTRAL DOME, VIENNA EXPOSITION BUILDING. 

dfs Deutschen Vaterland ' reached their ears, and the beaming 
faces of hundreds who years and years ago had heard the same 
air sung as a lullaby by the long-silenced lips of a hallowed 
mother told how sacred the beautiful air had become. Grand 
old ' Hail Columbia,' of course, met with the heartiest possible 
reception, and for the first time during the waiting hour the 
pressing, surging mass of humanity ceased their efforts to push 
their way still further forward, and stood silent and motionless, 
enjoying to the utmost the life of recollections and flood of 
emotions which this hymn had so suddenly called into new 
existence." 

As the music ceased, a loud cheer rising from the entrance to 



OF THE CEXTENNJAL EXIIIBITIOX. 279 

the grounds in the rear of Memorial Hall, proclaimed the 
arrival of the President of the United States and his Cabinet. 
The President was escorted from the city to the Exhibition by 
a division of 4000 troops, made up of the volunteers ol'the city 
and visiting detachments from other parts of the Union. The 
President was received with considerable enthusiasm as he 
readied the grand stand, and at once took the place reserved for 
him. He was followed by the members of the Cabinet and the 
distinguished persons who had come from the city with him. 

As the President, after acknowledging the greeting of the 
multitude, took his seat, there burst from the orchestra at a sign 
from Theodore Thomas the first strains of the grand Centennial 
Inauguration Mar^ih composed for the occasion by Kichard 
Wagner. This magnificent composition was rendered with a 
fervency and thoroughness which only a leader and an orchestra 
who understand and love the great composer as perfectly as do 
Theodore Tiiomas and his band, could impart to it. It was 
listened to with breathless attention by the vast throng of over 
100,000 people, and at the conclusion was greeted with lou.l 
and enthusiastic cheers. 

The music had scarcely ceased when Bishop Simpson, of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, advanced to the front of the stand, 
and lifting up his hands, offered up the following impressive 
prayer : 

"Almighty and everlasting God, our heavenly Father. 
Heaven is t!iy ithrone and the earth is thy footstool. Before 
thy maj-sty and holiness the angels veil their faces, and the 
spirits of the just made perfect bow in humble adoration. Thou 
art the creator of all things, the preserver of all that exist, 
whether they be thrones or dominions, or principalities or 
powers. The minute and the vast, atoms and worlds, alike 
attest the ubiquity of thy presence and the omnipotence of thy 
sway. 

"Thou alone art the sovereign ruler of nations. Thou 
raiseth up one and casteth down another, and thou givest the 
kingdoms of the world to whomsoever thou wilt. The past 
with all its records is the unfolding of thy counsels and the 



280 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

realization of thy grand designs. We hail thee as our rightful 
ruler, the King eternal, immortal, and invisible, the only true 
God, blessed foi'ever more. 

'^ We a)me on this glad day, O thou God of our fathers, into 
these courts with thanksgiving and into these gates with i)raise. 
We bless thee for thy wonderihl goodness in the past, for the 
land which thou gavest to our fathers, a land veiled from the 
ages, from the ancient world, but revealed in the fulness of 
time to thy chosen people, whom thou didst lead by thine own 
right hand through the billows of the deep, to a land of vast 
extent, of towering mountains and broad plains, of unnumbered 
products and of untold treasures. 

" We thank thee for the fathers of our country, men of mind 
and of might, who endured privations and sacrifices, who braved 
multiplied dangers rather than defile their consciences or be 
untrue to their God, men who laid on the broad foundations of 
truth and justice the grand structure of civil freedom. 

^^ We praise thee for the closing century, for the founders of 
the republic, for t*he immortal Washington and his grand asso- 
ciates, for the wisdom with which they planned, and the firm- 
ness and heroism, which, under thy blessing, led them to trium- 
phant success. Thou wast their shield in hours of danger, their 
pillar of cloud by day, and their pillar of fire by night. May 
we, their sons, walk in their footsteps and imitate their virtues. 

"We thank thee for social and national prosperity and pro- 
irress, for valuable discoveries and multiplied inventions, for 
labor-saving machinery relievinp: the toiling masses, for schools, 
free as the morning light for the millions of the rising genera- 
tion, for books and periodicals scattered like leaves of autumn 
over the land, for art and science, for freedom to worship God 
according to the dictates of conscience, for a Church unfettered 
by the trammels of State. 

"Bless, we pray thee, the President of the United States and 
his constitutional advisers, the Judges of the Supreme Court, 
the Senators and Representatives in Congress, the Governors of 
our several commonwealths, the officers of the army and navy, 
and all who are in official position throughout our land. Guide 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 281 

them, we pray thee, with counsels of wisdom, and may they 
ever rule in righteousness. We ask thy blessing to rest upon 
the President and members of the Centennial Commission, and 
upon those associated with them in the various departments, 
who have labored long and earnestly amidst anxieties and diffi- 
culties for the success of this enterprise, 

" May thy special blessing, O thou God of all the nations of 
the earth, rest upon our national guests, our visitors from distant 
lands. We welcome them to our shores, and we rejoice in their 
presence among us, whether they represent thrones, or culture, 
or research, or whether they come to exhibit the triumphs of 
genius and art, in the development of industry and in the pro- 
gress of civilization. Preserve thou them, we beseech thee, in 
health and safety, and in due time may they be welcomed by 
loved ones again to their own, their native lands. 

" Let thy blessing rest richly on this Centennial celebration. 
May the lives and health of all interested be precious in thy 
sight. Preside in its assemblies. Grant that this association 
in effort may bind more closely together every part of our great 
republic, so that our Union may be perpetual and indissoluble. 
Let its influence draw the nations of earth into a happier unity. 
Hereafter, we pray thee, may all disputed questions be settled 
by arbitration, and not by the sword, and may wars forever 
cease among the sons of men. 

" May the new century be better than the past — more radiant 
with the light of true philosophy, warmer with the emanations 
of a world-wide sympathy. May capital, genius and labor be 
freed from all antagonism by the establishment and application 
of such principles of justice and equity as shall reconcile diver- 
sified interests and hind in imperishable bands all parts of 
society. 

"We pray thy benediction especially on the women of 
America, who for the first time in the history of our race take 
so conspicuous a place in a national celebration. May the light 
of their intelligence, purity and enterprise shed its beams afar, 
until, in distant lands, their sisters may realize the beauty and 
glory of Christian freedom and elevation. We beseech thee^ 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 283 

Almighty Father, that our beloved republic may be strength- 
ened in every element of true greatness, until her mission is 
ac(;omplished by presenting to the world an illustration of the 
happiness of a free people, with a free church, in a free State, 
under laws of their own enactment and under rulers of their 
own selection, acknowledging supreme allegiance only to the 
King of kings and Lord of lords. And as thou didst give to 
one of its illustrious sons first to draw experimentally the 
electric spark from heaven, which has since girdled the globe 
in its celestial whispers of 'Glory to God in the highest, peace 
on earth and good will to men,' so to latest time may the 
mission of America, under Divine inspiration, be one of affec- 
tion, brotherhood and love for all our race. And may the 
coming centuries be filled with the glory of our Christian 
civilization. 

"And unto thee, our Father, through Him whose life is the 
light of men, will we ascribe glory and praise, now and forever. 
Amen." 

At the conclusion of the prayer Whittier's Centennial Hymn, 
SL fine, vigorous production, worthy of the genius of the poet, 
was sung by the chorus of one thousand voices, accompanied 
by the orchestra and the great organ erected at the north end 
of the central transept of the Main Building. 

The music for this poem was written by ^Mr. John K. Paine, 
of Massachusetts, and as the united voices rendered it the 
composition was exceedingly beautiful, though not of striking 
individuality. The sweet melody was accompanied by simple 
harmonies, which rolled forth upon the air like the gently- 
moving billows of old ocean in her most peaceful mood; and, 
as the sacred strains were heard, countless thousands, who had 
previously regarded the occasion as a grand day of joy and 
mirth, seemed to fully realize that the crowning hours of a 
century of independence had also a serious meaning, which 
should not be overlooked. The voices of the chorus were par- 
ticularly full and strong in every bar, and some of the higher 



284 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

chords could be distinctly heard for a great distance. The 
liymn was as follows: 

Our fathers' God ! from out whose hand 
The centuries fall like grains of sand, 
We meet to-day, united, free, 
And loyal to our land and thee, 
To thank thee for the era done, 
And trust thee for the opening one. 

Here, where of old, by thy design, 
The fathers spake that word of thine, 
"Whose echo is the glad refrain 
Of Tended bolt and falling chain. 
To grace our festal time from all 
The zones of earth our guests we call. 

Be with us while the New World greets 
The Old World thronging all its streets, 
Unveiling all the triumphs won 
By art or toil beneath the sun ; 
And unto common good ordain 
This rivalship of hand and brain. 

Thou who hast here in concord furled 
The war-flags of a gathered world. 
Beneath our western skies fulfil 
The Orient's mission of good will ; 
And, freighted with Love's golden fleece. 
Send back the Argonauts of peace. 

For art and labor met in truce, 
For beauty made the bride of use, 
We thank thee, while withal we crave 
The austere virtues, strong to save ; 
The honor, proof to place or gold ; 
The manhood, never bought or sold ! 

Oh ! make thou us, through centuries long, 
In peace secure, in justice strong; 
Around our gift of freedom draw 
The safeguards of thy righteous law, 
And, cast in some diviner mould. 
Let the new cycle shame the old ! 

The hymn being ended, Mr. John Welsh, President of the 
Board of Finance, rose from his place by General Hawley, for 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 285 

the purpose of formally presenting the Exhibition buildings 
and grounds to the United States Centennial Commission. His 
appearance was the signal for long continued plaudits of en- 
thusiasm. To many of the great audience this was the fiiFt 
opportunity that had been vouchsafed to them to behold the 
man whose genius, pre-eminent above that of many of his 
compeers, has made his name a household word throughout 
America, and through whose unfaltering and unselfish devotion 
the Exhibition has been made not only a reality, but an 
assured success, and this without even the suspicion of a dis- 
honest or improper act on the part of a single one of its officials. 
Cheer upon cheer rent the air in grateful recognition of the 
worth and services of one who has done so much for Phila- 
delphia and Philadelphia interests. When order had been 
partially restored, Mr. Welsh proceeded as follows : 

"Mr. President and Gentlemen of the United 
States Centennial Commission: In the presence of the 
government of the United States and of the several distin- 
guished bodies by whom we are surrounded, and in behalf of 
the Centennial Board of Finance, I greet you. 

"In readiness at the appointed time, I have the honor to 
announce to you that, under your supervision and in accordance 
with the plans fixed and established by you, we have erected 
the buildings belonging to us, and have made all the arrange- 
ments devolving on us necessary for the opening of the ^Inter- 
national Exhibition.' We hereby now formally appropriate 
them for their intended occupation, and we hold ourselves 
ready to make all further arrangements that may be needed for 
carrying into full and complete effect all the requirements of 
the acts of Congress relating to the Exhibition. 

"For a like purpose we also appropriate the buildings 
belonging to the State of Pennsylvania and the city of Phila- 
delphia, erected by us at their bidding, to wit: Memorial Hall, 
Machinery Hall and Horticultural Hall. These and other 
substantial offerings stand as the evidence of their patriotic co- 



286 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

operation. To the United States of America, through Congress, 
we are indebted for the aid which crowned our success. 

"In addition to those to which I have just referred, there 
are other beautiful and convenient edifices which have been 
erected by the representatives of foreign nations, by State 
authority and by individuals, which are also devoted to the 
purposes of the Exhibition. 

"Ladies and Gentlemen: If in the past we have met 
with disappointments, difficulties and trials, they have been 
overcome by a consciousness that no sacrifice can be too great 
which is made to honor the memories of those who brought our 
nation into being. This commemoration of the events of 
1776 excites our present gratitude. The assemblage here to-day 
of so many foreign representatives uniting with us in this 
reverential tribute is our reward. 

" We congratulate you on the occurrence of this day. Many 
of the nations have gathered here in peaceful competition. 
Each may profit by the association. This Exhibition is but a 
school ; the more thoroughly its lessons are learned the greater 
will be the gain, and, when it shall have closed, if by that 
study the nations engaged in it shall have learned respect for 
each other, then it may be hoped that veneration for Him who 
rules on high will become universal, and the angels' song 
once more be heard : 

"Glory to God in the highest, 
And on earth peace, good will towards men." 

Upon the conclusion of Mr. Welsh^s address General Joseph 
R. Hawley, the President of the United States Centennial 
Commission, replied as follows in behalf of the Commission : 

"Mr. President of the .Centennial Board of Fi- 
nance: The Centennial Commission accepts the trust with 
grateful and fraternal acknowledgment of the great services of 
the Board of Finance." 

The chorus then sang, with orchestral accompaniment, the 
following Centennial Cantata, written by Sidney Lanier, of 



OP THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 287 

Georgia. The music, which is singularly beautiful, was com- 
puted by Mr. Dudley Buck, of Connecticut : 

From this hundred-terraced ii eight, 
Sight more large with nobler light 
Ranges down yon towering years: 
Hunibier smiles and lordlier tears 
Shine and fall, shine and fall, 
While old voices rise and call 
Yonder where the to-and-fro, 
Weltering of my Long-Ago, 
Moves about the moveless base. 
Far below my resting-place. 

Mayflower, Mayflower, slowly hither flying, 

Tivmbling, Westward, o'er yon balking sea, 
Hearts within. Farewell, dear England, sighing, 
Winds without but dear in vain replying, 
Gray-lipp'd waves about thee shouted, crying, 
"No! It shall not be!" 

Jamestown, out of thee — 
Plymouth, thee — thee, Albany — 
Winter cries : " Ye freeze ; away ! " 
Fever cries : " Ye burn ; away I " 
Hunger cries : " Ye starve ; away ! " 
Vengeance cries: '* Y'^our graves sliall stay ! '* 

Then old Shapes and Masks of Things, 

r'raraed like Faiths or clotlied like Kings — 

(jrho<^ts of Goods once fleshed and fair, 

Grown foul Bads in alien air — 

War, and his most noisy lords, 

Tongued with lithe and poisoned swords — 

Error, Terror, Rage and Crime, 
All in a Avindy night of time 
Cried to me from land and sea : 
"No! Thou shalt not be 1 " 

Hark! • 

Hnguenotv«i whispering yea in tlie dark; 
Puritans answering yea in the dark ! 
Yen, like an arrow shot true to his mark, 
Dnrt'; through the tyrannous heart of Denial, 
Patience and Labor and solemn-sou led Trial, 

Foiled, still beginning ; 

Soiled, but not winning ; 



288 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Toil through the stertorous death of the Night ; 
Toil when wild brother-wars new-dark tlie Light ; 
Toil and forgive and kiss o'er and replight. 

Now praise to God's oft-granted grace ; 

Now praise to man's undaunted face. 

Despite the land, despite the sea, 

I was, I am, and I shall be — 

How long, Good Angel, oh ! how long ? 

Sing me from Heaven a man's own song ! 

Long as thine Art shall love true love ; 

Long as thy Science truth shall know ; 
Long as thine Eagle harms no Dove ; 

Long as thy Law by law shall grow; 
Long as thy God is God above, 

Thy brother every man below, 
So long, dear Land of all my love, 

Thy name shall shine, thy fame shall glow! 

O Music ! from this height of time my Word unfold ; 
In thy large signals all men's hearts Man's Heart behold; 
Mid-heaven unroll thy chords as friendly flags unfurled, 
And wave the world's best lover's welcome to the world. 

The bass solo, commencing " Long as thine Art shall love 
true love/^ was rendered in superb style by Myron J. Whitney, 
of Boston, and was enthusiastically encored. At the conclusion 
of the Cantata Mr. Buck was loudly called for, and upon ap- 
pearing at one of the windows of the Main Building was givec 
three hearty cheers in acknowledgment of his work. 

Silence being restored. General Joseph R. Hawley, President 
of the Centennial Commission, rose, and turning to the Presi- 
dent of the United States, formally presented the Exhibition to 
him, in the following words : 

"Mr. President — Five years ago- the President of the 
United States declared it fitting that 'the completion of the 
first century of our national existence should be commemorated 
by an exhibition of the natural resources of the country and 
their development, and of its progress in those arts which bene- 
fit mankind,' and ordered that an Exhibition of American and 
foreign arts, products, and manufactures should be held, under 
the auspices of the government of the United States, in the 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 289 

city of Philadelphia, in the year 1876. To put into effect the 
several laws relating to the Exhibition, the United States Cen- 
tennial Commission was constituted, composed of two Commis- 
sioners from each State and Territory, nominated by their 
respective Governors, and appointed by the President. The 
Congress also created our auxiliary and associate corporation, 
the Centennial Board of Finance, whose unexpectedly heavy 
burdens have been nobly borne. A remarkable and prolonged 
disturbance of the finances and industries of the country has 
greatly magnified the task, but we hope for a favorable judg- 
ment of the degree of success attained. July 4th, 1873, this 
ground was dedicated to its present uses. Twenty-one months 
ago this Memorial Hall was begun. All the other one hun- 
dred and eighty buildings within the enclosure have been 
erected within twelve months. All the buildings embraced in 
the plans of the Commission itself are finished. The demands 
of applicants exceeded the space, and strenuous and continuous 
efforts have been made to get every exhibit ready in time. 

"By general consent the Exhibition is appropriately held 
in the City of Brotherly Love. Yonder, almost within your 
view, stands the venerated edifice wherein occurred the event 
this work is designed to commemorate, and the hall in which 
the first Continental Congress assembled. Within the present 
limits of this great park were the homes of eminent patriots of 
that era, where ^yashington and his associates received gener- 
ous hospitality and able counsel. You have observed the sur- 
passing beauty of the situation placed at our disjx>sal. In 
harmony with all this fitness is the liberal support given the 
enterprise by the State, city, and the people individually. 

" In the name of the United States, you extended a respect- 
ful and cordial invitation to the governments of other nations 
to be represented and to participate in this Exhibition. You 
know the very acceptable terms in which they responded, from 
even the most distant regions. Their Commissioners are here, 
and you will soon see with what energy and brilliancy they 
have entered upon this friendly competition in the arts of 
peace. 

19 



290 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 

" It has been the fervent hope of the Commission that, dur- 
ing this festival year, the people from all States and sections, of 
all creeds and churches, all parties and classes, burying all 
resentments, would come up together to this birthplace of our 
liberties, to study the evidence of our resources ; to measure the 
progress of an hundred years, and to examine to our profit the 
wonderful products of other lands ; but especially to join hands 
in perfect fraternity, and promise the God of our fathers that 
the new century shall surpass the old in the true glories of 
civilization. And furthermore, that from the association here 
of welcome visitors from all nations, there may result not alone 
great benefits to invention, manufactures, agriculture, trade 
and commerce, but also stronger international friendships and 
more lasting peace. 

" Thus reporting to you, Mr. President, under the laws of 
the government and the usage of similar occasions, in the name 
of the United States Centennial Commission, I present to your 
view the International Exhibition of 1876.'' 

Immediately following General Hawley's speech President 
Grant discharged the last formal yet simple and dignified act 
of the ceremonies by making proclamation of the eventful fact 
of the opening of the International Exhibition. The remarks 
of the President, like all the other speeches of the day, were in 
writing, and at intervals were applauded with great spirit. 
The following is the address ; 

" My Countrymen — It has been thought appropriate upon 
this Centennial occasion to bring together in Philadelphia, for 
popular inspection, specimens of our attainments in the indus- 
trial and fine arts, and in literature, science and philosophy, as 
well as in the great business of agriculture and of commerce. 
That we may the more thoroughly appreciate the excellencies 
and deficiencies of our achievements, and also give emphatic 
expression to our earnest desire to cultivate the friendship of 
our fellow-members of this great family of nations, the enlight- 
ened agricultural, commercial, and manufacturing people of the 
world have been invited to send hither corresponding speci- 
mens of their skill to exhibit on equal terms in friendly com- 



I 




SCENE ON THE SCHUYLKILL, NEAR PHILADELPHIA. 



291 



I 



292 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

petition with our own. To this invitation they have generously 
responded. For so doing we render them our hearty thanks. 

"The beauty and utility of the contributions will this day 
he submitted to your inspection by the managers of this Exhi- 
bition. We are glad to know that a view of specimens of the 
skill of all nations will afford to you unalloyed pleasure, as well 
as yield to you a valuable practical knowledge of so many of 
the remarkable results of the wonderful skill existing in enlight- 
ened communities. 

" One hundred years ago our country was new and but par- 
tially settled. Our necessities have compelled us to chiefly 
expend our means and time in felling forests, subduing prairies, 
building dwellings, factories, ships, docks, warehouses, roads, 
canals, machinery, etc., etc. Most of our schools, churches, 
libraries, and asylums have been established within an hundred 
years. Burdened by these great primal works of necessity, 
which could not be delayed, we yet have done what this Exhi- 
bition will show in the direction of rivalling older and more 
advanced nations in law, medicine, and theology ; in science, 
literature, philosopliy, and the fine arts. Whilst proud of what 
we have done, we regret that we have not done more. Our 
achievements have been great enough, however, to make it easy 
for our people to acknowledge superior merit wherever found. 

"And now, fellow-citizens, I hope a careful examination of 
what is about to be exhibited to you will not only inspire 
you with a profound respect for the skill and taste of our 
friends from other nations, but also satisfy you with the at- 
tainments made by our own people during the past one hun- 
dred years. I invoke your generous co-operation with the 
worthy Commissioners to secure a brilliant success to this Inter- 
national Exhibition, and to make the stay of our foreign vis- 
itors — to whom we extend a 'hearty welcome — both profitable 
and pleasant to them. 

" I declare the International Exhibition now open." 

A^ the President declared the Exhibition open, General 
Ha^.^ey gave the signal, and the flag of the United States was 
run up to the staff rising from the north transept of the Main 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 293 

Building. This was the signal for the unfurling of the national 
and foreign flags on all the buildings, and was greeted with 
deafening cheers from the assembled multitude. At the same 
moment the chorus, the orchestra and great organ in the Main 
Building burst forth into the grand strains of Handel's "Halle- 
lujah Chorus," rendering it with fine effect. As the music died 
awav, the merry peals of the chimes of Machinery Hall were 
heard, and a salute of one hundred guns was thundered from 
George's Hill. 

The invited guests, to the number of 4000, were now mar- 
shalled in line by Mr. T. B. P. Dixey, ]\Iaster of Ceremonies, 
and passing from Memorial Hall, through lines of troops,, 
entered the Main Building. The following was the 

OKDEK OF PEOCESSION. 

The President of the United States, and Alfred T. Goshorn, Director-General. 

The Chief-Justice of the United States. 

The President of the Senate. 

The Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Joseph R. Hawley, President of the United States Centennial Ccmmission. 

John Welsh, President of the Centennial Board of Finance. 

Daniel J. Morrell, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Commission. 

John L. Campbell, Secretary of the Commission. 

Frederick Fraley, Secretary of the Board of Finance. 

The Cabinet. 

The Supreme Court of the United States. 

The Diplomatic Corps. 

The United States Centennial Commission. 

Chiefs of Bureaus of Administration. 

The Centennial Board of Finance. 

Henry Pettit and Joseph M. Wilson, Engineers and Architects of Main 

Building and Machinery Hall. 
H. J. Schwarzmann, Architect of Memorial Hall and Horticultural Hall. 
James H. Windrim, Architect of Agricultural Hall and United States 

Governmen" Building. 

Richard J. Dobbins, Contractor Main Building and Memorial Hall. 

Philip Quigley, Contractor Machinery Hall and Agricultural Hall. 

Aaron Doane, Contractor Government Building. 

The Board of the United States Executive Department. 

The Women's Centennial Executive Committee. 

The Fairmount Park Commission. 

The Governors of the States and Territories. 

The Senate of the United States'. 



294 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

The House of Representatives. 

The General of the Army and Staff. 

The Admiral of the Navy and Staff. 

The Lieutenant-General of the Array and Staff. 

The Vice-Admiral of the Navy jind Staff. 

The General Officers of the Army and Staffs. 

The Rear- Admirals and Commodores of the Navy and Staffs. 

Officers of tlie Army and Navy. 

Military and Naval Officers of Foreign Governments. 

Consuls-General and Consuls of Foreign Governments. 

Judges of United States Courts and Officers of the United States Executive 

Bureaus. 

Officers of the United States Coast Survey. 

Officers of the Naval Observatory. 

Officers of the Smithsonian Institute. 

The Board of Judges of Awards of the Exhibition. 

The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. 

The Legislature of Pennsylvania. 

The Judiciary of Pennsylvania. 

The Board of State Supervisors of Pennsylvania. 

The State Boards of Pennsylvania. 

The Mayor of Philadelphia. 

The Mayors of Cities. 

The Select and Common Councils of Philadelphia. 

The State Centennial Boards. 

The Women's Centennial Committees. 

The Advisory and Co-operating Committees and Boards of the Commission. 

International Regatta Committees, and Committee of the National Rifle 

Association. 

Officers of the City Departments of Philadelphia. 

The Foreign Commissioners of the Exhibition successively took positions 

>Diro3diately after the Diplomatic Corps, as the latter passed 

the Foreign Sections in the Main Building. 

The procession passed through the Main Building, and 
through the lines of troops which kept clear the passage to 
the Machinery Hall. Entering the latter edifice, escorted by 
the Philadelphia City Troop as a guard of honor, the President 
of the United States and the Emperor of Brazil ascended to the 
platform of the great Corliss Engine, where Mr. George H. 
Corliss, a Commissioner from Rhode Island and the inventor and 
constructor of the engine, received them, and instructed them 
how to turn the wheels of shining steel that were to wake the 
engine into life. When all the guests had assembled around 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 295 

the platform, the President and the Emperor took their posi- 
rions at the starting wheels. A sharp wave of the hand from 
tVIr. Corliss gave the signal, and at twenty minutes past one 
o'clock p. M., the wheels were turned, and the great engine 
began to move slowly and steadily. In an instant the countless 
wheels and bands connected with it started on their rounds, and 
Machinery Hall was alive with motion. 

The crowd in the hall burst into loud and prolonged cheer- 
ing. A sort of informal reception was held on the platform 
by President Grant, but it was soon cut short, as the Presiden- 
tial party, worn out by the fatigues of the day, departed for the 
city, omitting the reception at the Judges' Pavilion, the last 
feature in the programme. 

The doors of the various Exhibition buildings were at once 
thrown open to the public, and the halls were soon filled, and 
remained thronged throughout the day by sight-seers. On all 
sides were heard exclamations of wonder and delight. Few had 
imagined the Exhibition either so extensive or so grand an 
affair, and all were delighted. 

The Exhibition was now an accomplished fact. The hopes of 
its friends were more than realized. The criticisms of its 
enemies were silenced. 

At night the city was brilliantly illuminated in honor of the 
opening, and the principal streets were thronged with sight-seers 
to an extent which made them almost impassable until near 
midnight. 




CHAPTER IX. 

WITHOUT THE GEOUNDS. 

Rapid Growth of the Centennial Town — The Transcontinental and Globe 
Hotels — The United States — The Grand Exposition — The Panorama — 
Sights and Scenes on Elm Avenue — The Cheap Hotels — The Beer-Gardens — 
The Carriage Sheds— The Cheap Museums— The Oil Wells— The Street Car 
Concourse — A Busy Scene — Centennial Depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
— Belmont Avenue — Appearance of the Street — The Largest Soda Fountain 
in the World — The Restaurants — The Tropical Garden — A Delightful Re- 
sort — George's Hill — Belmont — The Steamboat Landing — Centennial Depot 
of the Reading Railroad. 

HEN the Exhibition buildings were begun, the portion 
of the city which lies south of Elm avenue, and along 
Lancaster avenue, was an open field, with scarcely a 
structure upon it. It is now a busy and thriving town, 
having an interest quite apart from that of the great 
city on the outskirts of which it lies, and drawing its life solely 
from the Centennial Exhibition. It consists of a multitude of 
structures of brick and wood that have sprung up along the 
approaches to the Exhibition, and which present a scene almost 
as picturesque and as animated as that within the enclosure. 

At the intersection of Belmont and Elm avenues, opposite 
the main entrance to the Exhibition grounds, is the Transconti- 
nental Hotel, a handsome edifice of brick, built in the most sub- 
stantial manner, and triangular in shape. It is five stories in 
height, including a mansard roof, with a front of 297 feet on 
Elm avenue, and one of 18^1 feet on Belmont avenue. The 
three sides enclose a spacious courtyard, giving to each room an 
abundance of light and air. It contains 500 rooms, with accom- 
modations for 1200 guests, which number can be increased to 
1500 in case of necessity. The view of the Centennial grounds 
296 




297 



298 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 



from any portion of it above the second story is excelled only 
by that from the summit of the towers of its gigantic neighbor, 
the Main Exhibition Building, or from the Belmont observatory. 
The cars of the Chestnut & Walnut, West Philadelphia, Race 
& Vine, and Girard Avenue Passenger Railway lines run 
directly to its doors, while the depot of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road is within less than a stone's throw. These are advantages 
which it possesses in common with the Globe. It was built by 
R. J. Dobbins, the well-known contractor, who erected the Main 
Exhibition Building and Memorial Hall, and who is one of the 
stockholders of the hotel. The fact that its management is con- 




TRANSCONTINENTAL HOTEL, OPPOSITE MAIN BUILDING. 



ducted by Messrs. J. E. Kingsley & Co., of the Continental, is 
sufficient to warrant in this new quarter that success which has 
ever deservedly attended those famous managers. Built and 
furnished at a cost of over $250,000, nothing has been left 
undone in the hotel that could contribute to the perfect satisfac- 
tion of patrons of the highest class. The business office, public 
parlors, bar-room, kitchens, lautidries, reading-rooms and dining- 
rooms are models in themselves, and an important feature is a 
great restaurant, independent from the dining-room, and con- 
ducted on the same plan as the restaurant at the Continental — 
in fact, the two hotels are managed and conducted throughout 
after tlie one plan. 




299 



300 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Across Belmont avenue, a short distance back of Elm avenue, 
with nothing between it and the Exhibition buildings to break 
the view, stands the monster Globe Hotel, built also to accom- 
modate the throng of visitors to the Exhibition. It stands on 
Belmont avenue, within 500 feet of the main entrance to the 
Exhibition grounds. It is not flush with the avenue, for a lawn 
interspersed with beds of bright flowers separates it from the 
roadway more than fifty feet. A verandah fifteen feet wide and 
no less than 900 feet long encircles the building, and will afford 
a cool promenade during the warm summer evenings. The 
hotel, including the mansard roof, is five stories high, and the 
area which it covers is about 81,000 square feet. At the 
entrance to the hall is the office, eighty feet square ; the dining- 
room, which will be able to accommodate thirty thousand persons 
a day, is 500 by 53 feet. There are forty-seven flights of stairs, 
the steps seven feet wide, running in a direct line from the 
basement to the roof. Upon the uppermost floor are tanks 
capable of containing 15,000 gallons of water, and there is a 
regularly-organized fire department that is competent to nip a 
conflagration in the bud. The ventilation is perfect, and guests 
will not have to make the complaint so universal on the conti- 
nent of Europe that they have to rinse their faces in a soup 
plate half full of stagnant water and wipe them with the pillow 
case, for every room is completely furnished. The upper floors 
can easily be reached, by means of the elevators, by weary 
guests, who can summon servants at will by the touching of 
electric bells. In fact, every possible provision has been made 
to insure the comfort and security of all who make the Globe 
their abiding-place. The Pennsylvania Railroad will debark 
passengers on the hotel grounds, so there will be none of the 
uncomfortable jolting by stage qr car, which proves such a trial 
to tired travellers ; they will be at home when they land, for 
they will find all they desire at their immediate beck and call. 
It contains 1100 rooms, with accommodations for 4000 guests. 

The Globe is under the management of Mr. John A. Rice, 
so well and favorably known to travellers as the proprietor of 
the Grand Pacific Hotel of Chicago, one of the most genial and 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



301 



accomplished gentlemen in the country, and a very prince of 
" men who can keep a hotel/' 

Within a square of the Exhibition grounds, and in the rear 
of the Transcontinental, is the United States Hotel, at the corner 
of Forty-second street and Columbia avenue. It was built and 
is owned by Mr. K. J. Dobbins, already referred to above, and 
is so constructed that it can be readily converted into first-class 
dwellings after the close of the Exhibition. It is one of the 
pleasantest of the Exhibition hotels, and while perfectly conve- 
nient to the grounds is sufficiently removed from them to escape 




GRAND EXPOSITION HOTEL. 

the noise and confusion which reign supreme on Elm and Bel- 
mont avenues. It contains 325 rooms, with accommodations 
for 600 guests. 

Another monster establishment is the Grand Exposition Hotel, 
at the intersection of Girard and Lancaster avenues. It contains 
1325 rooms, and has accommodations for 4000 guests. It is 
deh'ghtfully located in a pleasant neighborhood, and is within 
fifteen minutes walk of the main entrance to the Exhibition. 
The street cars pass the door, and afford direct communication 
with the Exhibition and all parts of the city. The house is 
under the management of Mr. M. K-iley. It is conducted on 
the European plan. 



302 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Having thus disposed of the four great hotels that owe their 
existence to the Exhibition, let us glance at the town that has 
sprung up around the great buildings. It is very different from 
the city which lies in the distance beyond it, and possesses such 
a distinctive character of its own that no description of the 
Exhibition would be complete without some reference to it. 

We begin our inspection on Elm avenue below the Main 
Exhibition Building. Within the limits of the Park, and a few 
hundred yards below the Exhibition grounds, is a huge circular 
building of corrugated iron. This is The Panoi^ama, and is built 
somewhat upon the plan of the Colosseum, on Broad street. It is 
used for the exhibition of the panorama of The Siege of Paris, 
painted by Colonel Lienard of the French army. This picture was 
exhibited in New York during the past winter, and received the 
highest praise from both press and public. Standing upon the 
central platform — the point of observation — the gazer beholds 
every detail of the memorable siege of Paris by the Prussian army 
in 1870-71, reproduced with life-like exactness. Visitors are 
admitted during the hours of the Exhibition at a moderate charge. 

Looking up Elm avenue and across to Girard avenue, from 
this point, the scene is gay and inspiriting. On the right tower 
up the huge masses of the Exhibition buildings. On the left, 
stretching away up Elm avenue for nearly a mile, is a line of 
restaurants, small hotels, beer-gardens, ice-cream saloons, and 
small shows that have sprung up as if by magic. Each is gayly 
decorated with flags and streamers, and at night glitters with 
scores of gas-lamps of all possible hues. Almost every one of 
these buildings has a flat roof, which is either left open and 
sheltered by a canvas awning, or the second story is built open 
in order that the guests of the house may enjoy the air while 
eating and drinking. These upper stories form capital points 
of observation, and from any of them a brilliant and interesting 
picture of. the street and the Exhibition buildings and grounds 
may be obtained. Many of the " beer-gardens " are provided 
with bands of music, w^hich add to the gayety of the scene, and 
^attract customers. 

Every available foot of ground is covered, and the buildings 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 303 

are arranged in a manner that is often amusing. There is no 
ground wasted in the rear of the front line of buildings. A 
small side alley often leads to an extensive restaurant or beer- 
garden set back behind the front line. The prices paid for the 
leases of the ground were high as a rule, and the buildings are 
cheap and flimsy. They are mostly of wood, a few being of 
brick. A fire in any one would spread with a rapidity that 
would defy all efforts to check it, and the sense of insecurity 
one feels in gazing at this immense mass of wooden structures 
is painful. 

At Forty-first street and Elm avenue commences a line of 
small hotels. These are of brick, and though small are generally 
well kept. The principal are, the Elm Avenue Hotel, at the 
corner of Forty-first street and Elm avenue ; the Metropolitan, 
in Forty-first street, just out of Elm avenue; the International, 
a German house, on Elm avenue, a few doors above Forty-first 
street, and Congress Hall, a few doors higher up. These houses 
can accommodate from 200 to 800 guests — the latter being the 
capacity of Congress Hall. The last-named house is conducted 
on the European plan ; the others on the American plan of full 
board. They are the best of the cheaper hotels in the vicinity 
of the Exhibition. 

Set in the midst of the long row of bar-rooms and beer-gar- 
dens which line Elm avenue, like a rose among thorns, is the 
"Temperance Dining-room," from which intoxicating liquors 
of all kinds are sternly excluded. 

A walk of a square down Forty-first street brings us to 
Girard avenue, beyond which rise the handsome iron bridges 
at this and Fortieth streets, over the tracks of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. By means of these bridges the Market Street Pas- 
senger Railway Company is enabled to reach Elm avenue and 
the street-car concourse in front of the Main Exhibition Build- 
ing without using the tracks of any of the other roads. 

Looking down Girard avenue towards tl^e Schuylkill, one 
beholds a long line of restaurants, beer-gardens, bar-rooms, and 
cheap hotels similar to those on Elm avenue, all gaudily decor- 
ated and gay with flags. 



304 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Just about Forty-first street, Girard and Columbia avenues 
cross each other obliquely, the former continuing its course, 
through West Philadelphia, the latter stopping short at Belmont 
avenue. Gathered around their intersection are the *^ Carriage 
Repositories," a peculiar feature of the Exhibition. These con- 
sist of several establishments, each of which is made up of an 
office, one or more waiting-rooms, and long lines of rough sheds 
enclosed with a high board fence. The sheds are divided into stalls, 
and are intended for the accommodation of carriages and horses. 
Visitors coming from the city or the surrounding country in 
their own carriages or buggies may leave them at these " Re- 
positories," and receive checks for them. They will be left in 
charge of competent hostlers, and a cliarge of fifty cents per 
carriage will be made for taking care of them. The repositories 
are connected by wires with the telegraph offices in the Exhibi- 
tion grounds, from which visitors about to return may order 
their teams to be gotten in readiness for them, and tlius avoid 
all delays at the stands. One of these "Repositories ".contains 
1000 stands or stalls; another 300; and a third 500. The 
"Repository" at the intersection of Girard and Columbia avenues 
is ornamented with a handsome two-story building containing a 
bar, a restaurant, private rooms for ladies, dressing-rooms, etc. 

Returning to Elm avenue by way of Forty-first street, we 
continue our walk towards Belmont avenue. The line of 
restaurants is broken by a building, covered with coarse and 
glaring pictures which inform us that the establishment is a 
"Museum." Here may be seen the wild men of Borneo, and 
the wild children of Australia, the fat woman whose avoirdupois 
is put down in the bills at 602 pounds, a weight heavy enough 
to entitle her to a place in Machinery Hall, and a collection of 
" Feejees," who are vouched for by the exhibitors as "pure and 
: in adulterated man-eaters." 'Most visitors will accept this 
assurance without seeking to put it to the test. 

A few doors above the " Museum " is an establishment richly 
worth a visit. Two tall derricks of frame-work rising above 
the highest of the surrounding buildings at once attract the 
attention of passers-by. A large canvas suspended between 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 300 

them announces that this is a "Pennsylvania Oil Well/' This 
establishment is tlie property of Messrs. O'Donnell, Alshousc, 
& Louge, of Titusville, Pennsylvania. They have erected, at i; 
cost of $24,000, a large working oil well, such as is used in the 
oil regions of Pennsylvania. The members of this firm ar(> 
enterprising and practical men, and their business is the sinking 
of oil and artesian wells. They have bored many of the most 
successful wells in the oil regions, and with commendable enter- 
prise have purchased the ground on which their establishment 
stands, and have erected all the machinery necessary to the sue- 
cessful working of an oil well of the largest size, in order that 
visitors to the Exhibition, both native and foreign, may see the 
practical operation of what is now one of the leading industries of 
America. 

Messrs. O'Donnell, Alshouse & Louge use the most improved 
machinery in their works, and by their operations here show the 
working of both pumping and flowing wells. They design to 
show also all the improvements that have been made in the 
business of boring for oil and raising it from the wells when 
sunk, from the discovery of petroleum in Pennsylvania down to 
the present day. For this purpose they will drill one well to a 
depth of 2500 feet^ and with this illustrate the method of oper- 
ating a " flowing well." A " pumping well" will also be sunk 
to a depth of 400 feet, and will show the working of this branch 
of the business. Their flowing well can be worked to an extent 
of 2000 barrels of oil per day. Considerable interest is felt by 
those acquainted with the plans of the firm, as to the result of 
the sinking of a well of 2500 feet depth at this point. 

Among the objects of interest exhibited by this firm is the 
first " derrick " for boring wells ever set up in the Pennsyl- 
vania oil regions. An admission fee of 25 cents is charged. 

Higher up, on Elm avenue, nearly opposite to the central 
pavilion of the Main Building, a section of one of the famous 
Big Trees of California attracts wondering spectators, who may 
from it form an idea of these marvels of the Pacific slope. 

Immediately below the Transcontinental Hotel is a hand- 
some building consisting of a long narrow gallery, the lower 
20 



306 THE ILLUSTKATED HISTORY. 

story of which is a beer-saloon and the second story an open- 
air restaurant. At the Elm avenue end is a tasteful circular 
pavilion used as an ice-cream saloon. It forms one of the best 
points of observation on the street, and from it one may see the 
whole of the brilliant scene below while he sips his ices. 

On the opposite side of Elm avenue, just under the shadow 
of the Main Buildiug, is the Street Car Concourse. All the 
passenger railway lines centre here, and a number of tracks are 
laid for their accommodation. These are in the form of an 
ellipse, so that the turning of the car and changing of horses, 
which would result in endless confusion, are avoided. An 
endless stream of cars is arriving and departing at all hours 
during the day, taking on and discharging their thousands of 
passengers. 

Belmont avenue is now reached. At the southwest corner 
of this street and Elm avenue is the Transcontinental Hotel, 
already referred to. Pausing a moment in the shelter of this 
handsome edifice, we notice the throng of vehicles gathered 
about the main entrances to the Exhibition grounds immedi- 
ately opposite. Here are vehicles of every description— omni- 
buses, cabs, carriages, coupes, transfer coaches, etc., furnishing 
ample transportation of this class for all who desire to use it. 

Through the gates of the Exhibition a steady throng pours 
in and out, and the turnstiles at the entrances keep up a con- 
stant clicking as they register the arrivals and departures. 

Crossing Belmont avenue we continue on our way up Elm 
avenue, and come upon an open space lined with the "small- 
trade people.^' Here are pea-nut stands, pie-stalls, the apple- 
men and women, Bologna sausage-vendors, dealers in cakes and 
lemonade, and the inevitable balloon-man. They make up a 
curious display as they stand patiently through the long hours 
of the hot and dusty day, offering their wares which no one 
seems to buy. You wonder, as you see them, how all these 
people manage to- live; if they ever sell the uninviting wares 
in which they deal ; and if those who buy of them eat their 
purchases. 

Passing on, the Centennial Depot of the Pennsylvania Bail- 




I— I 
»? 
o 
< 

H 

M 
Oi 

O 

Ph 

o 

■< 

o 

(^ 

< 



307 



308 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

road, on Elm avenue, opposite the main entrance to the Exhi- 
bition grounds, is reached. This is a large and handsome 
wooden structure, tastefully painted to harmonize with the 
great buildings across the street, and is ornamented with pic- 
turesque towers at its four corners. It is provided with all the 
conveniences of a first-class railroad depot, and is in all respects 
worthy of the great road to which it belongs. 

The depot building is devoted to offices, ticket-offices, waiting 
and baggage rooms, etc. The waiting-rooms are large and airy, 
and are abundantly supplied with comfortable seats. Xews and 
refreshment stands are established at convenient points, and 
several ticket-offices are attached to these rooms. 

The doors on the north side of the building lead out upon 
Elm avenue. Those on the south side open upon a series of 
platforms provided with three lines of track, each of which is 
enclosed with a picket fence separating it from the others. The 
tracks enter the depot enclosure at one end, pass around in a 
semi-circle, and leave it at the opposite end. This arrangement 
allows the use of the depot by a large number of trains w^ithout 
confusion. The main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad is but 
a few hundred yards distant, and all western trains of this road 
pass through this depot, thus landing their passengers at the 
very gates of the Exhibition. Trains also arrive at this station 
from New York, Baltimore, and Washington, so that passen- 
gers from all parts of the Union by the Pennsylvania Railroad 
and its southern and eastern connections can be set down here, 
and may here take the trains for their distant homes. 

The depot is a busy place. Trains are constantly arriving 
and departing, and each one brings in or takes out its load of 
human freight. So perfect are the arrangements, and so strictly 
are the tracks guarded against the intrusion of persons not con- 
nected with the road, that in spite of the constant moving of 
trains and the vast crowd of passengers, accidents are impossible. 

Above the Pennsylvania Railroad Depot, the line of restaur- 
ants, beer-saloons and bar-rooms begins again. These establish- 
ments are inferior to those below Belmont avenue, but the same 
reckless use of wood is found here, and the same lavish use of 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 309 

flags and painted canvas is seen. The danger of fire is even 
greater here than below Belmont avenue, for here the buildings 
are generally of wood, and of the flimsiest character. 

One square back of Elm avenue, on Viola street, and extend- 
ing from Fifty -second to Forty-eighth street, is the Atlas Hotel. 
It consists of a number of frame buildings connected by covered 
galleries. The hotel contains fifteen hundred rooms, and can 
provide accommodations for three thousand people. 

Returning to Belmont avenue, we pause once more to gaze 
upon the busy scene at the intersection of this thoroughfare 
with Elm avenue. On the one hand are the main entrances to 
the Exhibition grounds, with the eager throng around them ; 
to the east and west stretches away the long line of Elm avenue, 
gay with flags and alive with music and the sharp rattle of 
passing vehicles. Facing Belmont avenue the scene is equally 
attractive. To the right is the large open space occupied by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, with its constantly arriving and 
departing trains, with the main line beyond it, and farther on 
the towers and flags of the huge Grand Exposition Hotel are 
seen rising above the trees. On the left is the Transcontinental 
Hotel, about the entrance of which a crowd is always collected. 
A constant stream of street cars and carriages pours along Bel- 
mont avenue, which is the main route from the Exhibition into 
the city, and the street is as busy, as bustling and as gay as its 
neighbor. Elm avenue. 

About one hundred yards back from Elm avenue is the 
Globe Hotel, which has been described. It stands opposite 
the Transcontinental and fronts on Belmont avenue. It is an 
immense structure, the prevailing colors of which are gray and 
brown, and its long galleries offer a delightful promenade, and 
remind one of the great watering-place hotels. 

In the open space between the upper end of the Globe and 
Elm avenue are two structures, which from their peculiar ap- 
pearance are sure to attract the attention of strangers. One of 
these is a large building erected as a soda water saloon by Mr. 
James W. Tufts, of Boston, the well-known manufacturer of 
soda water fountains and apparatus. Mr. Tufts has some thir- 



310 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

teen or' fourteen soda water fountains in operation within the 
Exhibition grounds, but his greatest display is reserved for this 
building. The exterior of the edifice is neat and tasteful, and 
the interior is fitted up \^ery handsomely and adorned with 
elaborate frescoes. In the centre stands a splendid fountain of 
variegated marble, with silver trimmings. It is forty feet in 
height, and was erected at a cost of between twenty-five and 
thirty thousand dollars. It is the largest fountain in the world, 
and is by far the handsomest. It is capable of sujoplying an 
almost unlimited demand for soda water, as it has seventy-six 
syrup, eight soda, and twenty mineral tubes. 

Immediately adjoining the soda water hall is a showy 
pavilion constructed mainly of colored glass set in a tasteful 
frame work. This is the Cigar Pavilion of M. Salomon & Co., 
importers of Havana cigars, whose wholesale houses in Phila- 
delphia and New York have long been known to the trade. 

On the east side of Belmont avenue, immediately in the rear 
of the Transcontinental Hotel, is Wiley^s Restaurant, with a 
handsome entrance and an open-air saloon in the second story. 
Next door to it is Doyle^s Restaurant, a large and substantial 
edifice of brick, with a spacious dining-hall, a cafe, and a bar- 
room on the first floor. Here are also telegraph offices, writing 
and wash-rooms, and a private parlor for ladies. The second 
floor contains numerous suites of rooms, private parlors, ban- 
quet-rooms, etc., which may be engaged by private parties. 
There are also lodgings here for two hundred men at moderate 
rates. The house is the property of Mr. John Doyle, late of 
the Continental Hotel. 

Next below Doyle^s is Tischner^s Restaurant, a handsome 
private dwelling altered to suit the demands of the times. It 
stands in the midst of its own grounds and is shaded by fine 
trees, and constitutes one of the prettiest features of the street. 
At the entrance to these grounds is a handsome pavilion con- 
taining a beautiful marble soda fountain, from which cooling 
drinks are dispensed for the refreshment of weary passers-by. 

The east side of Belmont avenue, from Columbia avenue to 
Teflerson street, is taken up with the stables and depot of the 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION, 



311 



Philadelphia City Passenger Railway, tasteful and substantial 
buildings of pressed brick. 

Immediately opposite, and adjoining the Globe Hotel, is a 
huge building of wood, covered with corrugated iron and 
painted in light colors. This is Operti's Trojyical Garden^ one 
of the handsomest places of amusement in Philadelphia. It is 
light and airy as befits a summer garden, and is handsomely 
decorated with frescoes and other paintings. Long lines of col- 
ored globes, each containing a gas jet, stretch across the interior 




doyle's restaurant. 

beneath the ceiling, and shed a brilliant light upon the scene 
below. At the back a large waterfall dashes over the painted 
rocks, forming a beautiful cascade, and giving to the air on the 
hot nights of the summer a delicious coolness. The orchestra 
stand is in the centre of the hall, and is profusely decorated with 
flowers and shrubbery, which are also scattered lavishly through 
the hall. The chairs of visitors are arranged around the 
orchestra on the lower floor, and in a large gallery which 
extends entirely around the hall. 



312 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

The scene within the hall during the performances is very- 
beautiful. Rocky nooks and beds of rare and beautiful flowers 
invite the visitor on every hand. The splendid cascade dashes 
down its rocky height, glittering in the radiance of a powerful 
lime light shed upon it from an invisible point. Different 
colored lights flash down from the lamps overhead, and the air 
is laden with the rich perfume of the flowers and the delicious 
coolness of the waters. 

The music is furnished by a superb band of over sixty per- 
formers led by Signor Guiseppe Operti. The uniform of the 
musicians consists of a military cap, a dark blue coat with red 
and gold trimmings, and white pants and vest. As the concert 
be2:ins the water is turned off from the cascade, which is silent 
during the performance ; but the moment the music ceases it 
springs into life again. 

The garden and the performances will compare favorably 
with any in the country, and every effort will be made by the 
management to render it a place of amusement suited to the 
demands of the most fastidious taste. The admission fee is half 
a dollar; and in order to prevent the intrusion of improper 
characters the management announce that they will deny admis- 
sion to ladies unaccompanied by gentlemen. 

Below the Tropical Garden the line of cheap restaurants 
and bar-rooms commences, and continues unbroken to Girard 
avenue. These are mostly of brick, and altogether Belmont 
avenue has a more substantial and respectable appearance than 
Ehn avenue. The two great hotels, the musical garden and the 
solid appearance of its buildings give to it more of the aspect 
of a street of a great city, and the picture, as one surveys it 
from Girard avenue, is enhanced by the great buildings of the 
Exhibition and the long reach of Exhibition grounds, which 
stretch away from the head of t^he street to the hills of the Park. 

At Girard avenue a fine iron bridge carries the line of Bel- 
mont avenue over the tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and 
a similar structure at an oblique angle to the first continues the 
line of Girard avenue unbroken to the westward. From this 
bridge a fine view may be obtained of the main line of the 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 313 

PennsylvaDia Railroad for a distance of several miles, and of 
its Centennial branch and depot. The constant moving of 
trains, which pass this point at a high rate of speed, renders this 
view one of the most interesting to be had in the vicinity of the 
Exhibition. 

At Girard avenue the temporary town which has grown up 
about the gates of the Exhibition ceases, and a long, sparsely 
built region intervenes between it and Philadelphia proper. 

No one should fail to obtain a view of this ^' Centennial 
town ^' from some commanding point at which the whole picture 
can be taken in at once. The central towers of the Main Ex- 
hibition Building afford a capital place from which to view this 
curious panorama, as from them both Belmont and Elm avenues, 
and the distant line of Girard avenue, with the intervening cross 
streets, may be seen. The contrast between the splendid and 
imposing structures within the Exhibition grounds and the 
cheap and tawdry buildings which lie beyond them is striking 
indeed. Still, the scene is curious and interesting, and not the 
least among the " sights '^ of the Exhibition. 

Scarcely less interesting is the scene within the Park beyond 
the enclosure of the Centennial grounds. At the prominent 
points, such as George's Hill and Belmont, crowds assemble to 
view the busy scene within the Exhibition grounds. One can- 
not realize the extent and variety of the Exhibition until he has 
viewed the buildings and grounds from one of these points. A 
tall observatory of frame-work has been erected on George's 
Hill, from which a view of the " Centennial " and the surround- 
ing country may be had. A similar view can be obtained from 
the Sawyer Observatory at Belmont. Those who do not wish 
to soar so high as the summit of this structure may sit in the 
balconies of the restaurant or under the trees and enjoy the 
magnificent view, which embraces the Centennial grounds, the 
river with its bridges, the Park and the distant city beyond. 
The Centennial, with its multitude of restaurants, has not 
robbed Belmont of its popularity, and on fair days one is sure 
to find this favorite resort thronged with guests. 

Two prominent points of interest are situated on the river 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 315. 

shore. The first of these is the landing-place of the Schuylkill 
steamboats, which ply between the Falls and the city, making 
regular landings here. Broad flights of stairs lead from the 
water to the summit of the hill above, and afford an easy means 
of reaching the entrances to the Exhibition grounds. 

.The other and last point of interest without the enclosure is 
the depot of the Philadelphia & Eeading Railroad. It is a 
tasteful frame building, painted in colors which harmonize well 
with the luxuriant foliage in which it is embowered. The de- 
pot is provided with ticket offices, waiting-rooms, private rooms 
for ladies, and all the conveniences of a first-class railway station. 
The tracks of the main line lie alongside the station, and a lono^ 
platform affords the means of entering and leaving the cars. A 
plank walk-way leads up an easy ascent from the depot to the 
entrances to the Main Exhibition Building. The depot is 
situated in one of the loveliest sections of the Park, and there 
can be nothing more charming and delightful than the view 
which greets the wearied sight-seer, returning from the Exhibi- 
tion to the cars, as he descends the hill towards the river. The 
luxuriant foliage seems to enwrap the depot building, so thickly 
does it cluster about it; and through the opening in the trees 
can be seen the broad and beautiful river, with the picturesque 
arches of the bridge in the distance, and the bold, bluff-like 
shores of the East Park across the water. 





CHAPTER X. 

THE EXHIBITION GROUNDS, 

Topography of the Grounds — The Kavines — The Entrances — The Turnstiles^ 
Styles of Tickets used — The Photograph Regulation — The Centennial Guard 
— The Fire Department — The Narrow-Gauge Eailway — The Rolling Chair 
Service — Landscape Gardening — The Flowers — ^The Avenues — The Bridges 
— Bartholdi's Fountain — The Roman Catholic Total Abstinence Fountain — 
The Centennial Waterworks — Relief Plans of Foreign Cities — Statue of Re- 
ligious Liberty — Statues of Christopher Columbus and Elias Howe — The 
Hunter's Camp — An Old-Fashioned Railroad Train — The American 
Soldiers' Monument — The Ice- Water Fountain — The Indian Camp. 

(VHE Commissioners of Fairmount Park transferred to 
the United States Centennial Commission, for the pur- 
poses of the International Exhibition, a tract of 450 
acres. Of this tract 236 acres have been occupied by 
the Exhibition buildings and the open spaces between 
them, and have been enclosed with a stout picket fence. 

The tract thus enclosed is admirably adapted to the purposes 
of the Exhibition. It is an elevated plateau, with three spurs 
jutting out toward the river, separated from each other by deep, 
wooded ravines, through which flow small streams. The 
ravine nearest the southern end of the grounds is called the 
Lansdowne valley, the other the Belmont valley. The Lans- 
downe valley is spanned by two handsome bridges, the Belmont 
valley by one, these bridges affording an easy communication 
between the various portions of the grounds. 

The Exhibition plateau stands 120 feet above the Schuylkill, 
and is always swept by a delightful breeze. The view from 
either of the spurs is exquisitely beautiful, embracing as it does 
the. river, the park, and the distant city. The most northern 
of these spurs is occupied by the Agricultural Building, the 
316 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 317 

central one by Horticultural Hall, and the southern by 
Memorial Hall. The three unite in a broad plain, which con- 
tains the Main Building, Machinery Hall, the United States 
Government Building and a number of smaller structures. 
The sides of the ravines and the spaces between the more promi- 
nent edifices are also thickly covered with buildings. 

Thirteen places of entrance and exit to and fi'om the grounds 
have been selected by the Board of Finance. These are located 
at points convenient to the main roads and nearest to the places 
at which the horse and steam railways and steamboats will set 
down their passengers. 

" The entrances nearly all have four gates : one for visitors 
proper to the Exhibition, that is, those who pay to go in ; 
another for persons bearing complimentary tickets ; a third for 
exhibitors, representatives of the press, and employes, in fact, 
for all not belonging to the two classes just named; and another 
for wagons. At these points of entrance, so called, are also 
placed the exits. Based upon a careful calculation of the traffic 
over each of the roads surrounding the Exhibition grounds and 
leading to the entrance points selected, have been placed from 
one to thirty-three gates or turnstiles. Of these altogether there 
are one hundred and six. The exits, in their vicinity, are forty- 
two. On page 318 will be found a detailed statement of their 
number and position. 

" The turnstiles, which have the usual four arms, are in twos 
at the end of passage-ways ten feet long, separated by another 
passage-way to be afterward described. These lead slantingly 
from the doorway, so as to prevent a direct crowd pressure upon 
the head of the line of visitors. Other means have also been 
adopted to prevent this pressure. Each turnstile is under the 
control of a keeper, Avho sits or stands behind a short counter 
and receives from each visitor the admission fee — a fifty cent 
note — before the visitor passes the arm of the stile, which is, by 
a mechanical contrivance, operated by the keeper's foot. As 
the stile turns for each entrance it registers itself as well at the 
gate as electrically at the manager's office, with which each has 
electrical communication. 



318 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 

6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12 
13 



LOCATION. 



East end of Main Building 

Centre of Main Building, facing Elm avenue... 

Main entrance, intersection of Belmont and 
Elm avenues 

Centre of Machinery Hall, on Elm avenue 

On Fifty-second street, where it intersects 
Fountain and Elm avenues 

George's Hill, western entrance of " Avenue of 
the Republic " 

At the intersection of Belmont drive and Bel- 
mont avenue 

Glen Entrance, on Lansdowne drive 

Belmont Valley (entrance for visitors arriving 
by steamboat), on Lansdowne drive 

Horticultural Hall (entrance for visitors arriv- 
ing by steamboat), on Lansdowne drive 

Lansdowne Valley (entrance for visitors by 
steamboat and Reading Railroad), under 
bridge at Lansdowne drive 

Memorial Hall, Lansdowne drive, south of the 
former entrance 

Old River road, at the intersection of the Lans- 
downe drive 



15 
5 

33 
2 

2 

2 

1 
2 

2 

2 

4 
3 
3 



76 



>i 




1 








s 


• B 




a . 


£ i- 




C X 












C -^ 










o 

1 

2 


6 




2 


3 


... 


3 


1 


2 


3 


1 


... 


2 


1 


... 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


... 


2 


1 


... 


2 


1 


... 


2 


... 


1 


2 


1 


... 


1 


1 


6 


24 


11 



w 



5 
6 

13 

2 

2 

1 

2 
2 

1 

2 

2 
2 



42 



I RECAPITULATION. 

Money gates 75 

Complimentary q 

Exhibitors, employes, press, etc 24 



Total number of entrances 106 



" The money, when received by the gate-keeper, is deposited 
in a box placed under the counter, which also by a mechanical 
contrivance locks itself as it is pulled from the position which 
it occupies when in use. Its opening can only be effected by 
the bank officers. 

" Between the two counters and entrances stands an officer, 
who, with his back to the middle passage- way previously referred 
to, watches both lines as they enter. On the happening of the 
least disturbance he will draw the disturber from the line and 
pass him down this passage and out beyond the fence. 

"The exits are of ingenious contrivance, and, while permit- 
*ting freely the departure of persons from the grounds through 




3ir) 



320 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

turnstiles of rather different construction than those described 
above, absohitely prevent re-entrance, although no officer is re- 
quired to watch them. They resemble small roofed sheds, with 
two gates opening inward or backward from a centre post on 
the fence line. One of the sides of the shed is extended or con- 
tinued in an arc till its inner limit is opposite the centre of the 
gate-post. At the other side, opposite the spot at which the 
arc (or fender) starts, and rising one above another, extend out, 
at rio-lit ano^les with the side, a series of fixed lateral bars or 
arms nine feet high. On a line with this, and also on a line 
with the end of the fender opposite the gate-post, rises another 
post on which another turnstile revolves, the four arms of which 
re})eated, rise as high as the top of the lateral bars, between 
which they pass on each quarter revolution. This latter works 
with a ratchet, and always outward. 

^' It will be seen from this that when a visitor desires to leave 
the ground he has to place himself in a triangle formed by two 
of the turnstile arms and the fender. As he moves forward and 
outward the turnstile moves with him until he finds himself at 
the gate. He cannot change his mind and get back, this being 
prevented by the outward movement controlled by the ratchet, 
nor can he come in again without the payment of another fifly 
cent note, this being prevented by the fixed lateral bars. 

*' The designs of all the entrances are very neat and tasteful. 
The wagon entrances, ten feet high, being necessarily the widest 
aiid highest, admit of the greatest scope for ornamentation. 
They are surmounted with American trophies, shields, flags, 
eao^les, etc. A flao;staff rises at each side, and the name ^ Inter- 
national Exhibition ' is over the door. A similar style of orna- 
mentation is upon the pedestrian entrance gates and exits. On 
panels over the gates are gilt signs indicating whether they are 
for employes, etc., or are complimentary, or pay entrances." 

No tickets are used for the pay admissions. The visitor is 
required to come provided with a fifty cent note or a silver half- 
.^ollar. There must be a separate fifty cent note or half-dollar 
for each visitor. The gate-keepers have no authority to accept 
notes or silver pieces of a larger or smaller denomination, and 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION, o2l 

do not furnish change. At each entrance an office will be found 
to furnish change for large bills. 

There are but two kinds of tickets issued or used — compli- 
mentary tickets, and those issued to exhibitors, members of the 
press, emploj^es, etc. Complimentary tickets are issued only to 
persons whose high official stations entitle them to the privilege, 
and the number will therefore be limited. These tickets are 
printed on heavy bond paper in square note-size sheets. The 
design is on the first page, a female figure of America seated on 
a globe, with a palm branch in her hand, and by her side a 
cornucopia. Beneath are the words, " United States Interna- 
tional Exhibition, Philadelphia, opening May 10th, closing 
November 10th, 1876. Complimentary." They are signed by 
the President of the Board of Finance, the President of the Com- 
mission, and the Director-General. On the third page there is 
a request to the holder that he will deposit his card on entrance 
as a basis for future statistics of the Exhibition, The envelope 
containing these is worded as the note, but without the figure 
of America. The tickets for exhibitoi^, employes, etc, are on 
fine card, in the form of a two-leaved lx)ok. Hound the centre 
space on the inner pages is a border of geometrical lathework- 
cutting, while around that are three rows of numerals, corre- 
sponding in number with the number of days the Exhibition 
will be open. Around these again is another lathework border. 
It is intended that one of these numbers, and the appropriate 
one, shall be punched on -the first daily entrance of the holder. 
Each time he leaves the ground after his first entrance he will 
receive a pass or return-check. This is noted on the left leaf 
of the ticket. On the right inner page there is an oval in the 
centre surrounded by stars and ornamental latliework. In this 
oval the holder will be required to insert his photograph before 
the 1st of June, and he is reminded of this by the words in this 
i^mce, " Not good after June 1st unless the reo;ulation photograph 
of the holder be inserted in this place." Under the photograph 
space are the words, " Not transferable, forfeited if presented by 
any but the proper owner." On the first or title pa2:e outside is 
the title, " International Exhibition," with the holder's namCj 
21 



o 



22 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



Ills class, his country, and serial number. On the fourth or 
last page there is a lathework medallion with the warning, 
"This ticket will not be renewed if lost/' The border on these 
two pages, as well as on the inner pages, is elaborate lathework. 

For the protection of the buildings and the large and valu- 
able collection gathered within them a special police or guard 
has been provided by the Commission. The force consists of 
600 men, uniformed, and placed under rigid military disci- 
pline. They are quartered in barracks erected at the upper 
and lower ends of the Exhibition grounds, and are on duty 
day and night. They are organized as a regiment, under the 
command of a colonel, and are divided into companies, each 
with its proper officers. They are charged with the duty of 
guarding the buildings and their contents, and preserving order 
within the enclosure. They have full power to arrest offenders 
and convey them to the station house provided for their recei> 
tion and detention until they can be turned over to the courts 
for trial. 

A special fire department has also been provided. Several 
first-class steam fire-engines are located at convenient points 
within the grounds, and a system of telegraphic signals has 
been arranged by which the exact location of a fire can be 
instantly communicated to the engine houses. A number of 
Babcock Fire Extinguishers, ready for instant use, are placed 
in the various buildings, and every possible precaution against 
fire has been taken. 

To visit the distant parts of the grounds on foot would be a 
slow and tedious undertaking, and would greatly interfere with 
tllfe comfort and pleasure of visitors. As no carriages are 
allowed within the enclosure, a pleasant and speedy means of 
transit between the various portions of the grounds is provided 
in the West End Railway, a narrow-gauge railroad about four 
miles in length, which, beginning at the lower end of the Main 
Building, makes the circuit of the grounds. The road is laid 
with a double track, and is finely equipped with ten narrow- 
gauge locomotives and forty cars. The road with its efjuip- 
ment is a special exhibit by the West End Railway Company, 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 323 

who have also purchased the sole right to transport passengers 
within the grounds. Passenger stations, consisting of enclosed 
platforms, are provided at convenient points along the line. 
Passengers purchase tickets at the offices at these stations, and 
deliver them to the guard upon entering upon the platform. 
They are then at liberty to take the train when it comes along, 
and may leave it at any station, or may make the circuit of the 
grounds for a single fare. The trains run at an average speed 
of eight miles an hour. The fare is five cents. No one visits 
ing the Exhibition should fail to make the circuit of the 
grounds by means of this railway, as it is only by doing so that 
a comprehensive idea of the size and arrangement of the Exhi- 
bition can be obtained. 

Rolling chairs are kept for hire at designated stations within 
the principal buildings, and may be used to pass from point to 
point within the grounds. They may be hired with the ser- 
vices of an attendant to propel them, or without, as one may 
desire. The charge, with an attendant, is sixty cents an hour, 
or $4.50 a day. If hired without an attendant the charge is $1 
for three hours, subject to a drawback of thirty cents for each 
hour in which the chair is unused. These chairs are comfort- 
able vehicles, in which one may sit at ease and make the tour 
of the buildings without fatigue. They are excellent for ladies 
or persons who are not able to endure the long and steady 
tramp through the buildings, and their construction and shape 
are such that they may be wheeled through the narrowest 
passage-ways of the enclosure, except within the special pa- 
vilions, and close up to the articles the occupant wishes to 
inspect. 

i. 

Chairs and settees are scattered through the buildings and 
grounds, for the accommodation of visitors. No charge is made 
for the use of these. Many of the exhibitors have handsome 
sofas and other seats within their spaces, which are at the 
visitors^ service. 

The grounds are handsomely laid off, and are in many places 
well shaded by the native forest trees. The ravines which 
separate the spurs on which the principal buildings stand give 



324 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

to them a picturesqtieness which nothing else could impart. 
From almost any point a beautiful landscape stretches out 
before the gazer/ and affords a pleasant and grateful contrast to 
the lines of buildings which stretch away on every hand. At 
the north side of Machinery Hall a pretty lake, covering about 
five acres of ground, constitutes a pleasant feature of the scene, 
and from its centre a fine jet of water springs up, cooling the 
air with its moisture. Other fountains there are to be noticed 
hereafter. The spacious grounds in front of Horticultural Hall 
are dotted with parterres of flowers and are traversed by a 
sunken garden leading up to the portals of the hall. Wherever 
it was possible to save any ground for ornamentation, there the 
landscape gardeners have been busy, and fresh grass swards 
and beds of flowers aflbrd new delights to the lovers of the 
beautiful. The fine old trees of the park add greatly to the 
beauty as well as to the comfort of the scene. 

The grounds are traversed by five main avenues, and by 
many miles of walks which are nameless. The first of the 
main thoroughfares is the Avenue of the Republic, which com- 
mences at the eastern end of the grounds and runs north of the 
Main Building and Machinery Hall to the Roman Catholic 
Fountain. It is 100 feet in width. Belmont avenue extends 
from the main entrance on Elm avenue, between the Main and 
Machinery Halls, to Belmont, crossing the grounds obliquely. 
Fountain avenue extends from the Roman Catholic or Tem- 
perance Fountain to Horticultural Hall. Agricultural avenue 
extends from the Avenue of the Republic, near the western end 
of the Main Building, to Agricultural Building. State avenue 
skirts the base of George's Hill. All the avenues and walks 
are paved with asphaltum. 

To furnish direct communication between the various parts 
of the grounds at their eastern 'end a fine bridge is thrown over 
the Lausdowne ravine, just north of Memorial Hall. The 
bridge consists of twelve spans, and has a total length of 515 
feet. The roadway is 60 feet wide, and the footwalks 10 feet 
wide each, making the total width of the bridge 80 feet. The 
foundations are masonry throughout, trestles of timbers being 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 325 

erected on the piers. The trestles are formed with combination 
posts, the pieces firmly bolted and mortised together, forming a 
stiff, rigid system. The masonry is of the best Conshohocken 
stone, that in the foundation being laid with good flat beds, the 
stone of good size and shape, none averaging less than 6 cubic 
feetj and the footing courses projecting 6 inches on all sides. 
The masonry above ground is rock-range work, pointed with 
dark mortar. The wrought-iron work is specified of the best 
quality, and all the lumber throughout the structure is of the 
first quality white pine, except the upper flooring and curb, 
which is of white oak. All parts of the bridge, except the 
flooring and floor-joist, are painted in three coats of oil of ap- 
proved tints. The fence which encloses the Exhibition grounds 
passes along the centre of the bridge, thus reserving one part 
of it to the Exhibition and devoting the other to the public 
drive through the park. Another bridge has been built higher 
up, over the Lansdovvne valley, and Belmont valley is also 
bridged in several places. 

The Esplanade, at the main entrance between the Main and 
Machinery Halls, has been handsomely laid off with grass plots 
and beds of flow^ers. In the centre is a large bronze fountain, 
with statues of Light and Water, " the twin goddesses of cities,^' 
by Bartholdi. 

At the west end of Machinery Hall is the Centennial Foun- 
tain, erected by the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of 
America. It is constructed entirely of marble and granite, and 
is one of the finest works of art in America. The design is by- 
Herman Kirn, a young sculptor of Philadelphia, a pupil of the 
celebrated sculptor Steinhauser, of Carlsruhe. It consists of a 
granite platform in the form of a Maltese cross, and approached 
by steps which extend entirely around it. In the centre is a 
large circular basin, 40 feet in diameter, from the centre of 
which rises a mass of rock work, on the summit of which a 
colossal statue of Moses is placed. He stands with one end of 
his rod resting on the rock which he has just struck, and from 
which the water gushes in streams about his feet and flows 
down into the basin below. At each of the four points of the 



126 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



cross is a handsome pedestal of white raarble, near the base of 
which is a drinking-fonntain. Each pedestal is surmounted by 
a marble statue 9 feet high. The persons represented by these 
statues are Charles Carroll, of CarroUton, Father Matthew, 
Archbishop Carroll, and Commodore John Barry, a distin- 
guished naval officer of the Revolution. The fountain is one 
of the handsomest ornaments of the grounds, and will remain 
after the Exhibition buildings have been removed; the cost of 
the fountain was §50,000. 




THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CENTENNIAL FOUNTAIN. 



The demand for water for various purposes being so great 
within the Exhibition grounds, a separate system of water- 
works is provided, and the main supply of Philadelphia is thus 
relieved of what would be a heavy drain upon it. A large 
pump-house of brick is built on the shore of the Schuylkill, 
immediately south of Columbia bridge, and is supplied with 
powerful pumping engines of the most apjiroved pattern. The 
water is pumped from the river at this point and forced up the 



OF THE CENTE^'XIAL EXHIBITION. 327 

hill to the top of the tall Stand Pipe wlilch rises back of 
Machinery Hall. The fall from the summit of this pipe gives 
it a force sufficient for all the purposes of the Exhibition. The 
works can supply 7,000,000 gallons of water daily to the build'* 
ings and grounds. 

To the north of the temperance fountain, and between Foun- 
tain and State avenues, are a series of relief plans in miniature 
of Switzerland, Jerusalem, Paris and Naples, constructed by 
Colonel Lienard, a distinguished French artist. These plans 
are exact representations in miniature of the places named, each 
building being cut out and set up to appear as it does in the 
cities represented. These are among the most interesting of the 
minor sights of the Exhibition. 

Immediately in the rear of Memorial Hall is the statue of 
Religious Liberty, erected by the Hebrew order of B'nai 
B'rith. It is the work of Ezekiel, an American sculptor of the 
Hebrew faith, and a native of Richmond, Virginia. Its cost 
was $30,000. The statue is of marble, and together with the 
pedestal is twenty feet in height. The design is a group of two 
figures — the one colossal, eight feet in height, stands near the 
centre of the pedestal. It typifies the Genius of Liberty. It is 
a female figure in armor ; a mantle fastened at the neck by an 
agraffe falls from the left shoulder to the left foot. The right 
breast and arm are uncovered. On the breastplate of the armor 
is wrought the American shield. The head is covered with the 
Phrygian cap bordered with thirteen stars. The left hand of 
the figure which holds the Constitution is supported by the 
fasces. The other figure of the group stands at the right si(ie 
of the former; it is a youth, slightly draped, with face upraised; 
one hand of this figure is stretched to heaven and holding an 
urn in which burns the sacred flame. At the base of the group 
an eagle is represented, its talons buried in a snake, typifying 
the destruction of slavery. The idea conveyed by the group is 
Liberty protecting Religion, and in the idea, personified by 
Religion, it is intended to express in a universal sense the 
reli-ance on a divine power common to humanity. The pedestal 




STATUE OF LXBEETY TO Bj: ESSCTED IN INDEPENDENCE SQUARE. 

328 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 329 

is inscribed with suitable sentences from the Constitution of the 
United States. 

A few feet west of the intersection of Fountain and Belmont 
avenues is the statue of Christopher Columbus, erected by the 
Italian residents of the United States. The statue is of Ravaz- 
zioni marble, and was executed in Italy by an Italian artist. It 
is of heroic size, and represents Columbus at the moment of 
the discovery of the New World. 

On the western side of the lake stands a bronze statue of 
Elias Howe, the inventor of the sewing machine. 

A number of soda water fountains are scattered through the 
grounds at convenient points. They are the property of 
Charles Lippincott & Co., of Philadel[)hia, and James W. 
Tufts, of Boston, who have the exclusive privilege of selling 
soda water in the buildings and grounds. 

Six cigar pavilions, owned and conducted by W. A. Flem- 
ing & Co., are located in various parts of the grounds. They 
are one story in height, with observatories. 

In the Belmont ravine, south of Agricultural Hall, is The 
Hunters' Camp, erected by the " Forest and Stream Publishing 
Company of New York.'' It is what is known as a permanent 
camp, and consists of a number of huts constructed of logs and 
bark. It is provided with all the appurtenances of a hunting 
and fishing camp, such as portable boats, sporting fire-arms, 
rods and lines, a kennel of sporting dogs, and specimens of 
game birds. At the margin of the camp, the stream which 
flows through the ravine has been converted into a small lake, 
and this has been stocked with game fish. The camp will be in 
charge of a number of experienced hunters, and will illustrate 
the various phases of a sportsman's life in the backwoods. 

Near the southern edge of the grounds, above Machinery Hall, 
is a queer-looking locomotive with two antiquated railroad pas- 
senger cars attached to it. This is the '^ John Bull," an English 
locomotive, and the first ever used on the New Jersey Railroad. 
It is the property of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, by 
which it is exhibited. The cars are the old-style coaches 
familiar to all ^vhose fate it was to travel on the Camden & 



330 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Amboy Railroad twenty years ago. The entrances are on tjie 
side, and the cars are low and badly ventilated. There are no 
steps at the side, the platforms of the stations being in those 
days built on a line with the doors of the cars. On the roof 
of the car which serves as a tender to the locomotive is a large 
covered scat, resembling an old-fashioned buggy top. When 
these cars were used, a man sat in this seat with his back to the 
locomotive and his face to the rear of the train, and held tlie 
end of the boll cord in his hand. Another corti extended from 
his seat to the signal bell of the locomotive. He was thus 
enabled to see that the cars did not become uncoupled, and 
repeated the signals of the conductor to the engineer. The 
locomotive shown here was placed on the New Jersey Railroad 
in 1831. A comparison between this machine and the splendid 
locomotives on exhibition in ^lachinerv Hall will show better 
than words the advance that has been made in railroad engine 
buihling. 

On the north of the Main Bnildini; stands tlie American 
Soldiers Monument, a colossal granite statue 21 feet in height, 
and weij^hins: 30 tons. 

At the intersection of Belmont and Fountain avenues is the 
Ice-Water Fountainy erected by the Grand Division of Sons of 
Temperance of the State of Pennsylvania. It is enclosed by 
a wooden jnivilion with thirteen sides, representing a Greek 
temj)le, 25 feet in diameter and 36 feet high. The fountain is 
eight feet in diameter and is surrounded by a passage-way. 
The fountain is provided with twenty-six self-acting si)igots, 
and is connected with a reservoir underground which i^ fed 
from the reservoir on George's Hill. The reservoir of the 
fountain has a capacity of 4000 to 5000 gallons of water, and 
can furnish an almost unlimited supply of ice-water, which is 
free to all. 

A most interesting feature of the Exhibition is the Indian 
Encampment, which is located on a reservation in the Centen- 
nial grounds at the foot of George's Hill. Over 300 Indians 
are encamped here; and this number is made up by detachments 
o!" from four to eight from fifty-three tribes. Both sexes are 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 331 

included, and the redskins are, in many instances, famous 
chiefs and their families. They were selected for their perfec- 
tion of form and physical development, or for their distin- 
guished deeds; so that they constitute the very aristocracy of 
the Indian nation. The object of the encampment is to show, 
in as perfect a degree as is now possible, the original inhabitants 
of this country and their mode of life. For this purpose they 
have with them a number of their lodges, their cooking utensils, 
weapons, agricultural implements, and the instruments by which 
their rude manufactures are carried on. They have also a num- 
ber of ponys and dogs. They will carry on their various 
occupations, including the weaving of blankets and belts, the 
making of moccasins and clothing, baskets and bead ornaments, 
and the construction of pottery and stone implements. The 
Indians are in charge of George Anderson, a famous Texan 
guide and scout, whose romantic and daring adventures would, 
if written truthfully, make one of the most entertaining of 
volumes. 

The various buildings located in the Exhibition grounds will 
be described in their appropriate places. 

A ride through the grounds on the cars of the narrow-gauge 
railway is a necessity, but no one should omit the pleasure of 
seeing them on foot. There are so many objects of interest to 
linger over, so many exquisite bits of landscape, so many pic- 
turesque views of the buildings to enjoy, that it is only by 
taking a leisurely walk through these beautiful grounds that this 
pleasure can be tasted to its full. 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE MAIN BUILDING. 

Description of the Main Building — A Monster Edifice — The Interior — A Mag- 
nificent Hall — Decorations — The Galleries — A Beautiful and Imposing 
Scene — Water-Closets — Restaurants — Fountains — Letter Boxes — Telegraph 
Svstcni — The Elevator — Classification of the Display in the Building — The 
American Department — The Great Organ — The Massachusetts Educational 
Exhibit — The Roosevelt Organ — The Paper Makers— The Book Pavilion — 
The Model Post-Office— The Cotton and Woollen Goods— The Carpet Rooms 
— American Pottery — Among the Iron Workers — The Fire-Arms Exhibit — 
Rich Costumes— The Telegraphic Display— The Gas Fixture Department— 
A Brilliant Display — The Jewellers and Silversmiths— The Moorish Pavilion 
— A Gorgeous Exhibit of Rare and Costly Objects— The Century Vase — The 
Cologne Fountains — The Furniture Display— Model Houses Completely 
Furnished — The Pianos and Organs — Beautiful Instruments — Concerts — 
Great Britain and Ireland — Magnificent Display of Silver and Plated Ware — 
Splendid Furniture and Church Ornaments — Beautiful Porcelains — Superb 
Pottery — Statuary — Process of Making Pottery — The Tile Exhibit — Rich 
Iron W^ork — Rare Furniture — A Royal Pavilion — Grand Display of Cotton 
and Woollen Goods and Linens — Jewelry — Splendid Carpets — The Book 
Display— The Graphic's Art Collection — Rich Stained Glass — A Gorgeous 
Show from India — The Canadian Exhibit — The Manufactures and Natural 
Products of the Dominion — The Educational Exhibit of Ontario — The Aus- 
tralian Exhibits — The Wonders and Resources of the Pacific Continent — 
Pyramids of Gold — Superb Photographs of Australian Scenes — Dust from 
the Gold Coast — Native Diamonds — The West Indian Display — France — The 
French Court — Rare Bronzes — Exquisite Porcelains — The Textile Fabrics 
of France — The Silk Court — Beautiful Laces — Statuary — Religious Groups 
— The Book Trade Exhibit — Fine Engravings — Fine Cutlery — Articles de 
Paris — Scientific and Philosophical Apparatus. 

HE principal Exhibition buildings are five in number. 

Of these the larirest is the Main Buildinsj. It is located 

immediately east of the intersection of Belmont and 

Elm avenues, and extends in a line from east to west, 

parallel with Elm avenue. It stands one hundred and 

seventy feet back from the north side of Elm avenue, at the 

north side of which the fence enclosing the Exhibition grounds 

332 




THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 333 

is placed. A broad, open space is thus left between the fence 
and the building. The building is in the form of a parallelo- 
gram, and has a length, from east to west, of eighteen Iiundrod 
and eighty feet, and a width, from north to south, of four hun- 
dred and sixty-four feet. 

The larger portion of the building is one story in height, and 
shows the main cornice upon the outside at forty- five feet from 
the ground, the interior height being seventy feet. At the 
centre of the longer sides are projections four hundred and six- 
teen feet in length, and in the centre of the shorter sides or ends 
of the building are projections two hundred and sixteen feet in 
length. In these projections, in the centre of the four sides, are 
located the main entrances, which are provided with arcades on 
the ground floor, and central arcades extending to the height of 
ninety feet. 

The main entrances are arranged as follows : The northern 
entrance communicates directly with Memorial Hall, which 
faces this portal. The east entrance is the principal approach 
for carriages, which may be driven up to the arcades, at which 
visitors alight. The doors at this end open upon the Park, the 
fence line extending from the northern and southern sides of 
the building. The southern entrance is the principal approach 
from the street cars which have their terminus on Elm avenue 
immediately before this door. The western doors open upon 
the esplanade at the main entrance to the grounds, and commu- 
nicate with the Machinery and Agricultural Halls. 

A tower, seventy-five feet high, rises from each of the four 
corners of the building, and between these towers and the cen- 
tral projections or entrances there is a low roof introduced, 
showing a cornice at twenty-four feet above the ground. 

At the central part of the building the roof, for one hundred 
and eighty-four feet square, is raised above the surrounding 
portion. From the four corners of this elevated roof four 
towers, each forty-eight feet square, rise to a height of one hun- 
dred and twenty feet. 

The buildino; is the larg-est in the world. It cov^ers an area 
of 936,008 square feet, or 21.47 acres, as follows: 





> 




M 




« 




td 




n 




•-I 




h 




t: 








i< 




c 




o 












H 












W 




y^ 






^ 


K 


nn 




rr. 




c 


X 


p 


i> 


<t 


1-1 




I.M 






D 


•/; 


n> 


> 


D 


f 






5- 


o 


P 


w 


D 


'/; 


C 


H 




a; 




> 


5' 


f 


< 


M 


e: 


>^ 


t* 




p 


►H 








t3 




H- 




H 




M 




o 




!^ 








►d 




» 




M 




t^ 




6 




P 




Hj 




E 




► 








H- 




00 




•^ 




OS 




334 



L 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 385 

Ground floor 872,320 square feet 20.02 acres. 

Upper floors in projections 37,344 " 85 " 

U-pper floors in towers 26,344 " 60 " 

Total 936,008 " ....21.47 " 

The ground-plan shows a central avenue or nave one hun- 
dred and twenty feet in width, and extending eighteen hundred 
and thirty-two feet in length. This is the longest avenue of 
that width ever introduced into any building. On either side 
of the nave there is an avenue one hundred feet in width by 
eighteen hundred and thirty-two feet in length. Between the 
nave and the side avenues are aisles forty-eight feet in width, 
and on the other sides of the building smaller aisles twenty-four 
feet in width. 

In order to relieve the monotony which would have resulted 
from the continuation of the roof in an unbroken line, three 
cross avenues or transepts have been introduced of the saniQ 
widtiis and in the same relative positions to each other as tha 
nave and avenues running lengthwise, viz. : a central trunsepb 
one hundred and twenty feet in width by four hundred and six- 
teen feet in length, with one on either side of one hundred feet; 
by four hundred and sixteen feet, and aisles between of forty- 
eight feet. 

The intersections of these avenues and transepts in the central 
portion of the building result in dividing the ground floor into 
nine open spaces free from supporting columns, and covering in 
the aggregate an area of four hundred and sixteen feet square. 
Four of these spaces are one hundred feet square; four one hun- 
dred feet by one hundred and twenty feet, and the central space 
or pavilion one hundred and twenty feet square. The intersec- 
tions of the forty-eight feet aisles produce four interior courts 
forty-eight feet square, one at each corner of the central space. 

The main promenades through the nave and central transept 
are each thirtv feet in width, and those throuo:h the centre of 
the side avenues and transepts fifteen feet each. All other walks 
are ten feet wide, and lead at either end to exit doors. 

The foundations of the building consist of piers of masonry 



336 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

set solidly in the earth, and more than equal to the task of sus- 
taining the immense weight which rests upon them. Tlie 
superstructure is composed of wrought-iron columns, which 
support wrought-iron roof trusses. " These columns are com- 
posed of rolled channel bars with plates riveted to the flanges. 
Leno-thwrse of the buildinor the columns are placed at the uni- 
form distance apart of twenty-four feet. In the entire structure 
there are six hundred and seventy-two columns, the shortest 
being twenty-three feet and the longest one hundred and twenty- 
five feet in length. The aggregate weight is 2,200,000 pounds. 

"The roof trusses are similar in form to those in general use 
for depots and warehouses, and consist of straight rafters with 
struts and tie bars. The aggregate weight of iron in the roof 
trusses and girders is 5,000,000 pounds. 

"This building being a temporary construction, the columns 
and trusses are so designed that they may be easily taken down 
and erected again at another site. 

"The sides of the building for the height of seven feet from 
the ground are finished with brickwork in panels between the 
columns ; above the seven feet, with glazed sash. Portions of 
the sash are movable for ventilation. The roof covering is of 
tin upon sheathing boards. The ground flooring is of plank 
upon sills resting upon the ground, with no open space under- 
neath. 

"All the corners and angles of the building upon the ex- 
terior are accentuated by galvanized iron octagonal turrets, 
which extend the full height of the building from the ground 
level to above the roof. These turrets at the corners of the 
towers are surmounted with flag-staffs, at other places with the 
national eagle. 

" The national standard, with appropriate emblems, is placed 
over the centre of each of the four main entrances. Over each 
of the side entrances is placed a trophy showing the national 
colors of the country occupying that part of the building. 

" At the vestibules forming part of the four main entrances 
variegated brick and tile have been introduced. 

" The building stands nearly due east and west, and is lighted 



OP THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 337 

almost entirely by side light from the north and south sides. 
Louvre ventilators are introduced over the central nave and 
each of the avenues. Skylights are introduced over the central 
aisles." 

The edifice was erected by Mr. K. J. Dobbins, one of the 
most eminent builders of Philadelphia. He was the constructor 
of the Public Ledger Building, and his two great works in the 
Exhibition grounds, the Main Building and Memorial Hall, are 
enviable monuments of his skill and energy. In the construc- 
tion of the Main Building 7,000,000 feet of lumber, and nearly 
8,000,000 pounds of iron were used, and the services of three 
thousand men were employed. Underneath, and extending 
through the edifice, are four miles of water and drainage pipes, 
the service in this respect being perfect. Gas pipes are intro- 
duced through the building, which is lighted at night by 
" reflectors " suspended from the roof, and placed beyond the 
possibility of communicating fire to the structure or its contents. 
Hydrants are placed at numerous points in the hall, and are so 
arranged that the water can be turned directly upon a fire, 
which can be extinguished before it has gained any advantage. 

The light in the building is excellent, and all exhibitors are 
placed on an equality for showing their goods by the admirable 
arrangement of the hall in this respect. 

The cost of the Main Building was $1,580,000. The engin- 
eers and architects were Henry Pettit and Joseph M. Wilson. 
The wrought and cast-iron work was manufactured by William 
Sellers & Co., of the Moor Iron Works ; the wrought-iron w^as 
furnished by A. & P. Roberts, of the Pencoyd Rolling Mills ; 
the cast-iron was furnished by Morris, Tasker & Co., of the 
Pascal Iron Works; and the iron work w^as erected by the 
Watson Manufacturing Co. The foundations of the building 
were begun in the autumn of 1874. On the 8th of May, 1875, 
the erection of the iron work w^as begun, and was completed on 
the 2d of December, 1875. The other work was carried on 
with rapidity, and -the building was completed early in Feb- 
ruary, 1876, and on the 14th of that month was delivered by 
the contractor to the Board of Finance. 
22 



338 THE II.LUSTEATED HISTORY 

The Main Buikling is in all respects the most imposing 
structure of the Exhibition. It is not as beautiful as Memorial 
Hall, but is superb in its massiveness and in the perfection of 
its details. In spite of its immense size, it is light and graceful 
in appearance, and seen from any commanding point, with its 
thousands of flags and streamers fluttering in the air, its beauti- 
ful proportions rising grandly and clearly against the sky, it 
constitutes an object which long holds the gazer's eye and elicits 
bis warmest praise. The exterior is painted in light-brown 
colors, with tasteful ornamental lines in red and other harmo- 
nizing hues. 

The interior is decorated handsomely. The prevailing colors 
are the lightest shade of blue and cream-color, and the decora- 
tions are in bright, cheerful tints which blend well with these 
hues. There is nothing sombre or gloomy about the edifice, 
and the taste displayed in the selection and arrangement of 
colors is highly to be commended. 

Around the inner cornice small circular panes of stained glass 
have been set, decorated with the arms of the United States, 
the various States and Territories of the Union, and the differ- 
ent nations of the world, and with subjects relating to the arts 
and sciences. 

The four sides of the central transept are ornamented with 
elaborate pieces representing America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. 
Each of these paintings is forty feet in width and fifty feet in 
height, and embodies a group emblematic of one of the four 
quarters of the globe. At the east end of the transept is the 
American group. America is represented by Columbia holding 
in her hand the staff surmounted by the Liberty Cap, while 
beneath is the word America and the numerals MDCCLXXYI. 
On the right is the bust of Wasliington, on the left that of 
Franklin. As a background the national colors are most promi- 
nent, and on either side are the flags of the old original thirteen 
States. The whole forms a very pretty picture, and cannot but 
attract great attention. 

Immediately opposite, on the west side of the transept, is the 
European group. Europe is represented by a female figure at 



or THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 339 

the top, while beneath, on the right, is the bust of Shakespeare, 
and on the left that of Charlemagne. A horse and lion are 
conspicuous objects, and back of all are the flags of the Great 

Powers. 

At the south end of the transept is the Asiatic group. Asia 
is represented by a female figure, seated between the busts of 
Confucius and Mahomet. Chinese and Japanese emblems are 
conspicuous, and the flags of the Asiatic nations are tastefully 
grouped. 

At the north end of the transept is the African group. 
Africa is represented by an Egyptian female, and beside her are 
the busts of Rameses and Sesostris. Characteristic oriental 
scenes and the flags of the African states make up the back- 
ground. 

In each of the groups the products of the respective great 
divisions of the world are conspicuously displayed. The eficct 
of the pictures is very fine, and they harmonize well with the 
grand assemblage of beautiful objects in this portion of the 
building. 

At each end of the building and at convenient points on the 
sides, galleries are provided from which the visitor may survey 
the brilliant scene below. From the gallery on the south side, 
or from the towers at the centre of the building, one may enjoy 
at leisure the magnificent view which the hall and its contents 
afford. Before him and on either hand is the vast interior of 
the hall stretching away for hundreds of feet, brilliant and 
imposing with its rich decorations, and astounding and delight- 
ing the gazer with its vastness and its perfect adaptation to the 
purposes of the Exhibition. At the north and east ends the 
magnificent organs which occupy the main galleries constitute 
two of the most beautiful ornaments of the hall. The scene on 
the floor below is enchanting. The long lines of magnificent 
show-cases, the sumptuous pavilions of the various foreign 
nations, the gorgeous display of objects of use and beauty, the 
infinite variety of forms and colors, all tend to make up a picture 
to be remembered for a lifetime. At various points fountains 
send their clear jets of water into the air, the strains of music 



340 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



come floating up to you from below, or the deep tones of the great 
organs hill your senses into a delicious repose, and the perfumes 
of the cologne-fountains fill the air with a luxurious languor. 
You hear the sharp click of the telegraph telling of the restless^ 
busy energy that has produced all this luxury, and are reminded 




DELAWARE STATE BUILDING. 



by it that you are not yet in Fairyland. The aisles and passage- 
ways are thronged with sightseers, and as you lean over from 
your lofty perch you may see the costumes of many nations 
mingled in the crowd. The stalwart Indian stalks through the 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 341 

hall, as emotionless as a stone, and concealing his wonder at all 
this magnificence beneath a stolidity which you may admire but 
cannot equal. The small but alert Japanese, with his loose 
dress caught up as if it were an obstacle rather than a con- 
veu'ience, the " Heathen Chinee,'^ with his almond-eyes and 
long pig-tails, his comical dress, and his " ways that are dark 
and tricks that are vain," the turbaned Turk in his gay cos- 
tume, the Egyptian with his red tarbush, and the brilliantly 
uniformed attaches of the European Commissions, all jostle each 
other in the throng below you. From your elevated stand you 
look down upon the wealth of the world. All the nations have 
sent their rarest and choicest objects here, and in this vast 
collection you may study the civilization and customs, and read 
the history of the dominant part of the human race. 

The building is provided with every possible comfort for 
visitors. Seats are scattered through the aisles, and in many of 
the pavilions and enclosures, chairs and cushioned settees are 
furnished by the exhibitors. At each end of the main aisle 
and at the ends of the central transept are water-closets and 
w^ash-rooms for visitors. These are in charge of attendants and 
are kept scrupulously clean. They are free to all. Cloak-rooms 
and umbrella-stands, provided by the Department of Public Com- 
fort, are located under the arcades at the four main entrances to 
the building. Umbrellas, water-proofs,, or parcels of any kind 
are received at these stands, and taken care of for a small sum. 
The owner is given a metal check for his property, and this 
must be presented when the article is claimed. 

Restaurants are located at the north and south ends of the 
central transept. They are provided with lunch counters as 
well as with tables, and those who desire merely a light lunch 
can be accommodated at moderate prices. 

Several fountains are located in the main aisle. One of these 
is a tall, ugly series of iron basins from which the water flows 
down into the pool below. It is the largest fountain in the 
building, and does not reflect much credit upon the taste that 
provided it. 

Soda-water stands are established at several prominent points 



342 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

in the main, aisle and the central transept. The fountains, as a 
rule, are very handsome, being constructed of white or colored 
marble with silver mountings. Soda is sold at the national 
price of ten cents a glass, and the fountains all appear to do a 
good business. 

Wheel-chair stations are located at each end, and near the 
centre of the main aisle. In the main aisle, also, are stands for 
the sale of the official catalogues and guide books. 

Telegraph offices are established at one or two points in the 
main aisle, from which messages may be sent to any part of the 
world. The American District Telegraph Company have the 
sole privilege of operating these offices, and liave introduced 
their admirable messenger service system into the grounds. 

Scattered through the building are a number of iron letter 
boxes, established by the United States Post-Office Department, 
from which collections are made at stated times. These boxes 
are to be found in all the main buildings and at prominent 
points in the grounds. A separate mail service is provided for 
the Exhibition, which has its own postmaster and officials, and 
letters are received and despatched by the Centennial Post- 
Office, which is located in the Government Building, with the 
greatest promptness. 

In the centre of the building a large music-stand has been 
erected. Concerts are given here daily by the finest bands in 
the country. Concerts are also given by the proprietors of the 
great organs at stated times during the day, and these, with the 
performances of the eminent musicians engaged by the various 
manufacturers of pianos to show the merits of their respective 
instruments, furnish a rich treat to the lover of music. 

On the south side of the main aisle, about half-way between 
the eastern entrance and the transept, is the establishment of 
the Centennial Safe Deposit Company. It is enclosed with a 
stout iron cage, and contains a number of large safes and desks 
and tables. The company receive on deposit valuables and 
papers, and guarantee their safe return upon demand. A charge 
is made for the keeping of each article according to a fixed 
tariff. The safes of the company are fire-proof. 



OF THE CE^iTEXXIAL EXHIBITIOX. 



343 



In one of the central towers a steam elevator conveys visitors, 
%viio may wish to make the ascent, to the roof or to the galleries 
of the tower. Stairways are provided for those who do not wish 
to use the elevator. The elevator is of the most approved con- 




CONNECTICUT STATE BUILDIXG. 

struction, and is exhibited as one of the most perfect specimens 
of its kind. 

The greatest care and forethought have been exercised to 
render the Exhibition buildings perfect in the conveniences 
they offer to visitors. Advantage has been taken in this respect 



344 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTOPwY 

of the experience of all the other great World's Fairs, and it may 
be safely asserted that our own presents improvements upon 
each and all. 

In a work like this it is simply impossible to describe each 
feature of the Exhibition in detail. We can only refer to it in 
general terms, dwelling merely upon the objects which constitute 
its principal attractions. 

The Centennial Commission at an early day divided the 
objects to be exhibited into seven departments, as follows : 

5. Machinery. 

6. Agriculture. 

7. Horticulture. 



1. Mining and Metallurgy. 

2. Manufactures. 

3. Education and Science. 

4. Art. 



Tliese were assigned to the five principal buildings, the first 
three being included in the Main Building. The classification 
and grouping of these is as follows : 

I.— Mining and Metallurgy. 

Classes. Groups. 

100 — 109 Minerals, Ores, Stones, Mining Products, . 

110 — 119 Metallurgical Products. 

120 — 129. . . .Mining Engineering. 

II. — Manufactures. 

200 — 205 Chemical Manufactures. 

206 — 216 Ceramics, Pottery, Porcelain, Glass, etc. 

217—227 Furniture, etc. 

228—234 Yarns and Woven Goods of Vegetable or Mineral Materials. 

235—241 Woven and Felted Goods of Wool, etc. 

242—249. . . .Silk and Silk Fabrics. 
250 — 257. . . .Clothing, Jewelry, etc. 

258—264 Paper, Blank-Books, Stationery. 

265—271 Weapons, etc. 

272 — 279 Medicine, Surgery, Prothesis. 

280—284 Hardware, Edge Tools, Cutlery, and Metallic Products. 

285 — 291 Fabrics of Vegetable, Animal, or Mineral Materials. 

292 — 296 Carriages, Vehicles, and Accessories. 

III. — Education and Science. 
300—309. . ..Educational Systems, Methods, and Libraries. 
310 — 319. . . .Institutions and Organizations. 
320 — 329. . . -Scientific and Philosophical Instruments and Methods. 

330 — 339 Engineering, Architecture, Maps, etc. 

340—349 Physical, Social, and Moral Condition of Man. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 345 

At least one-third of the twenty-one and a half acres of the 
floor-space of the Main Building is occupied by the United 
States. These seven acres are filled with a rich and beautiful 
display, and the national pride of the native visitor is sure to 
find satisfaction in the imposing and splendid appearance made 
by his country. In one department especially, the show-cases 
in which the articles on exhibition are displayed, the United 
States lead the world. ^' Wandering through the long avenues, 
lined by cases of strikingly novel designs and elaborate work- 
manship, one may be w^earied by the endless variety, and may 
find the simple uniformity of the French section a relief; but 
he cannot fail to be impressed by the fertility of resource, the 
original genius for decorative eflPects, and the evident liberality 
of expenditure displayed ; and he will remark a certain unstudied 
harmony in dissimilarity produced by the kaleidoscopic mingling 
of diverse colors and forms, and may find in it a faithful reflex 
of our composite American life.'' 

The United States. 

We begin our inspection of the contents of the Main Building 
in our own country, and in doing so glance first at the great 
gallery which crosses the eastern end over the entrance doors. 
Stairs ascend to this gallery from either side of the entrance. 
A sign over the doorway at the foor of the stairs informs us that 
the gallery is occupied mainly by the Educational Department 
of the State of Massachusetts. This display occupies the 
northern and southern sections of the gallery, the central portion 
being given to the w^ell-known Boston organ-builders, Hook & 
Hastings, who display here one of their grand organs and a 
number of smaller instruments. 

The great organ is one of the " features " of the Exhibition, 
and, as seen from the floor below, forms a beautiful ornament 
of the great hall. It was erected at an expense of §15,000, and 
is intended as an exposition of the art of organ building as 
practised by its makers, who stand confessedly in the front rank 
of their class. It embodies the latest improvements and the 
highest excellence of an instrument of this style, and comprises 



346 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

four manuals, each of 58 notes, 47 speaking-stops, 12 median v 
cal registers, including couplers ; 10 pedal movements for com- 
binations, etc., including a crescendo pedal controlling the full 
power of the organ. The total number of pipes used in it is 
2704. There are three bellows. The two main ones have 
vertical feeders, and can supply 3600 cubic feet of compressed 
air per minute. The bellows are blown by an hydraulic engine 
located on the main floor beneath the organ. Frequent concerts 
are given by the organist in charge, and these performances 
never fail to draw crowds of enthusiastic and appreciative 
listeners. The organ is 40 feet high, 32 feet wide and 21 feet 
deep. Passages traverse it in every direction at different alti- 
tudes, and are connected by stairways giving ready access to 
every part for inspection and adjustment. 

In the two rooms on the right and left of the great organ, the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts displays her public school 
system, and does so by exhibiting models and specimens of the 
furniture, apparatus, and text-books used in her schools of all 
grades, and by showing the actual work of the pupils of the 
various schools as set forth in their examination papers. These 
papers are bound in handsome volumes, each of which is pre- 
faced by a sketch of the system used in the various classes, and 
the questions propounded to the pupils at the examinations. 
The result is highly creditable to the State. A good display of 
drawings from the Boston High and Evening Schools is to be 
seen here. Plans and models of the principal schools of the 
State are also exhibited, and the workings of the industrial 
schools is shown in the apparatus used, and some of the achieve- 
ments of the pupils. Harvard contributes a volume of fine 
photographic views of the various departments of the university, 
and several of the leading colleges of the State are shown in the 
same way. The public libraries of the State are also to be seen 
here in photography, and with pardonable pride the Bay State 
offers for inspection a series of finely executed photographic 
views of its principal cities. A handsome case is filled with 
volumes of reports, showing the present condition of the various 
public institutions of the State. 



OF THE CKSTENinlAL EXHIBITIOX, 



347 



For some reason a series of fiue etchings by Mrs. Eliza 
Greatorex, of New York, Lave been placed in this portion of 
the building. They are justly admired by visitors, and should 
be included in the art collection in Memorial Hall. 

The gallery at the south end of the central transept contains 




OHIO STATE BUILDING. 



the educational departments of a number of the States. These 
are Maryland, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Maine, New 
Jersey, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Iowa, Wisconsin, 
Tennessee and Connecticut. The system adopted for showing 



348 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

the TTorkiiigs of their sclwol systems is similar to that of Ivlassa- 
chusetts. Nearly all the States mentioned show models, plans, 
or photographic views of their public schools of various grades. 
Samples of school furniture are also shown, and some of the 
States exhibit models of their educational buildings so constructed 
as to display the interior as well as the exterior arrangement. 

At the eastern end of the gallery the colored schools of the 
South make a creditable showing of their progress. Their 
examination papers evince a success in the work of imparting 
education to the negro race which is gratifying in the highest 
degree, and a presage of greater triumphs in the future. In this 
department is a large oil-painting of the jubilee singers of Fiske 
University, Nashville, whose concerts have made them familiar 
to the people of this country and Great Britain, and have earned 
for their school a sound basis of financial success. 

The gallery ^t the north end of the transept is occupied by 
the second of the great organs of the Exhibition. This is the 
Roosevelt Organ, and was built by Hilborne L. Roosevelt, of 
New York, whose magnificent instruments have made him 
famous throughout the country. The organ in the Chickering 
Music Hall, in New York, is of his make, and is acknowledged 
by lovers and professors of music to be one of the most perfect 
and delicious instruments in existence. The organ exhibited 
here has fifty-six stops and pedals, and has three manuals and a 
pedal bass. It embodies a number of improvements peculiar to 
the organs of this maker, notable among which is the mechanism 
placed directly over the key-box by which the organist can 
readily change the combination on any of the pedals. By this 
- novel arrangement, from one stop to the full organ can be set 
on any pedal. The organ is threefold in its construction, and 
consists of the Main Organ in the north gallery, the Electric 
Echo Organ, and the Electric Suspended Orpran, all played from 
one key-board. The Electric Echo Organ is placed in the 
English Tower, and is connected by about 200 feet of wire cable 
to the keys of the great organ ; its bellows being blown by an elec- 
tric engine. The Electric Suspended Organ is suspended from 
the roof about twenty feet in front of the organ gallery. This 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 349 

is connected also by a cable of insulated wires to the keys of the 
great organ ; and its bellows are blown by an electric engine. 
The main bellows are blown by two of Jaques' Improved Brass 
ilyraiilic Engines, situated directly under the organ gallery. 

This instrument is exhibited as a specimen of the American 
school of organ-building, and is intended to illustrate the ad- 
vancement made in the art in this country. Though founded 
on the best schools of modern European organ-building, still 
the improvements introduced are for the most part entirely 
new and American in their origin. Though there are several 
larger instruments here and in Europe, still it is claimed that 
none so complete, musically, and in the application of pneu- 
matic, tubular and electric action, has been constructed hitherto. 
In the matter of voicing, the builder's school has been carried 
out as heretofore, and it is to be hoped with equal success. It 
aims at individuality in the different stops, and at the same 
time a perfect blending. So that when the full organ is used 
there will be a powerful united body of tone, in which the 
foundation stops are not lost and the mixtures are not too 
prominent. The reeds in this organ (which were made here) 
may be said, in character of tone, to be between the French 
and English schools, and are remarkably effective. 

The effect of the celebrated Vox Humana in the Chickering 
Hall Organ (by same builder), New York, is here reproduced 
in the Electric Echo Organ, which is placed in the English 
Tower, as hitherto described. The wonderful imitation this 
makes of a chorus of voices singing in the distance is perfect. 
The cost of the organ was $20,000. 

The gallery over the western entrance is occupied by the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, who make a fine display 
of engineering, drawings, photographs and models, the object 
of the display being to show the progress and triumphs of the 
science of engineering in this country. 

Having finished our glance at the galleries, we now descend 
to the floor and begin our inspection at the eastern end of the 
American Department, which is also the eastern end of the 
building. 



350 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Near the eastern doors the manufacturers of paper displa^ 
their wares. The exhibit is very good, and the articles are 
arrano-ed in the mo.^t tasteful and attractive manner. The 
Jiow-cases used are beautiful specimens of skill in cabinet- 
making. The Philadelphia and New York stationers also 
exhibit fiue specimens of book-bindmg. Close by, Lan^e & 
Little, of New York, exhibit some beautiful specimens of fine 
printing. 

Immediately under the gallery the State of Maine displays 
her cotton goods, and here a register is kept in which visitors 
from the Pine Tree State may inscribe their names and ad- 
dresses as a means of enabling their friends to find them. 

At the southeast end of the hall is a large two-story pavilion, 
constructed of black walnut, and towering high above the line 
of show-cases. It is one of the handsomest pieces of work in 
the building, and is a model of neat and systematic arrange- 
ment. It is divided into sections, each of which is fitted up 
with convenient cases, in which the various leading publishing 
houses of the United States display their wares. All the great 
houses, such as the Harpers, Appletons, Scribner, Osgood and 
Houghton are represented, and a number of minor firms help 
to swell the representation. The Harpers and others display 
handsomely bound sets of their standard works, and the Apple- 
tons make an imposing display of their magnificent illustrated 
publications. The bindings shown by this house are sump- 
tuous, and exhibit this branch of American industry in its 
highest form. Lippincott, of Philadelphia, has a superb case 
of black walnut, with cushioned seats around it, just without 
the pavilion, and displays many fine samples of printing and 
binding. 

Near the western end of the pavilion the American Bible 
Society have erected a beautiful case of polished oak, in which 
they exhibit copies of the Scriptures printed in every language. 
The work is done at the Bible House in New York, from which 
millions of copies of the Word of God have been scattered over the 
world. Versions in twenty-nine different languages are showm 
Some rare and valuable copies of old Bibles are also shown, 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 351 

among which are the Bibles owned by the great poet John 
Milton and the martyr John Rogers. A copy of the first Bible 
printed in the English language in America is also shown. It 
was printed by Robert Aitken, in Philadelphia, in 1781. Prior 
to the Revolution all English Bibles used in the colonies were 
brought from England. During the war they became very 
scarce. In 1778 Robert Aitken undertook the production of 
an American edition of the Scriptures. In March, 1782, the 
Pennsylvania Assembly loaned Mr. Aitken £150 to assist in 
carrying out the enterprise. September 10th, 1782, Congress 
recommended this edition of the Bible to the inhabitants of the 
United States, "as subservient to the interest of religion and 
progress of arts in this country." The paper was made in 
Pennsylvania, and the Bibles were printed and bound in 
Philadelphia. 

Merriam & Co., of Springfield, Massachusetts, have a case in 
the second story of the book pavilion containing an interesting 
collection of the works of Noah AVebster, with copies of the 
various editions of the great dictionary. Close by the proprie- 
tors of the famous Riverside Press, of Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts, exhibit specimens of their fine printing, including an 
exquisite portrait of Longfellow. 

Descending to the floor again we soon find ourselves opposite 
the Yale Lock Manufacturing Company. Here are to be seen 
beautiful specimens of this flimous lock, including a superb 
chronometer bank-safe lock. The company have erected a 
large and complete model of a post-office, provided with several 
hundred of their patent lock-boxes, such as are used by the 
government in the post-offices of our principal cities. The 
office on exhibition here is complete in every respect, and could 
be put into operation at any moment. 

Immediately opposite is a large case in which James W. 
Scott & Co., of New York, display a classified collection of all 
the postage stamps of the world. 

Returning eastward, but still keeping south of the main aisle, 
we notice a beautiful assortment of floor cloths by the American 
liinoleum Company, of New York. The designs of these 



352 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

goods are very beautiful. The fabric is manufactured by a 
peculiar process out of cork and linseed oil. It is softer and 
more durable than oil-cloth, and the fobt falls as noiselessly 
upon it as upon a carpet. It is as yet a new industry, but bids 
fair to become an important one. 

We now reach the main aisle, near the eastern doors. Here 
is collected the display of cotton, woollen and silk goods of 
American manufacture. In all three departments the exhibit 
is very fine. Nearly all the great New England factories are 
represented — in some cases by separate exhibits, and in others 
by collective exhibits of the products of all the mills in a single 
town. Great praise is due the exhibitors for the handsome and 
liberal manner in which they have displayed their goods. The 
show-cases in this section are among the finest in the building, 
and the arrangement of the goods is tasteful and striking. The 
group is the largest in the building, and, with the exception of 
a few from Philadelphia, the exhibitors are mainly from New 
England. The cotton and woollen mills of the West and 
South are but poorly represented, and this is all the more to be 
regretted, as they have made such marked progress of late years 
as to render them formidable rivals of the Eastern mills. A 
contrast between the articles displayed here and those exhibited 
in similar sections by the foreign countries cannot fail to be 
gratifying to the American visitor. 

To the north of this section the carpet-makers of New Eng- 
land, New York and Pennsylvania have erected a triple row 
of pavilions, open on one side, in which an extensive and 
beautiful collection of American-made carpets is shown. Except 
in the most costly styles, woven in a single piece, this young 
American industry compares more than favorably with its 
older competitors from Europe. The designs are handsome 
and tasteful, the workmanship good. 

On the south side of the main aisle, above the department of 
textile fabrics, the hardware and cutlery firms of the country 
make their display. The collection of cutlery compares well 
with that of the great English manufacturers, and few visitors 
will fail to notice the immense Centennial knife and fork ex- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



353 



hibited by the Beaver Falls Cutlery Company, of Pennsylvania. 
The exhibit of tools and hardware of all kinds is complete ana 
attractive, and merits a careful study. 

Alongside of the hardware men Mr. Charles W. Spurr, of 
Boston, has erected a small but handsome i>avilion, lighted by 




MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING. 

a crystal chandelier. The inner walls are decorated with 
polished woods prepared by a patent process. The wood is 
sawed to the thinness of soft paper and is then glued to harder 
paper, which is pasted on the walls in the usual manner^ after 
23 



354 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

which the wood surface is subjected to a high polish. This 
system of house decoration is very beautiful, a.nd is rapidly be- 
coming popular in this country. 

On the south side of the hall, near the eastern end, is the 
display of American pottery and porcelain. It is creditable on 
the whole, but does not comjiare with the display made by 
either of the leading European nations, or by China or Japan. 
The exhibits in this line are therefore modestly placed in a 
corner. They include excellent white stoneware from Trenton, 
New Jersey, and some excellent terra cotta specimens from the 
same State, and an abundance of rich brownware from Liver- 
pool, Ohio. The collection also contains some fine animal 
specimens from Phoenixville, Pennsylvania. The Greenwood 
Pottery Company, of Trenton, New Jersey, show a small model 
of a brick pottery, and specimens of the clay in the various 
stages of manufacture. 

Below the pottery collection are a number of tall marble and 
irranite shafts and monuments, and bevond these are the care- 
fully executed maps and charts of the Geological Survey of 
New Jersey, with a number of specimens of the geological 
formations of the State. 

Close by, the Stephens Institute of Technology, of Hoboken, 
New Jersey, displays an interesting collection of scientific 
apparatus. 

The iron, steel and slate men of the country make an impos- 
ing display of ores and manufactured metals. The Cambria Iron 
Works of Pennsylvania has a stately Masonic arch constructed 
of solid T rails; and close by the famous Lucy Furnace, of 
Pittsburgh, is shown in a small but complete model. The dis- 
play of ores, pig-metals, manufactured articles, nails, bars and 
other products is extensive and interesting. 

The Keystone Bridge Company, of Pittsburgh, exhibit 
alongside of the irons a fine model of the famous draw-bridge 
constructed by them over Raritan bay for the Central Railroad 
of New Jersey. 

Crossing towards the main aisle again, we notice a handsome 
case in which the American Watch Company, of Waltham, 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 355 

Massacluisetts, display an extensive assortment of handsome 
watches in gold and silver cases. A few feet north of this case 
the Elgin Watch Company, of Elgin, Illinois, exhibit their 
watches and a number of samples of the wheels and other move- 
ments used in them. In Machinery Hall w^e shall see the 
process by which these watches are made by machinery. Our 
country is rapidly taking rank with the older nations for the 
excellence and beauty of its w^atches, and the accuracy and 
rapidity with which they are made by machinery has challenged 
the admiration of the civilized world. The two companies 
mentioned above are the most prominent parties engaged in 
this branch of our industry, and are the best prepared to show 
it to the thousands who gaze in wondering admiration at the 
process as shown in Machinery Hall, and at the results as ex- 
hibited here. 

Crossinsc the main aisle we notice alono^ its northern side a 
formidable row of Gatling, Parrott and breech-loading guns. 
The cannon are all fine specimens of the classes to which they 
belong, and attract much attention. The display of small 
arms is also very fine, and shows some interesting improve- 
ments in sporting w^eapons. 

North of the arms collection are the burglar and fire-proof 
safes. All the principal safe makers are represented, and the 
display is exceptionally good and interesting. 

Close by the safes, Ives, Blakeraan & Co., of Bridgeport, 
Connecticut, have a large stand with an extensive collection of 
mechanical toys. Several persons are kept busy displaying the 
operations of these ingenious contrivances, and a crowd of 
deli2:hted little folks is alwavs gathered about the stand. 

To the west of this stand is a laro^e case containino^ a hand- 
some display of military uniforms and ornaments, exhibited by 
Schuyler, Hartley & Graham, of New York. The most con- 
spicuous object of this collection is a figure of the Emperor 
William, of Germany, in a superb uniform. 

We now enter a region of ready-made clothing and ladies' 
costumes. The principal display here is made by the well- 
known houses of John Wannamaker & Co., of Philadelphia, 



356 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Devlin & Co., and Madame Demorest, of New York, and 
Homer, Colladaj & Co., of Philadelphia. The last-named 
house exhibits a number of wax figures dressed in the most 
beautiful and costly costumes. 

Continuing on the north side we notice a handsome display 
of terra cotta ware. Galloway & Graff, of Philadelphia, exhibit 
some beautiful vases, tazzas, pedestals and fountains. The col- 
lection of articles for homelier uses is also very good. 

Along the western end of the American department on the 
north side is a capital exhibit of ropes and cordage, from the 
most delicate pack-thread to the stoutest cables. A\'e have now 
reached the extreme limit of the American department on the 
north side, and returning to the main aisle cross to the south 
side at the soda fountain which stands opposite the Mexican 
court. In the front line on the south side of the main aisle 
are the vaults of the Centennial Safe Deposit Company, looking 
the very picture of strength and security, and next above this 
the Seth Thomas Company, of Thomaston, Connecticut, display 
a large collection of American clocks. The clocks of this com- 
pany are admitted to be fully equal to the best French time- 
pieces, and the writer can testify to their excellence from many 
years' use of them. The designs are tasteful and handsome, 
and the clocks being made by machinery, are sold at about half 
the cost of a first-class foreign clock. 

Immediately above the clocks is the Telegraph Department, 
fronting also on the main aisle. Here are telegraphic and elec- 
trical instruments of every description. The AA estern Union 
Telegraph Company have here a handsome case of French 
walnut, showing the workings of a " telegraphic switch," for 
shifting the magnetic current from wire to wire. A complete 
collection of telegraphic apparatus is to be seen here, and a 
thorou2:h illustration is o;iven of the system by which the exten- 
sive lines of this company are .operated. 

On the main isle, just west of this section, are handsome 
models in silver of the palace cars of the Pullman and Wood- 
ruff Companies. 

The display of glassware along the main aisle is very beauti- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



357 



ful and quite extensive. The finest specimens of cut and 
ground glass are to be seen here. This department extends 
southward from the main aisle, and embraces also a large collec- 
tion of plainer and more substantial articles of glass. Wheel- 




KEW YORK STATE BUILDIXG. 



ing, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the two 
principal seats of American glass manufacture, are well repre- 
sented, and New Jersey and Massachusetts also make excellent 
displays. 



358 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Just beyond the glassware, on the main aisle, is a magnificent 
display of fine gas fixtures by the leading manufiicturers of 
New York and Philadelphia. This is one of the most notable 
features of the American department, and many of the articles 
exhibited are exceedingly beautiful. The collection takes up a 
great deal of room, and shows to what a surprising extent the 
taste of our people for luxury and variety has gone in the single 
direction of apparatus for light. No foreign country has any- 
thing to compare with us in the extent of the display in this 
line. 

The next department is that of the silver and plated ware. 
The firms represented here are principally from the Eastern 
States, and the display of the finest grades of plated ware is 
large and magnificent. The various manufacturing firms repre- 
sented appear to have exhausted their ingenuity in the produc- 
tion of rare and beautiful articles for display at the great 
Exhibition. The cases are rich and massive, and are in strict 
accordance with the beautiful objects they contain. The Meri- 
den Britannia Company and Reed Barton have exceptionally 
fine displays, many exquisite bronzes being among that of the 
former firm. The show-cases of these firms are the most ele- 
gant in the whole American section. 

The jewellers make a fine exhibit of their wares, Bailey & Co., 
of Philadelphia, being the first whose display attracts us. They 
have a handsome pavilion, in Avhich is a large and beautiful col- 
lection of jewelry and precious stones. 

At the intersection of the main aisle with the central transept 
is a crescent -shaped Moorish pavilion of beautiful design, and 
ornamented in warm, rich colors. It is in all respects the most 
beautiful structure in the Exhibition, and is occupied by Messrs. 
Tiffany & Co., and Starr. & Marcus, of New York, Caldwell & 
Co., of Philadelphia, and the Gorham Manufacturing Company, 
of Providence, R. I. These houses display the richest and most 
costly articles to be seen in the Exhibition. The finest jewels 
are to be seen here in profusion. The cameos exhibited by 
Starr & Marcus are among the most exquisite in the world, and 
are selected with skill and taste. Tiffany & Co. exhibit a 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 359 

superb collection of precious stones in the most beautiful set- 
tings, and Caldwell & Co. display a line of beautiful jewelry 
and silver ware which are the envy of many a fair gazer upon 
them. The Gorliam Manufacturing Com})any, famous as the first 
manufacturers of silver and fine plated ware in America, fully 
sustain their well-earned reputation by their display here. The 
principal object of their exhibit is the magnificent " Century 
Vase/^ which stands at the entrance to their section. It is of 
solid silver, and is four feet two inches in heiijht. The leno-th 
of the vas8 is five feet four inches. The vase rises from the 
centre of the base, which rests upon a slab of polished granite, 
and both the vase and base are ornamented with a number of 
groups, the figures of which stand out boldly and beautifully. 
Each of tiiese groups is emblematical. The following is the 
description of tiiis splendid work of art given by its pro- 
prietors : 

"The pioneer and Indian represent the first phase of civiliza- 
tion. Groups of fruit, flowers, and cereals, the natural products 
of the soil. The slab of polished granite signifies the unity and 
solidity of the government on which rest the thirty-eight States. 
The band of stars, thirty-eight encircling the piece, thirteen in 
front, represent the present and original number of States in the 
Union. The group on the left is the genius of war, with the 
torch in her right hand, while the left grasps the chain holding 
the ^ dogs of war ^ in check. A shell has shattered the tree, and 
a broken caisson wheel is half buried in the debris on the battle 
ground. The group on the right is the lion led by little chil- 
dren, musical instruments and flowers strewn on the ground, all 
denoting perfect peace and security. The medallion in front is 
the angel of fame, holding in one hand the palm branch and 
laurel wreath, and in the other a wreath of immortelles and a 
portrait of AVasIiington. The medallion on the opposite side is 
the genius of philosophy and diplomacy, with one hand resting 
on the printing press, and with the other holding a portrait of 
Franklin. On either side of the plinth is a head of the bison, 
the king of the prairie. Having now passed the Revolution 
and witnessed the restoration of peace, the nation commences 



360 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

its growth, and hence, from the plinth the vase rises. The front 
panel of the vase represents genius, ready to inscribe on the 
tablet the progress made in literature, science, music, i)ainting, 
sculpture, and architecture. On the reverse panel, genius is 
ready to record the advancement in commerce, mining and 
manufactures. The cover of the vase bears the group in which 
the story culminates. The figures denote Europe, Asia and 
Africa^ while the central figure, America, is inviting and wel- 
coming all nations to unite with her in celebrating the triumph 
of her Centennial year. The cost of the vase was §7000. 

Passing to the soutliward we find near the central transept an 
extensive display of chemicals and paints. These arc grouped 
tastefully, and with their brilliant hues constitute one of the 
most attractive features of the American department. Conspic- 
uous in this collection is the exhibit of John Lucas & Co., of 
Philadelphia, one of the largest and best known houses in the 
Union, whose extensive works are located at Gibsboro', New 
Jersey. The display of this house embraces a fine exhibit of 
white leads and zincs, colors, paints, varnishes, and window- 
glass, both white and colored. Some magnificent specimens of 
zinc ore are dis2)layed, and the processes of manufacturing white 
lead and white zinc are shown in the simplest and clearest 
manner. The high reputation enjoyed by this house, and the 
extensive display made by it, render it one of the most conspicu- 
ous "features" of the Exhibition. To visitors interested in or 
familiar with this branch of American industry it is unnecessary 
to add that this is the representative house of the Union in this 
line. Close by is the handsome exhibit of printing inks made 
by Charles Enu Johnson & Co., of Philadelphia, the largest 
and best known manufacturers of these articles in America. 
The goods are displayed tastefully, and a crowd of the members 
of the "fourth estate" mav alwavs be seen e^athered around the 
stand, inspecting the wares whi-ch experience has taught them 
are unexcelled by any of their class in the world. 

Going eastward again we notice the handsome display of the 
cologne and perfume makers of this country. The firms repre- 
sented are from New York and Philadelphia chiefly. Burnett 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 361 

has a pretty black marble fountain which sends up a constant 
jet of cologne water, and where the tired visitor may enjoy the 
delightful privilege of bathing his forehead with the refreshing 
liquid. Wench, of ]N"ew York, has a handsome bamboo pavilion, 
from which perfumed sprays are thrown, filling the air with 
their delicious fragrance. Lundborg, of New York, has a tall, 
gayly decorated Moorish pavilion, in which he makes an exten- 
sive and attractive show of his perfumes. 

Going eastward still we enter tlie furniture department, and 
it requires but a glance to see that the West has otfered a sharp 
competition to the East in this, its specialty. There are some 
fine specimens of furniture from the West, the State of Michigan 
being especially well represented in this respect. The display 
of furniture is very large, and some of the finest specimens are 
from Columbus, Ohio. The makers of the finest grades of fur- 
niture in New York and Philadelphia have gone to great ex- 
j)ense in setting up their exhibits. Many of them have con- 
structed rooms of the usual size, which are handsomely carpeted, 
provided with curtains, doors, frescoed ceilings and walls, and 
superb gas fixtures and mantel-pieces. The rooms are open on 
one side. With the homelike surroundings thus provided the 
furniture shows to the best possible advantage. It is of the 
most elaborate description, and is richly upholstered. Smith & 
Campion, of Philadelphia, exhibit a suite of four rooms, consist- 
ing of a parlor, library, dining-room and chamber, fitted up 
masuificentlv and furnished with the most costlv articles. Some 
rich specimens of interior decoration are also shown by the firms 
represented here, prominent among these being the decorations 
furnished by Marcotte & Co., of New York. George J. Hen- 
kels, of Philadelphia, has a fine chamber suit of maple, made 
from the wood of an old maple tree that grew in Independence 
Square. It was over 200 years old when it was cut down. 

North of the furniture collection is the display of philosophical 
and surgical instruments. It is quite large, and the articles 
compare well with those in the English, French "and Swiss 
departments. x\mong the most conspicuous objects of this col- 



CG2 



THE ILLUSTRATED HlSTOllY 



lection is tlie fine equatorial transit instrument exliibited hy 
Messrs. Fouth & Co., of Washington, D. C. 

From the scientilic department we pass on and find ourselves 
in the piano-fur lo collecuoj. All the principal firms are repre- 




STUDIO OF THE NATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHIC COMPANY. 

< 

sented. Steinway, Chickering, AYeber, Knabe, and a score of 
well-known names greet us at every turn. Each maker has 
sent his best instruments, and the highest skill has been exercised 
in the construction of the beautiful frames in whicli these are 
placed. All the spaces occupied by the piano makers are en- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 363 

closed, and many of them are covered with elegant pavilions, 
richly carpeted, and provided with seats for visitors. Several 
of the leading firms have engaged distinguished performers to 
show off their instruments, and one is sure of always hearing 
some brilliant pianist while lingering in this department. The 
collection covers a large area and is very complete. In the col- 
lection of Vim. Knabe & Co., of Baltimore, there is a harpsi- 
chord made for Charles Carroll of Carrollton, a century ago. 

Alongside of the pianos is the display of cabinet organs, 
which, though smaller, is quite as handsome as that of the 
stringed instruments. George Wood & Co. and ^lason & 
Hamlin exhibit some beautiful instruments, and, as far as 
exterior ornament goes, are certainly in advance of their com- 
petitors. Two pipe organs are on exhibition close by. 

AVe have now completed our survey of the American depart- 
ment of the main hall, and must turn our attention to the dis- 
play made by foreign countries. 

Great Britain and Ireland. 

First among these nations is the kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, the mother land of our young republic. The space 
occupied by the British section lies north of the main aisle and 
west of the central transept, and is not enclosed by a pavilion 
or any other structure. Each exhibitor was obliged to provide 
and set np his own show-case, and these, while always executed 
in a thorough and workmanlike manner, are as simple and 
unadorned as possible. They are painted black with gilt mould- 
injrs. Professor Archer, of the British Commission, states as a 
reason for this, that his country has learned from its great expe- 
rience in international exhibitions, that too great a display in 
the furniture detracts from the appearance of the exhibits 
proper. A banner of red, with the words " Great Britain and 
Ireland," is suspended from the roof over the entrance. 

At the entrance, opposite the music stand in the central tran- 
sept, is a rich display of silver and plated ware by Elkington & 
Co., silversmiths, of Birmingham. The collection embraces 
many articles of great value and beauty, and is the gem of the 



364 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

British exhibit. Some splendid bronzes are included in it, and 
one may pass hours iu inspecting the objects displayed by this 
enterprising firm, whose exhibit is valued by the London Times 
at 1500,000. One of the most beautiful articles to be seen here 
is the "Helicon vase," in reponsse and richly enamelled, which 
is valued at $30,000. The reproductions in electro-deposit of 
ancient works of art from the South Kensington and British 
Museums are especially interesting. 

Adjoining this splendid display is the space occupied by 
Messrs. Cox & Co., of London, who exhibit a large and hand- 
some collection of church plate, wrought-iron and brass work, 
church furniture of various kinds, and some fine ebonized and 
carved oak furniture. 

Going north, along the eastern end of the British section, we 
reach the display of porcelain, pottery and majolica ware. In 
her porcelain England fairly rivals France, the first nation in 
Europe in the extent and beauty of tiiis manufacture, and in 
pottery and majolicas leads the world. The display of porcelains 
made by A. B. Daniell & Son, of London, is extensive and very 
beautiful, including ornamental vases, candelabra, splendid 
dinner, dessert, and tea sets. Brown, Westhead, T. C. Moore 
& Co., of Staffordshire, also make an elegant disphiy. 

In pottery, England excels all the nations in her display. 
The collection includes vessels of all kinds for household, 
scientific and commercial uses, drainage and objects of orna- 
ment, statuary, etc. Some of the statues and busts are remark- 
ably fine, and the display, on the whole, is beautiful and 
creditable in the highest degree. One of the most complete and 
conspicuous displays is that of Bates, Walker & Co., of Burslem, 
in Staffordshire, from whose circular we take the following 
account of the process of the manufacture of the articles dis- 
])layed here, which is identical with that followed in all pottery 
establishments. ♦ 

"The raw materials of the manufacture are commonplace 
enough — certain clays from Devon and Cornwall, Cliina stone 
and flint being the principal. The latter is calcined, broken up, 
and ground with water in a large cylindrical tub, lined at the. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 3Go 

bottom with hard siliceous stones. From the central vertical 
shaft working in this tub project arms between which large loose 
stones are placed, and the mill being, set going, these move 
round on the bed-stone, grinding the flint until it forms with 
the water a creamy fluid. The China stone is treated se})a- 
rately, but in a similar manner, and the clay is mixed up Avith 
water and then made to pass through silk sieves of exceeding 
fineness, having a reciprocating movement, and which arrest 
impurities in the clay, as also the coarser particles. Next the 
ingredients, in their semi-fluid state, are mixed by measure in 
large underground tanks, from whence the ^slip,' as the mix- 
ture is now called, is pumped into long bags of a coarse cotton 
fabric. A number of these bags being filled, ihey are placed 
side by side in a press actuated by powerful screws, and thus 
subjected to powerful compression the water filters through the 
bags in a perfectly pure and limpid state, the solid clayey com- 
pound being left behind. The dough-like masses removed from 
the bags are thrown into a pug mill with an internal spiral 
arrangement of knives, which cut up the clay, and it is gradu- 
ally forced through an opening in the mill in a perfectly homo- 
geneous and workable condition. Having now seen how the 
fine plastic material which is to form the body of the ware is 
prepared, the next thing is to follow it into the potters' domain 
pure and simple. There are two methods by which the clay is 
made to assume the required shapes, viz., by throwing and 
moulding. The former operation requires considerable manual 
dexterity, and is accomplished by the aid of the potter's wheel, 
the essential part of which is simply a horizontal revolving disc. 
The potter places on it a lump of clay, and while it revolves, 
fashions it with his fingers into any shape that may be desired. 
Articles thus formed in the rough are, when partially dried, 
finished by turning them in a lathe. A less expensive method 
of fashioning the clay is that which involves the use of plaster 
of Paris moulds. Such things as teacups, which require to be 
of a uniform thinness, are made by pressing thin sheets of clay 
into the moulds, which absorb the superficial moisture of the 
pafete, and allow the articles to be removed without injury. 



336 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Ewers, jngs, teapots, and articles of somewhat intricate shape 
are formed in moulds which are in several parts. Spouts, 
handles, etc., are moulded, and afterwards joined to the body of 
the vessel by liquid ^slip/ Coming now to that part of the 
factory where plate making is going on, we notice that the plan 
adopted combines both the processes of throwing and moulding. 
A mould turned to the shape of the upper surface of the plate is 
placed on the revolving disc of the potter's wheel, and a thin 
sheet of paste is pressed on to it; then, while in movement, the 
potter places in position a tool representing a section of the 
plate, and this pares down and shapes the clay to its own out- 
line. Their edges having been finished off, the plates, still on 
the moulds, are placed in a hot closet on shelves which slowly 
revolve, and by this ingenious arrangement the drying of the 
goods to the desired degree is well accomplished. Being formed, 
the articles, of whatever kind, must be ^ fired,' and they are ac- 
cordingly packed in coarse earthenware vessels called saggers, and 
these are piled one on the other in the oven until it is quite full. 
The furnaces are now lighted, and an intense heat kept up for 
about forty hours; the oven is then allowed to cool, arid when 
the saggers are withdrawn they contain the ware in the state 
known as 'biscuit.' At this stage we are introduced to the 
decorative processes of the manufacture. The patterns are 
printed on peculiarly soft and thin tissue-paper from copper- 
plates, and are transferred to the ware by applying the printed 
tissue-paper to its surface and rubbing it on. The biscuit being 
of a highly absorbent nature, readily receives the pattern, and 
the paper is got rid of by the application of water. Gilt dec- 
oration is largely used, and the patterns are printed on the ware 
in a kind of size, the gold alloy being afterwards dusted on. 
Before heating the gold is quite dark ; during that process it 
changes to a dirty yellow, and is only brought out in all its 
resplendency by the operation pf burnishing with agate. The 
more elaborate patterns are hand-painted on the ware, and there 
is scope here for the display of the most artistic execution. Each 
color has to be separately applied, and the many heatings the 
ware has to undergo to bring out the tints exposes it to such 



OF THE CENTENXIAL EXIIIBITIOX. 367 

risk of injury that other manufacturers are dii?inclinecl, in con- 
sequence, to apply this variety of decoration to their goods. 
After tlie biscuit has received its ornamentation, it is dipped in 
a glaze, and the final heating it undergoes vitrifies the latter, 
and calls up the natural vividness of the colors forming the 
patterns.'^ 

The tile makers have a fine collection. Several of the struc- 
tures enclosing the spaces of the exhibitors are constructed 
entirely of tiles bearing handsome paintings, and finished in the 
most perfect style of the art. The famous house of Minton 
& Co., of Stoke-upon-Trent, have perhaps the most perfect col- 
lection in the group. The designs are fine, and the workman- 
ship of the highest class. Maw & Co., and Craven, Dunnill 
& Co., of Shropshire, also make a fine show of geometrical 
mosaic, encaustic, and mnjolica tiles, among which are a number 
of fine reproductions of ancient works, as well as modern 
designs. 

The collection of tiles is chiefly r.ear the north side of the 
British section, at its eastern end. Returning from this to the 
front line, we notice, near the collection of Elkington & Co., the 
exhibit of ornamental iron-work, made by Barnard, Bishop & 
Barnard, of Norwich. The most prominent object of this col- 
lection is the fine pavilion of iron-work filled with the wares of 
the firm. The South Kensington Museum has purchased 
duplicate portions of this building as specimens of the finest 
styles of ornamental iron-work of the nineteenth century. 
Just above this collection a su]icrb crystal chandelier, sus- 
pended over a fine display of cut glas^sware, attracts our atten- 
tion. It is the handsomest in the building. 

Passing northward^ we reach the collection of furniture. A 
special feature of this department consists of the handsome and 
comfortable-looking brass bedsteads, of which quite a number 
are displayed. 

Messrs. James Schoolbred & Co., of London, have one of the 
handsomest pavilions in the Exhibition. It is divided into a 
number of chambers furnished with exquisite taste in the Anglo- 
Indian style. These cozy apartments are exceedingly attractive, 



368 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

and visitors are loud in their praise of their arrangement. This 
house also exhibits some fine furniture of the Jacobean and 
Queen Anne styles. A fine display of decorative furniture is 
also made by W. Scott Morton, of Edinburgh. The furniture 
exhibit includes many beautiful specimens of interior decora- 
tion and adornment, and is a iair representation of a school from 
which our own decorators might learn much. 

The collection of ornamental mantels, fire-places, and heating 
apparatus stands in the rear of the furniture. It is handsome, 
but in point of convenience and completeness is inferior to that 
displayed by our own country in the annex to the Main 
Building. 

A conspicuous feature of the British collection is the mag- 
nificent tent, or booth, constructed of purple velvet hangings, 
and ornamented with a superb collection of specimens of em- 
broidery and needlework. An exquisitely worked scroll over the 
entrance tells us that this is the pavilion of the "Royal School of 
Art and Needlework. '' This school is under the especial patron- 
age of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, and the greater part of the 
embroideries displayed are the work of the royal family or of 
ladies of noble birth. A screen worked by the Princess 
Christian attracts much attention from visitors. The hearty 
interest displayed by the Queen of England in our Exhibition, 
and the generous manner in which she has personally taken 
part in it, merits and should receive the cordial acknowledg- 
ment of our people. 

Against the northern wall of the building are suspended two 
seamless pieces of oil-cloth, each about twenty-five by forty-five 
feet in size. They are from Kirkaldy, in Scotland. 

Returning once more to the main aisle, we enter the depart- 
ment of cotton and woollen goods. The exhibit in these lines is 
immense, and extremely varied. The articles are of the best 
quality, and are displayed in the most artistic manner. Linens 
also abound here, and excite, as they well deserve, the praise of 
all visitors. A case of magnificent Irish poplins is exhibited 
by Pim Brothers, of Dublin. They are among the most beau- 
tiful fabrics on exhibition in the Main Hall, and a crowd of 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 369 

visitors is always collected around them. The famous Bal- 
briggan Hose Manufacturers make an interesting and complete 
exhibit near by. The display of laces, silks, ribbons and silk 
fabrics is also very fine. The department of textile fabrics 
includes England, Scotland and Ireland, and fully sustains the 
claims of the British kino^dom with regcard to this branch of 
her manufactures. A conspicuous portion of this exhibit is the 
handsome display of satteens and cloths for tailors' use, made by 
Ferguson Brothers, of the Holme Head Works, near Carlisle. 
These goods are of the most superior class, and are considered 
unequalled in the Exhibition. The well-known house of 
William F. Read, of Philadelphia, is the American representative 
of this firm. Hitchcock, Williams & Co., of London, display 
a case of handsome and complete toilettes for ladies, elegantly 
set off on wax figures. 

Farther north is the collection of jewelry. This is handsome 
in many respects, but is not such a display as was hoped for 
from Great Britain. One or two cases are especially noticeable. 
James Aitchison, of Edinburgh, has a pretty exhibit of Scottish 
jewelry in gold and silver. Highland ornaments, and precious 
stones found in Scotland; and William Gibson, of Belfast, has a 
fine display of Irish bog-oak jewelry. 

The exhibit of cutlery, tools, and hardware is large, and 
includes London, Sheffield, and Birmingham. The articles 
offered are of the finest quality, and are tastefully arranged. 
In this department the Telegraph Construction and Maintain- 
ence Company exhibit a collection of sj)ecimens of the differ- 
ent submarine cables laid by them in various parts of the 
world. 

The display of scientific and philosophical instruments is 
extensive and unusually good. All the leading makers are 
represented, and the specimens on exhibition are among the 
very best in the building. Some fine watches and chronome- 
ters and a number of musical instruments are to be seen 
near by. 

In the alcoves along the northern wall of the building the 
carpet makers display their finest products. Here are to be 
24 



370 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



seen the most beautiful Axminster, Wilton, and Indian carpets 
and rugs that Great Britain has ever sent to this country. The 
laro-er ones, woven in a seamless piece, are suspended against 
the wall, and may be examined readily by the lovers of these 
beautiful fabrics. 




NEW JERSEY STATE BUILDING. 



A fine collection of fire-arms is to be seen near by, together 
with apparatus for hunting and fishing, a collection deeply 
interesting to sportsmen. 

At the western end of her section Great Britain has grouped 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 371 

the exhibits of her publishers, and her educational display. 
The latter is not large, and does not do justice to the country 
which has done so much for the cause of knowledge. Her 
great universities are not represented at all, and her excellent 
school system is scarcely shown, a circumstance much to be 
regretted. 

The book-men have but a slight representation. Cassell, 
Fetter & Galpin, of London, show a good collection of their 
illustrated works, and Messrs. Bradbury, Agnew & Co., of 
London, the proprietors of Punch and the British Encyclopcediay 
have a handsome pavilion, at the entrance to which Mr. Punch 
stands, bowing a welcome to his visitors. The publications of 
this house are well displayed, and the lover of books will not 
fail to notice with especial pleasure the rich and exquisite 
editions of Shakspeare to be seen here. 

Immediately opposite, the London Illustrated News and the 
London Graphie unite in an enclosure along the sides of which 
are displayed specimens of their illustrations and fine cut- 
printing. The Graphic exhibits a number of original sketches 
and complete drawings of scenes and incidents in the late 
Franco-German war, and a series of blocks showing the differ- 
ent stages of the process of w^ood engraving. A small printing 
press worked by a gas-engine is used to strike off the illumin- 
ated circulars of this firm. 

The display of stained glass windows is more complete and 
beautiful than has ever been made by England at any Interna- 
tional Exhibition. These exhibits are to be found chiefly in 
the windows of the gallery at the south end of the transept, 
where they show to the best advantage. 

One-fifth of the entire space of the Main Building is takeif 
up by Great Britain and her colonies. Of this, Great Britain 
and India occupy one-half. 

India. 

The exhibit made by British India is under the control of 
the British Commissioners, and is chiefly from the India 
^[useum in London. It is neither as extensive nor as fine as 



372 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

the exhibit made at Vienna. Specimens are exhibited, showing 
everything the natives eat, wear or use. The grains of India, 
the cotton, and other products are arranged in cases according 
to a regular classification, and are deserving of a careful study. 
Native dyes are also shown, together with a quantity of silks, 
raw, floss, spun, and woven, and the cocoon from which the 
silk is obtained. Some of the silks are beautifully embroidered, 
and some fine specimens of gold and silver cloth are to be seen 
here. The collection of laces and shawls is very attractive. 
A set of magnificently carved black furniture is included in the 
collection, and attracts much attention. Jewelled weapons and 
native arms are among the showiest features of the display. A 
collection of native pottery and metal work, lacquered ware, 
boxes made of porcupine quills and sandal wood, some mag- 
nificent native fans inlaid w^ith ivory and precious stones, some 
singular dra wrings in mica, and a number of Hindoo antiquities 
are also to be found in this department. Some fine India car- 
pets are displayed. Delhi sends some handsome embroidered 
work, and Bombay a rich collection of jewels. Along the 
sides of the space are photographs of scenes in India, and of the 
native races of that country. From the display made here one 
may gather a fair idea of the people of India and their habit?, 
and contrast them with those of other lands. This, indeed, 
should be the main object of the intelligent visitor, and the 
various Commissions have arranged their exhibits for the pur- 
pose of facilitating this study. 

The Dominion of Canada. 

Canada occupies almost as much space as the mother country. 
The exhibit is made under the direction of three Commissioners 
from the Dominion and one from each of the Provinces. The 
collection is made up of articles from the Provinces of Quebec, 
Ontario, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and British 
Columbia, The Dominion contributed the sum of $100,000 
to the expenses of the Exhibition, and the Provinces an equal 
sum. The goods are displayed in neat uniform walnut cases, 
but little expense having been gone to on this account. 



OF THE CENTENXIAL EXHIBITIOIT. 373 

The extent and variety of the exhibition of Canadian manu- 
factures will surprise even those who suppose themselves well 
versed in these matters. Cotton and woollen goods, hosiery, 
boots and shoes, drugs and chemicals, sewing machines, hard- 
ware, saws, pianos, and wearing apparel of all kinds, are dis- 
played in profusion and of admirable qualities. The leading 
ship-builders on the coast send models of the vessels they have 
constructed, and Quebec and Toronto send fine specimens of 
furniture. The Canadian potters send handsome specimens of 
stoneware, which they claim is equal to the best StaiFordshire 
ware; and from Montreal there are finely wrought marble 
mantels, which the exhibitors assert are equal in quality and 
workmanship to anything produced in Italy. A large display 
of furs is made, the Hudson Bay Company taking the lead in 
this respect. 

A specialty is the exhibit of the geological department, in which 
the ores and petroleum of the Dominion are most prominent. 
A lump of plumbago, six feet by four in size, is exhibited. It 
is said to be the largest ever mined. New Brunswick contrib- 
utes some fine specimens of red granite. A case of clothing of 
skins ornamented with bead-work, and articles of adornment 
of b«eid-work, made by the Indians of Canada, attracts much 
attention. 

The Province of Ontario displays with great pride and mi- 
nuteness her educational system. The plan adopted is similar 
to that of the States of the American Union, and no pains have 
been spared to make the showing complete. Models and draw- 
ings of the principal educational establishments are exhibited, 
together with the text-books used, and specimens of the pupils' 
work. A handsome collection of philosophical apparatus and 
maps is embraced in the exhibit. 

Altogether Canada has good cause to be satisfied with her 
display, and the careful observer may learn much that is new 
to him of the progress of our northern neighbor. 

The British Colonies. 

Of the space allotted to the dependencies of Great Britain, 



374 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Canada has three-sixths, the Australian colonies two-sixths, 
and the remainder is divided among the African and American 
colonies. 

New South Wales. 

The Australian colonies exhibit many interesting objects. 
New South Wales, which lies in the southeastern portion of 
that continent, has endeavored to show by her display the 
extent and variety of her resources. Fine photographs of 
Sidney, the capital, said to be the largest ever taken, constitute 
a prominent part of the exhibit, and show to the visitor what a 
stately city has grown up in the far-off country which but a 
generation back was almost unkuown. 

The exhibit of wool is very large, and fairly represents the 
extent and importance of this branch of Australian imlustry. 
An extensive collection of mineral specimens, including copper, 
antimony, iron, gold and kaolin, is shown, among which is a 
pyramid formed of blocks of coal and samples of all the carbon- 
iferous specimens discovered in the country. A number of 
lumps of tin ore, and blocks of refined tin, show what New 
Zealand can do in the mining of this metal, and a lofty obelisk 
of gilt shows the amount of gold that was taken from the country 
from 1851 to 1874, which was 8,205,232^ ounces, valued at 
$167,949,355. 

Samples of silk and silk cocoons, and a number of specimens 
of the Avork of the natives of the country, are shown. The fine 
timber which forms so prominent a part of the exports of the 
colony is shown in a number of excellent specimens of sections 
of trees. A large block of kerosene shale is to be seen, from 
which the kerosene oil used in the colony is manufactured. 

The whole exhibit is deeply interesting and instructive. It 
is arranged with great care and judgment, and is a fair showing 
of the resources and progress of the country it represents. 

Queensland. 

The exhibit from Queensland is contained in an enclosed 
apartment, on the north side of the British space, immediately 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 375 

opposite the New South Wales section. It is in charge of Mr. 
Angus Mackay, of the Queenslander (the leading journal of the 
colony), a gentleman who has identified himself closely with the 
progress of this far-off country. It is in all respects one of the 
most interesting in the building, and is so admirably arranged 
that it does not fail to attract throngs of inquiring and appre- 
ciative visitors. Queensland occupies the northwestern part of 
Australia, and is a rapidly-growing and thriving colony. It 
originally formed a part of the colony of New South Wales, 
but was separated from it and given an independent administra- 
tion some years ago. 

The visitor's attention is at once drawn to a tall obelisk 
covered with gilt, which shows the amount of gold exported 
from Queensland between 1868 and 1875. It was sixty-five 
tons forty-one pounds and six ounces, and was valued at §35,- 
000,000. A fine collection of gold-bearing quartz is arranged 
around this obelisk. The collection of minerals is very com- 
plete, and embraces all that are found in the colony. There are 
specimens of tin, copper, arrowroot, woods, oils, silk, timber and 
antimony. The production of tin is increasing every year, and 
now exceeds that of gold. Indeed, the principal supply of the 
tin used by the civilized world is now drawn from Queensland.. 
Several lumps of copper ore are exhibited, weighing five tons in 
the aggregate, and twenty-two different kinds of wood are 
shown. The botanical collection is very rich. Some fine native 
sugars are exhibited, and the display of wool is large and of an 
excellent quality. A case of native implements and clothing, 
exhibiting; the dress and habits of the native Australian, forms 
an interesting part of the collection. Black wall tablets are 
suspended around the enclosure showing the mining, grazing, 
agricultural and geological statistics of the colony, and below 
these is an extensive array of paintings and ])hotographs illus- 
trative of the country and its inhabitants. The whole exhibit 
is so arranged that the colony and its resources can be under- 
stood almost at a glance. 



376 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



Victoria. 

The colony of Victoria occupies the southeastern corner of 
Australia, and covers an area of about 88,198 square miles. It 




COLORADO AND KANSAS STATE BUILDING. 



has a population of about 820,000. The capital is Melbourne, 
one of the largest cities in Australia. It is better provided with 
railways than any of the Australian colonies, and its people are 
well educated, education being free, secular, and compulsory. 
The exhibit of this colo'^y embraces a display of her mineral 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 377 

resources, including fac-si miles of enormous nuggets of gold 
found in her rich gold fields ; a classified collection of rocks, 
minerals and fossils, illustrative of the geology, mineralogy and 
mining resources of Victoria; and a collection of gems and pre- 
vious stones, consisting of diamonds, blue sapphires, oriental 
emeralds, rubies, aqua marines, topazes, spinels, beryls, opals, 
garnets, tourmalines, etc. A number of specimens of chemical 
preparations from Australian products will be found in this 
section, and the display of home-made pottery is excellent. 
Specimens also are shown of the manufactures of the colony in 
cotton and woollen goods, and silk threads and raw silk pro- 
duced in Victoria. Samples of paper made from diiferent barks 
are shown, also a collection of fine photographs. The Austra- 
lian climate is the most favorable in the world to photography, 
and all the specimens from that continent are very fine. The 
grains and other agricultural products, the wools, coffee and 
native wines, are also well displayed. A small exhibit is made 
of the educational system of the colony, and also of the work of 
the penal institutions. Around the walls of the enclosure are 
hung a number of photographs and paintings of places and 
scenery in Victoria. 

South Australia. 

This is one of the largest of the Australian colonies, and 
lies south of Queensland and west of Kew South Wales. It 
comprises an area of 914,730 square miles, about one-third the 
size of the United States, and has a population of 210,699. It 
is rapidly increasing in population and wealth. Its principal 
exports are wool, wheat and copper. The exhibit of the colony 
inchides specimens of gold quartz, copper ores, iron ores, bismuth 
and malachite, olive oil, native wines, the native woods, barks, 
grains, and other vegetable products, wools and raw silks. Ar- 
ticles made by the native Australians are also exhibited. Fine 
photographs of Adelaide, the capital, and various places in 
South Australia, are hung around the enclosure. 



378 THE ILLUSTRATED HIS 1 OrvY 

New Zealand. 

The colouy of New Zealand consists of the three islands, 
known as the North, South and Stewart Islands, and the several 
neiirhborinoj small islands, all of which lie in the Pacific ocean, 
to the southeast of Australia. The total area is about 100,000 
square miles; the population about 299,514. The exhibit of 
the colony is not very large, but includes specimens of the ores 
— such as copper, lead, zinc, manganese, iron and coal — found 
in the islands. The principal feature of the exhibit, however, 
is the display of paintings and drawings representing the country 
and its inhabitants ; the models of its public works and the 
large photographs of scenery and places in the colony. There 
is also an interesting collection of Maori weapons and imple- 
ments. 

The Cape of Good Hope. 

The colony of the Cape of Good Hope comprises an area of 
about 201,000 square miles, and has a population of 776,158, 
of which 187,439 are whites. The arrangements of the exhibit 
of the colony are exceptionally good. The display includes 
^ome rich specimens of copper ore, black oxide of manganese, 
diamonds, saltpetre and coal; native articles of dress; native 
jewelry and weapons; specimens of the wines and brandies 
made in the colony ; leather, wool, mohair, agricultural pro- 
ducts, ivory, skins, and specimens of the birds and animals of 
the Cape. Here also are photogi-aphs and paintings of the 
scenery of the country. 

The Gold Coast 

The exhibit of the Gold Coast colony is small, but well 
arranged. It embraces some fine specimens of g^_-. dust and 
native ornaments of gold; skins of the wild animals of the 
African coast ; native idols, clothing, weapons ana other articles. 

Jamaica. 

The island of Jamaica has fitted up a small pavilion, in which 
it displays its favorite rums and sugars, its coffee, cotton, medi- 
cinal barks, hemp and native woods. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 379 

The Bermudas. 

In the small pavilion appropriated to the Bermuda islands a 
handsome collection is gathered, consisting of shells, corals of 
the most exquisite forms, palm-leaf baskets, mats and fans, and 
native woods 

77?^ Bahamas. 

The Bahama islands display some beautiful specimens of shell 
work, large shells, native woods, tobacco, cotton, beeswax, and 
touo^h fibres of the native trees of the islands. 

Trinidad. 

Trinidad's display is small, and consists mainly of specimens 
of the agricultural and mineral products of the colony, and a 
number of samples of the native manufactures. 

Briiish Guiana. 

The exhibit of this colony consists principally of sugars, r^^ms 
and specimens of the reptiles found in the colony. 

Tasmania. 

The collection of Tasmania is small, but interesting, and 
represents the native products, the mineral and the agricultural 
resources of the colony, with photographs and painting? of 
scenes and places in the island. 

Taken as a whole, the British display is larger and better 
than that at Vienna, and the colonies make an exhibit which i? 
gratifying and instructive in the highest degree. 

France. 

The space occupied by France lies on the north side of the 
building, immediately east of the central transept, extending 
from the main aisle to the north wall. It is about one-half as 
large as the space assigned to Great Britain. The section is 
unenclosed, and the cases are simple but perfectly constructed. 
They are invariably painted black, with ornamental lines of 



380 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



gilt, and with the names of the exhibitors above in gilt letters. 
This uniformity and simplicity were prescribed by M. de Som- 
erard, the Director-General of France, for all International 
Exhibitions. He established this regulation at the Paris Ex- 




\f t W£5 T: PHH-m. 



ARKANSAS STATE BUILDING. 



})osition in 1867, and has enforced it ever since. It has the 
good result of preventing pei*sons from losing sight of the 
beauty and excellence of the goods displayed in their admira- 
tion of the cases. The elegant simplicity of the French De])art- 
ment is, however, very pleasing. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 381 

The principal entrance to the French section is at the inter- 
section of the main aisle with the central transept, opposite the 
music stand. Here, in a semi-circular space, is a collection of 
exquisite bronzes and articles in gilt and verd antique. The 
gem of the whole collection is a mantel-piece of black marble 
fifteen feet high, ornamented with statues and high reliefs 
in gilt and verd antique bronze. It has no rival in the Ex- 
hibition. Back of the front line one finds a rich and beautiful 
display of antique furniture, cabinets, etc., all of which are 
very attractive, and many of which are of great value as works 
of art. 

Close by is the display of porcelain and pottery. This is the 
largest portion of the French exhibit, and by far the most 
attractive. There are four collections of porcelain proper, and 
six of faience and majolica. The porcelains are arranged along 
the central transept, and face the English display in friendly 
defiance, being separated from it only by the broad walk. In 
this department France is absolutely peerless among the nations 
of Europe, and the rare beauty and extent of her display will 
delight all lovers of beautiful objects. The famous house of 
Barbizet & Son, of Paris, exhibit a number of their matchless 
reproductions of Palissy ware, each article being worthy of care- 
ful study. Another house exhibits only works in imitation of 
old faience. Jules Houry & Co., of Paris, display a collection 
of exquisite china and faience, and some artistic furniture. 
Paul Blot, another well-known dealer, has an exhibit of the 
most delicate and beautiful glassware for use and ornament. 
Pelletier & Son, of St. Just on the Loire, show some rich stained 
glasses for windows ; and P. J. Brocard, of Paris, has a large and 
handsome display of chandeliers and mirrors, arranged with 
exceptional good taste. 

The front line along the main aisle is taken up principally 
with a display of cloths, cotton goods, silks, velvets, gloves, 
laces and wearing apparel. The goods displayed in this depart- 
ment are exceedingly beautiful, and the exhibit is very large. 
The silks and velvets are displayed* in cases enclosing a court, in 
which the exhibitors have provided cushioned seats, that the 



382 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

lady visitors may examine the beautiful fabrics at their ease. 
The variety of the display is astonishing. All the great manu- 
facturers of Lyons and Paris are represented, and each has 
exhausted his ingenuity to make his exhibit as beautiful and as 
varied as possible. Here are silks, velvets and satins, ribbons 
and silk threads of every conceivable hue and texture. The eye 
is dazzled by the brilliancy of the collection, and at the same 
time one is charmed with the perfect good taste of the arrange- 
ment. 

The clothing department is also extensive and includes 
wearing apparel of every description. Some of the costumes 
for ladies are superb, and are not excelled by any in the Exhi- 
bition. They are displayed upon wax figures, and are thus 
seen to the best advantage. Among these are several magnifi- 
cent court dresses, which are the delight of lady visitors. The 
display of laces and lace fabrics is very fine, and is also quite 
extensive. The collective display of the lacemakers of the 
department of Calvados is one of the most complete in the 
French section, and in it are a number of superb lace shawls 
which receive, as they deserve, general admiration. 

Going back from the front line, near the western end of the 
French court, we find a handsome display of Aubusson tapes- 
tries, worked by hand, in which the weaver has introduced as 
many as three thousand shades of wool. These are hung prin- 
cipally around the outer walls of the pavilion of the French 
booksellers, and constitute a series of rich and beautiful 
ornaments. They are woven into fine pictures, which at a 
distance resemble paintings, and the shadings are as deli- 
cate and as perfectly laid on as if the work had been done with 
a brush. 

Raffl & Co., of Paris, make a showy display of statues for 
churches, of painted plaster. The centre piece is a group 
representing the Adoration of the. Infant Saviour by the Shep- 
herds and the Wise Men. There is a stable of boards, with 
real straw. The Holy Child lies in the manger and at either 
side kneel Mary and Joseph, while grouped around are the 
jhepherds and the four kings. The figures are about two- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 383 

thirds life-size, and are brilliantly painted. A crowd is always 
gathered about the space, and the group receives as much 
notice, perhaps, as anything in the French collection. 

Goupil & Co., of Paris, have a separate enclosure in which 
are displayed their famous art publications. Many of these 
engravings are familiar to the people of this country, having 
been extensively sold by the agents of the publishers in the 
United States. The collection is very fine, and shows the art 
of steel engraving in its most perfect form. 

Opposite this enclosure is the pavilion of the Paris book 
publishers. Several of the great houses are represented. 
Hachette & Co. show a number of fine illustrated works, in- 
cluding Bida's beautiful etchings of the Four Gospels. An 
interesting exhibit is also made of educational and sci- 
entific works. Ducher & Co., of Paris, exhibit a fine 
collection of works on architecture, and at the centre of 
the pavilion is a superb reproduction of an oil painting in col- 
ored lithography. 

To the north of the booksellers' pavilion are a number of 
handsome carriages, made principally in Paris. They are 
elegant and costly vehicles, and are fitted up in the most 
sumptuous style. Among them are a steam velocipede and 
two velocipedes worked by dog-power. The latter are singular- 
looking vehicles, provided with three immense wheels, one in 
front and two behind. Between the hind wheels is a comfort- 
able buggy seat for the convenience of the rider. The two 
hind wheels are made of light iron spokes, extending in a 
double row from the hub to rim. Between these rows is an 
inner wheel or cage of stout wire-work in which the dog is 
placed. The animal thus works a sort of tread-mill, which 
turns the larger wheels and propels the machine. This singular 
vehicle is known as the Cynofere, and is said to run well on 
smooth surfaces. In the carriage department will also be seen 
a handsome array of trunks, saddles and harness. 

Just beyond the carriages is the exhibit of cutlery. This is 
i^ery fine, and the articles are beautifully displayed, but the 
inhibit is not equal to that of Great Britain. Tha chemists 



384 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

also make an attractive display, and beside them are the glass- 
makers, whose collection extends up to the central transept and 
for some distance northward. Conspicuous among the articles 
exhibited are several immense sheets of plate glass, which tower 
towards the roof They are said to be the largest specimens of 
plate glass in the world, and their transportation from the 
steamer to the Exhibition grounds was effected with extreme 
difficulty. 

Near the western end the perfumers make a capital display 
of their wares, but do not dispense them to the public as 
lavishly as do the exhibitors in the same line in the American 
department. 

The display of that large class of objects known on the con- 
tinent of Europe as Articles de Paris is extensive, and occupies 
a very considerable part of the French space. It covers a wide 
range of articles, and may be said to include every object that 
can be used in the adornment of the person or of the house. 
The jewelry is a notable feature, and several rich exhibits are 
made, and are characterized by the peculiar loveliness and 
originality which belongs to the metropolis of European civili- 
zation. The list embraces bronzes, clocks of original and 
beautiful design, precious stones, fans that are the envy of all 
the fair visitors who look upon them, articles in ivory, ebony, 
tortoise shell, crystal and steel, mantel ornaments and a thou- 
sand other beautiful things which may be seen and enjoyed in 
this splendid collection, but which it would take a volume to 
describe. 

The department of engineering and architecture includes a 
series of finely executed maps and plans of the Suez Canal, a 
fine model of the steamship " Pereire," plying between New 
York and Havre, and a number of maps and plans and finely 
illustrated works and reports upon subjects belonging to this 
department. 

The collection of scientific and philosophical instruments is 
excellent, and represents the best work of the best makers. 
The musical instruments are chiefly horns, flutes, violins and 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



385 



mnsic-boxes, though a few pianos and parlor organs are in- 
cluded in the collection. 

The French exhibit of mining and metallurgy was trans- 
ferred to Agricultural Hall for want of space in the Main 
Building, and will be noticed in another part of this work. 

The offices of the French Commission are in the gallery to 
the east of the Roosevelt organ. 




THE BOOK TRADE EXHIBIT — SHOWING J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.'S CASE. 
25 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE MAIN BUILDING — CONCLUDED. 

Germany — Location of the German Section — A Superb Display of Porcelain — 
Beautiful Vases — Plate Glass — Bronzes — The Silks — Display of the Elber- 
feld Manufacturers — The Ivory Pavilion — The Chemical Display — The 
Velvet Pagoda — The Hospital Department — Fine Church Decorations — 
Models of an Ocean Steamer — The Book Pavilion — The Austrian Court — 
Magnificent Bohemian Glass — The Meerschaum Pipes — Exquisite Carvings 
— Vienna Leather Work — The Italian Court — Artistic Wood Carvings — 
Beautiful Jewelry — Glassware from Venice — Belgium — Magnificent Dis- 
play of Textile Fabrics — Carved Furniture — Fire-arms — A Belgian School 
and Gymnasium — The Lace Court — Beautiful Iron Work — Pictures in 
Tapestry — The Netherlands — A Grand Display of the Public Works of 
Holland — The Woollen Goods — Model Farms — A Dutch Eating-house — 
Bare and Beautiful Art Works — Educational Exhibit — The , Artisans' 
School — Switzerland in Miniature — The Watchmakers — Scientific Instru- 
ments — The Swiss School System — Rich Laces — The Wood Carvers — 
Sweden — The Peasant Groups — Scenes in the Home Life of the Swedes — 
A Beautiful Exhibit — Fine Porcelains — The Bessemer Steelmakers — Dis- 
play of the Swedish Army — Norway — Peasant Groups — The Laplanders — 
A Fine Collection — The Danish Court — Etruscan Imitations — Esquimaux 
Houses and Boats— The Spanish Pavilion — A Beautiful Structure— Rich 
Display of the Resources and Wealth of Spain — Evidences of Spanish In- 
dustry — The Egyptian Court — A Rare and Beautiful Display fi-om the Land 
of the Nile — The Past and the Present— A Page from the Arabian Nights 
— Rich Robes — Articles from Central Africa — Egypt's Agricultural Re- 
sources — The Japanese Court — A Wonderful Display— Superb Bronzes-^ 
The Lacquered Ware — W'lat the Island Empire Exhibits— The Chinese 
Court — A Beautiful and Curious Display — Exhibit of the Orange Tree 
State — Another Sample of -Dutch Energy — The Tunisian Court — Eastern 
Magnificence — Display of the Native Products and Manufactures of Mexico 
— The Brazilian Pavilion — A Superb Edifice — The Empire of Brazil Illus- 
trated — Exhibit of the other South American States — Display from the 
Sandwich Islands— The Russian Exhibit— Rich and Beautiful Object^ from 
St. Petersburg and Moscow — The Portuguese Court — A Handsome Collec- 
tion—Special Portuguese Features— The Turkish Court— The Wonders of 
the Ivnnd of the Sultan— The Mineral Annex— The Carriage Annex. 
386 




THE CENTEXNIAL EXHIBITIOX. 387 

Gematiy, 

|j|fiIKE her neighbors, England and France, Germany has 
i T left her space unenclosed. It lies on the west side of 

^J^ the central transept, and extends from the main aisle 
to the south wall of the building, covering a little 
more than one-half the space occupied by France. The 
display is very fine, and the cases in which it is contained are 
more varied than those of the other European nations. 

The principal display, and the most beautiful single exhibit 
in the building, is made by the Royal Prussian Factory, of 
Berlin. It stands at the intersection of the main aisle with the 
central transept, and faces the splendid collection of Elkington 
& Co., in the English section, the rich bronzes and porcelain 
of the French section, and the pavilion of the jewellers and 
silversmiths in the American Department. The collection of 
these beautiful objects at this central point of the building 
renders it by far the most attractive portion of the entire hall. 
The space of the Royal Prussian Factory is occupied by a 
large crescent-shaped case, covered with black velvet and orna- 
mented with gilt lines and bands. At each end of the case is 
a tall column of ebony and gold, surmounted by a Prussian 
eagle in gilt. On the shelves of the case, which rise one above 
the other, is collected a rare and beautiful display of porcelain. 
Vases, cups and saucers, plates, statuettes, busts, and other 
articles of the most exquisite shapes, ornamented with the most 
delicate and carefully executed paintings, are gathered here. 
Here are also framed paintings on flat plates of porcelain, each 
of which is worthy of the most careful study. At the front 
line of the collection stand three massive vases, its master 
pieces, which are not equalled in tho Exhibition for richness 
of decoration or the artistic merit of the paintings upon them. 
The largest of these is the Germania vase, one side of which is 
decorated with a painting of " Germania Cultivating the Arts 
and Sciences,'' the other with a painting of "Borussia, the 
Shield and Protectress of the Empire." The price of this vase 



388 THE II.LUSTRATED HISTORY 

is $5000. Near by is the Aurora vase, decorated with a fine 
copy of Guidons Aurora, and valued at §4500. The third is 
the Otho vase, of dead olive green, with a painting of " Otho in 
the Tomb of Charlemagne.'' It is valued at $900. A hand- 
some centre table of carved oak, with a porcelain top, on which 
fe painted a copy of RaphaeFs " Poetry," is valued at $2200. 
One must linger long here to enjoy and appreciate this beauti- 
ful display, each article of which is a study in itself. The 
Royal Factory is the only exhibitor of fine porcelains. The 
German exhibit is not, as a rule, made up of objects of beauty 
simply ; it is a collection of all the important industries of the 
Fatherland, and includes articles in daily use by the lower as 
well as the upper classes. 

Immediately west of the porcelain exhibit, along the front 
line, is a fine display of plate-glass, and beyond this is the col- 
lective exhibit of the German jewellers. It is contained in a 
handsome case, and includes many objects of great value and 
beauty. It does not compete with the exhibit of either the 
United States, France, or England, but is well worthy of examin- 
ation. The cameos and enamels are very good, and the oxidized 
silver caskets are very pretty. 

Going west still, along the front line, we notice a considerable 
collection of bronzes, the principal object of which is a copy of 
the monument to Frederick the Great in Unter den Linden at 
Berlin. Here are shields and swords such as might have been 
used by some of the stout old German warriors centuries ago, 
and a number of kindred pieces. This collection does not 
represent the best school of German art at the present day. 

Still going west, along the front line, we come to the collec- 
tive display of the toy-makers of Nuremberg. They are of tin 
and wood, and are contained in a large and handsome case, but 
do not fairly represent the extent or variety of the industry 
which employs so many thousands of German hands. Magde- 
burg has also a case of toys exhibited through a Philadelphia 
importer, who is singularly enough named Doll. 

Beyond the toys, Gebbard & Co., of Elberfeld, make a fine 
display of rich silks and satins of all hues, and in the next line 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 389 

of cases Saxony displays her hosiery, her yarns, and her gloves 
in thread, wool and kid. 

Still farther west, on the front line, is the collective exhibit 
of cloths made by the manufacturers of the Rhine land, and 
beyond this Elberfeld makes a collective exhibit of Italian cloth 
and tailors' trimmings. The Elberfeld manufacturers contribute 
a considerable part of the display of textile fabrics, and their 
goods are arranged in tall and large cases, ^^ ell filled and taste- 
fully arranged. A prominent feature of the Elberfeld collec- 
tion is a case of handsome prints illustrative of a new process 
of dyeing goods. 

Nuremberg has a space on the front line, just beyond Elber- 
feld, in which she shows a collection of fine linens and damasks. 
Close by, Saxony has a similar collection, and that country 
brings up the rear of the German line upon the main aisle 
with an attractive exhibit of laces and embroidery, together with 
a number of illustrations of the process of lace making. 

We pass now from the front line to the aisle immediately 
south of it, and beginning at its ^vestern end, work our w^ay 
eastward again. We first notice some specimens of woven wire 
goods from Dresden, close by which is a handsome display of 
woollen articles from Berlin. 

The next prominent object is a tall and elaborate ebony show- 
case ornamented with ivory — one of the most unique and attrac- 
tiv^e structures in the building. It contains a beautiful exhibit 
of ivory articles by Heinrich Meyer, of Hamburg, showing the 
different uses to which that substance is put. To the east of 
this is a handsome case containing the collective display of the 
Bavarian makers of metal-leaf and bronze colors. Gold and 
silver leaf are shown here in great variety, and the powders of 
these metals are contained in a number of glass cups. 

A pyramid of printing inks stands at the eastern end of the 
aisle, and above and below it two of the Farinas, both hailing 
from the bad smelling city of Cologne, exhibit their perfumes. 

Turning southward, we find a number of cases along the cen- 
tral transept devoted to the collective exhibit of the German 
luanufacturing chemists. The preparations displayed are ex- 



390 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

ceedingly interesting, and are among the best of their ciass in 
the Exhibition. The display is very large, and prominent in it 
is the case of fine Aniline dyes exhibited by a Berlin house. A 
large case of ultramarine from Nuremberg stands at the western 
end of the chemical exhibit and attracts much attention. 

Going west from the chemicals, we notice a fine collection of 
lamps and lanterns from Leipzig, among which a number of 
Chinese lanterns make a good show. Beyond this is a tall 
pagoda constructed of velvet, gilt, and glass, containing a beauti- 
fully arranged display of brilliant-hued fabrics of cotton-velvet 
from Linden, in Hanover. At the lower part uf the pagoda 
are a number of small drawers containing samples of the goods 
displayed above, which may be opened for the examination of 
the samples. Opposite this pagoda is a beautiful collection of 
Berlin worsteds and wools of the most exquisite shades arranged 
in an attractive and artistic manner. 

We have now reached the western end of the German exhibit 
once more, and turning southward enter the department of 
musical instruments. The display of brass, reed and stringed 
instruments is quite large. Adjoining it on the east is a con- 
siderable exhibit of German pianos. They are mostly in cases 
of ebony, some of which are richly carved. A number of the 
leading piano-makers of Germany are represented, but scarcely 
any effort has been made to corjpete with America in this line. 
The square form of piano is conspicuously absent. It is not 
used now in Europe, and the cases in this collection are either 
upright or of the " grand " form. Two makers exhibit cabinet 
organs, and one a large pipe organ. Several orchestrions are 
also included in the collection. 

Close by are the scientific and philosophical instruments, the 
leading makers of Germany being represented. In the rear of 
this, agamst the southern wall, is the collection of appliances 
illustrating the hospital system of the German army. It 
includes litters, ambulances, caitip-beds, models of hospitals and 
of railway hospital trains, and a figure showing the dress and 
equipment of the brethren of the Geneva convention. There 
are all sorts of surgical appliances, and books of instruction and 



OF TUE CENTENNIAL EXHlBiriOX. 



391 



photographs of various surgical operations. The whole system 
of German military surgery and hospital management is well 
shown in this little corner which stands by itself. 




THE COLC^SEUM, SOUTHEAST CORNER BROAD AND LOCUST STREETS. 

Beyond the hospital department is a tower clock exhibited by 
a firm from Hoyerswerda, in Upper Lansitz, The bell is so 



392 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

arranged that it can be rung in the usual style, and is hand- 
somely chased. 

Adjoining this is the collective display of the clock-makers 
of the Black Forest. It is large and attractive, and includes 
musical clocks, and the small time-pieces which are a specialty 
of this part of Germany. Some of the clock cases are finely 
c-arved and very beautiful. 

To the east of the piano department, a Munich house exhibits 
a large collection of church ornaments and figures of the 
Madonna and the saints. The collection includes a "Christ on 
the Cross,'' " a Christ in the Sepulchre," and a considerable 
number of " Virgins " and saints. Each figure is gayly painted, 
and each is ticl^eted with its price in true business style. The 
Madonnas are rather better than is usually found in work of this 
class, and their expression is singularly sweet and winning. 
The collection also includes a large altar in oak, with numerous 
niches containing figures and painted panels. It is a brilliant 
work, and is valued at $3000 gold. 

Immediately south of this collection, and near the entrance 
to the " Ladies' room," the Hamburgh Steamship Company 
exhibit two models of the " Frisia," one of their largest and 
best steamers. One of these shows the vessel complete in every 
detail; the other is a longitudinal section and shows the interior 
construction of the vessel from keel to deck. The two models 
are admirably executed, and show perfectly the construction 
and equipment of a first-class ocean steamer. 

Opposite these models is a handsome case containing a 
fine display of lead pencils, crayons, and colors by the well- 
know manufacturer, A. W. Faber, of Nuremberg. The next 
case is that of his great rival, Schwanhausser, of Xuremberg, 
who also makes an elaborate display. 

We come now to the handsome pavilion containing the collec- 
tive exhibit of the German booksellers. It stands at the south 
side of the German section, in front of the Cafe Leland, and is 
black, with ornamental gilt lines and mouldings. The cases 
are arranged around the outer walls, and upon entering through 
either of the four portals the visitor finds himself in tlje midst 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 393 

of a display of books to which the array on the outer side was 
but an introduction. The exhibit is very extensive and very 
complete, and is the only thing in the building that can rival 
the display of the American book trade. All the leading Ger- 
man publishers are represented, Leipzig and Berlin contribut- 
ing the greater part of the collection. The collection is miscel- 
laneous in its character. Some superb illustrated works are to 
be seen here, and a number of costly and valuable atlasses. 
The collection is open to the inspection of visitors upon appli- 
cation to the official in charge. 

The display of leather goods is large and excellent. Leipzig 
sends some elegant furs; Stuttgart many specimens of inlaid 
wood work, and some fine furniture in ebony and oak ; and 
Dresden some handsome furniture from the establishment of 
the Royal Saxon Cabinet-maker. 

Austria— Hungary. 

The Austrian section lies along the main aisle, and adjoins 
that of the German empire on the west. Like the German 
section it is unenclosed. It is handsome in many respects, and 
much resembles the display from Germany, but cannot, on the 
whole, be considered a fair showing of the great industries of 
the Austrian empire. Hungary is scarcely represented at all. 
The Hungarians were anxious at first to send a complete na- 
tional representation of their country to the Exhibition, but 
their enthusiasm was suddenly destroyed by the decision of the 
government at Pesth not to make a separate national exhibit. 

Commencing at the west end of the front line we notice a 
fine display of cut and stained glass. There are other casep of 
fine glassware at other points along the front line, and these, as 
is proper, are arranged as conspicuously as possible. The glass- 
ware is mostly from Bohemia, and constitutes one of the largest 
portions of the Austrian exhibit. It is arranged on broad 
counters with mirror tops, and makes a brilliant and attractive 
show. It is of the finest and most delicate quality, and is 
beautifully ornamented. The colors are of the rarest hues, and 
are superior to anything of the kind to be seen in the building. 



394 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

A rich ruby tint overlaid with golden vines is one of the favorite 
and most beautiful colors; another is a clear heavenly blue 
through which a ruddy light resembling the glow of the setting 
sun seems to shine steadily. The contrast between these rich 
hues and the clear crystalline glass which gleams like a mass 
of diamonds is very striking. 

The next display along the front line is of work in amber 
and meerschaum. Austria has no rival in this class of work. 
The amber specimens are principally mouth-pieces for pipe- 
stems, and the meerschaum work consists chiefly of ornamental 
pipes, which are often very artistic and of great variety. They 
represent heads of famous personages, types of the various races 
and nationalities of Europe, and animals, birds and fishes in 
the simpler styles, while the more elaborate have bowls richly 
carved with hunting or historical scenes or comic representa- 
tions of episodes in domestic life. 

East of the pipes is a handsome collection of porcelain. It 
is attractive, but cannot compare with the neighboring exhibits 
in this line. Continuing on our way we notice some handsome 
laces which attract considerable attention. 

This brings us to the German section, and we turn off to the 
southward and notice the extensive display of gloves of kid and 
leather which come })rincipally from Prague. Close by are the 
displays of the Vienna manufacturers of articles in Russia 
leather. They consist of albums, portemonuaies, mirror-frames, 
caskets, diaries, and other articles for household adornment or 
personal use. This, as all travellers know, is a great Viennese 
industry. It is largely represented here, and the articles attract 
general attention by their richness and beauty. Another spe- 
cialty of Viennese industry is the manufacture of dress buttons, 
and these are extensively and handsomely shown here. Tha 
display of cloths is principally from Moravia, and is well 
worth examination, but does not fairly represent the great Mo- 
ravian industry. The silk-weavers of Vienna have a large and 
handsome exhibit tastefullv arrang^ed in rich cases of ebonv and 
gold. The exhibit of jewelry is small, but contains some beau- 
tiful ornaments and some fine precious stones. A Vienna house 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 3S5 

shows some pretty ornaments of mother-of-pearl, and one from 
Prague some splendid garnets. In the furniture department 
there are a number of iron sets worthy of notice. The display 
of musical instruments is large and showy ; and the scientific 
and philosophical instrument makers make a creditable exhibit. 
The carpets shown do not compare with either England, France 
or the United States, but are very good. 

A considerable section is devoted to a display of books, paper, 
lithographs, and photographs. The principal feature of this is 
the collective exhibit of engineering and architectural photo- 
graphs, models, designs, and reports. 

Italy. 

The Italian section occupies the west end of the Main Build- 
ing, and lies north of the main aisle. The space is enclosed 
with a light frame-work, with three tasteful arches fronting on 
the main aisle. Over the central arch rises a shield bearing the 
white cross of Savoy surmounted by a trophy of national flags, 
and above each of the other arches is a shield with the arms of 
the kingdom and a troj)hy of flags. A tall flag-staff rises from 
each end of tlie entrance bearing a banner. The banner at the 
eastern end is inscribed with, the proud legend, "Italy United 
Forever;" that on the west bears the inscription, "To the Great 
Italian Navigator, Christopher Columbus." 

Entering the enclosure we notice first a collection of fine 
bronzes, some of which are half life-size, and are reproductions 
of ancient works of art. Beside them is a considerable dis- 
play of furniture. Some of the pieces are lieavy and elabo- 
rately carved. A prominent object is an Episcopal chair and 
desk carved in a masterly manner with the heads of cherubs, 
and scenes from the Scriptures. An elaborately carved bed, a 
bookcase, and mantel are also worthy of careful examination. 
Venice has a case of cherubs carved in wood, which are very 
pretty. Milan has a number of inlaid tables, ornamented with 
exquisite pictures in papier-mach^. One of these represents the 
Milan Cathedral, and another St. Mark's, at Venice. 

The display of wood carvings is very fine. The gem of 



396 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

this collection is a mirror-frame, in dark, rich wood, with a 
troop of chubby children dancing around it. 

The exhibit of jewelry is not large, but contains many hand- 
some and valuable objects. Olivieri, of Venice, sends some 
fine corals, and Salvo & Sons, of Genoa, display a collection 
of ornaments in filigree and gold. Francatti & Santamaria, of 
Rome, exhibit a case of rare and beautiful cameos and Floren- 
tine mosaics. Fio Siotto, of Rome, exhibits a case of cameos, 
showing the various stages of cameo-cutting, from the shell to 
the completed gem. In this collection are some of the finest 
cameos in the Italian exhibit. 

Venice sends a number of exquisite specimens of her glass- 
ware, and also some beautiful mosaics and corals. A promi- 
nent feature of this collection consists of the handsome mirrors 
of all sizes, which are in the best style of Venetian workman- 
ship. There is a pretty exhibit of pottery and majolica ware. 
It is not very large, but is very attractive. Alongside of it are 
a number of statues, statuettes and busts in terra cotta and 
baked clay. 

Milan, Modena, Turin, Rome, Palermo and Lucca, send a fine 
collection of raw and spun silks and silk goods, and Tuscany 
sends a creditable display of her world-renowned straw goods. 

A conspicuous object near the centre of the eastern side of the 
Italian section is a large bell made in Venice and delicately 
chased. It has been exhibited at all the recent International 
Exhibitions, and has always taken a medal. A good showing 
is made of musical instruments. Italy also sends a fair con- 
tribution of the plainer and more necessary articles of household 
use, showing that her genius is being directed towards the more 
prosaic as well as to the fine arts. 

Along the northern end the photographers make their dis- 
play, exhibiting, among other pictures, a number of rich "moon- 
light effects." Here is a large, map showing Graribaldi's plan 
for improving the navigation of the Tiber and draining the 
marshes of the Campagna, and fronting this is a statue in 
plaster of the " Liberator of Italy." 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 397 

Belgium. 

The busiest country in Europe is welJ represented in the 
Exhibition. The Belgian section lies immediately west of the 
Brazilian court, and north of the main aisle. It is unenclosed, 
but is conspicuous from the elegance of the cases with which it 
is lined and the beauty and systematic arrangement of the goods 
displayed. Along the front line the glass-makers have the 
post of honor. A number of cases are filled with handsome 
specimens of plate and colored glass, and several immense oval 
and rectangular mirrors stand towering to the ceiling at the 
very front of the section. The glass exhibit is very fine, and is 
richly worth examination. 

At the western end of the front line stands a large wooden 
pulpit elaborately and beautifully carved with scenes in the 
life of the Saviour and figures of the saints. It is surmounted 
by a canopy, ornamented with angels sounding their trumpets. 
It is admirable for the art as well as the workmanship displayed. 

Back of the front line we enter a region devoted to cloths 
and woollen fabrics, of which a large and excellent exhibit is 
made. Verviers sends her best products, and offers a sharp 
competition to both France and England in this department. 
The manufacturers of this place make a collective exhibit. 
Close by are the ebony and gilt cases filled with snowy linens 
from Brussels. The skill and artistic taste of the Belgian 
wood-carvers is shown in a collection of carved furniture and 
a massive mantelpiece, and in some excellent statues of this 
material. 

Although the most peaceful country of Europe, Belgium is 
largely engaged in the manufacture of fire-arms, and con- 
sequently her display in this department is extensive and 
valuable, and those interested in military matters will find 
ample opportunity for the gratification of their curiosity. Not 
far from the arms exhibit, the city of Ghent makes a curious 
display, consisting of rags and waste papers assorted in rows of 
glass boxes, with this motto on the case : Colligite fragmenta ne 
perearU ("Gather up the fragments, that nothing may be lost''). 



398 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Near the centre of her section Belgium displays a model of 
one of her public schools. The building is about twenty feet in 
height, is constructed of native pine, and is divided into several 
apartments. Entering at the principal door, we find ourselves 
in a small hall provided with washing apparatus, towels, and a 
row of pegs for hats and coats. A door at the end of this hall 
admits us to the school-room, which is furnished with rows of 
desks and seats for the pupils, a platform and desk for the 
master, a tall stove, a clock, and a crucifix. Blackboards and 
all the apparatus used in the school are grouped about the room, 
and specimens of the text-books used and a schedule of the 
course pursued are exhibited. At the front end of the room a 
door leads into the gymnasium, in which is a small model of 
this department. The school is admirably arranged, and gives 
one a clear and comprehensive understanding of the system of 
primary education in Belgium. 

Close by the school-house are some marble mantels of beau- 
tiful workmanship. They are in both white and colored marble. 
We notice here, also, a number of marble slabs, on w^hich some 
curious landscapes and figures are etched with aqua-fortis. 

There is a handsome pavilion devoted to the purpose of 
advertising the waters of the Spa. A fine display is made of 
articles of embossed leather, a number of paintings upon wood, 
jewelry, priests' vestments of cloth of gold embroidered with 
silk, and fancy articles. 

A small court is formed of the cases containing the laces of 
Brussels and Mechlin. The display is large and magnificent, 
and excels anything of the kind in the building. The fabrics 
are of an infinite variety in form and texture, and range from 
the most delicate laces to curtains heavy with embroideries. 
Look where you may the eye rests upon some beautiful object 
in this court, and you can but wonder at the i)atience with which 
so many women have worked' their lives into these fabrics. 

An excellent display of books and scientific and philosophical 
apparatus is made, and musical instruments form a small part 
of the exhibit of the " republican kingdom.'^ 

The iron and steel exhibit is not entirely satisfactory. It con- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 399 

sists of a few car wheels, a small display of bar-iron, and princi- 
pally of small sections of rail bars, steel ingots, and iron girders 
for bridges. It does not fairly represent the magnitude or 
variety of this great branch of Belgian industry, and gives us no 
idea of the great works produced by the Belgian manufacturers. 
We notice, however, two doors of iron wrought in vines and 
flowers, which are worthy to have been the work of the Flor- 
entine iron-workers of the middle ages. 

An exhibit is made, close by the iron, of liqnors and cordials 
manufactured in the kingdom. 

At the upper end of the section are a number of beautiful 
tapestries from Malines^ equal in beauty and workmanship to 
those we have noticed in our account of the French exhibit. 
One of them is a portrait of Kubens ; another a portrait of 
Cousin in Arabian costume; and a third a full-length painting 
in the style of Louis XYI. Eight panels, grouped together, 
represent the eight gods of Olympus, with all their attributes. 

The Netherlands. 

The Dutch section lies on the north side of the main aisle, 
between the Brazilian and Mexican courts. It is one of the 
most ornamental in the building, and is enclosed with a light 
arched frame- work, painted in cream-color and gold, and hung 
with heavily draped curtains of maroon -colored velvet. There 
are three entrances in the front line and several at the sides. 
Over the central entrance is a trophy of the national colors and 
the arms of the kingdom in gold. The entrance on the east 
side of the central arch leads to the exhibit of the colonies of 
Holland, and that on the west of the central arch to the depart- 
ment of public works. Holland makes a larger and better 
arranged display here than she did at Vienna, and her various 
industries and the energy and skill of her people are shown in 
the most favorable light. 

One naturally turns first to the department of public 
works, not only because of the imposing display which it 
makes, but because it is to the patient and skilful labor of her 
people in this department that Holland owes her existence 



400 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

araonff the nations of the earth. In this section a number of 
finely executed plans, models and photographs are shown, from 
which one can learn how the work of reclaiming land from the 
ocean is carried on, and can gain a clear knowledge of the 
system by which the little kingdom is protected from the in- 
roads of the sea, a work which requires ceaseless vigilance and 
the most intelligent labor. Models are exhibited which show 
at a glance the change that has been made in the surface of the 
kingdom, and from the study of these we can well understand 
how it w^as possible for the desolate marshes of the North Sea 
to become one of the busiest, richest and most intelligent 
coun*^ries of Europe. The energy and intelligence that could 
conquer the elements and make a home in the face of such 
obstacles is capable of anything. The docks, railroads, bridges 
and other public works of the kingdom are shown by a series 
of photographs, drawings and models. Indeed so complete is 
the display of these illustrations that a few hours spent in 
examination of them cannot fail to make the visitor thoroughly 
acquainted with and give him a profound respect for the little 
kingdom and its sturdy people. Holland justly devotes con- 
siderable space to this department, for in no other way could 
she so thoroughly show her triumphs in the work of civili- 
zation. 

Passing out of the department of public works into the 
general exhibit of the kingdom, we notice near the entrance 
some beautiful specimens of inlaid furniture. One of these is 
a screen decorated with scenes from Faust, in papier-mache. 
Close by is a display of lacquered ware, as handsome and as 
well executed as anything in the Japanese exhibit. 

Delft sends a fine collection of carpets woven each in a single 
piece, in imitation of the Smyrna carpets, and softer, thicker 
and richer in color than those famous fabrics. Alongside of 
these is a collection of fine blankets, some of which are nearly 
an inch in thickness, and all as soft and delicate as down. 
With them are displayed coverlets, thickly wadded and deli- 
cately quilted, which are the house wife^s delight. The display 
of woollen and cotton cloths, of mattings and nettings, is 



OF THE CENTENNIAL. EXHIBITION. 401 

also exceptionally good. Jute goods form a specialty of this 
collection. 

Just back of this display is a queer hand fire-engine, set on 
little wheels and requiring sixteen men to work it. One can 
but smile at the contrast between this old-fashioned machine 
and the splendid "steamers" on exhibition in our own depart- 
ment in Machinery Hall. 

The Dutch army exhibits samples of the fire-arms used by 
it; and to make the display truly national a manufacturer 
sends a case of the long-stemmed pipe which is the inseparable 
companion of the Dutchman. Close by is a fine display of 
chemicals ; and near this we notice a number of excellent 
specimens of wood-graining. A collection of tiles and oil 
cloths is also shown, in which the different marbles and woods 
are perfectly imitated. The collections of glassware and of iron 
and tinware are good, and near them are several of the immense 
covered wicker bathing-chairs familiar to those who have vis- 
ited the seashore resorts of Holland. 

The agricultural system of the kingdom is displayed by the 
exhibition of a model farm in miniature. It is no doubt well 
adapted to the needs of the country, but shows few details that 
our own farmers will care to copy. A number of plaster casts 
of diyeda membra of cattle afflicted by the plague are also 
shown. A number of models of Dutch houses are exhibited, 
among which is the model of an eating-house, showing the 
whole interior arrangement. Another model shows the system 
of thatched roofs in use in the Dutch colonies. 

A special pavilion is used for the exhibit of the Dutch pub- 
lishers. Here are to be seen a number of fine illustrated works, 
and the lovers of rare etchings will find a treat for them in the 
collection displayed by the book trade of Amsterdam. Con- 
spicuous among the art w^orks is the beautiful Memorial 
volume, published in commemoration of the ^var of inde- 
pendence, in which the Dutch, with pen and pencil, do homage 
to the heroes that saved them from the destruction prepared 
for them by Spain. 

The exhibit of school apparatus, text-books, desks, maps, etc., 
26 



102 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

is admirable, and shows what good work Holland is doing in 
the cause of knowledge. The Artisan School, of Rotterdam, 
established in 1869, makes an interesting showing of its work. 
Tfc is designed to give theoretical and practical instruction in 
the useful arts, and turns out each year a class of skilled 
and educated workmen. It is doing its work quietly but 
thoroughly. 

Tiie colonial department is exceedingly interesting and very 
complete. All the colonies are represented, and the products 
of each are shown. The collection includes grains, w^oods, 
barks, fruits, oils, metals and other minerals iu great abun- 
dance. The weapons and clothing of the native tribes are also 
shown, and include curious filigrees and some rich silks and 
embroideries and silver cloths. The princij)al display is from 
Java, and the cinchona trade of that colony is illustrated pro- 
fusely l)y means of photograplis, specimens of bark, leaves, etc. 
Coffee forms a large part of the exhibit. 

Against the northern wall of the building is a handsome 
pavilion of ash — one of the prettiest structures in the hall — 
containing the offices of the Royal Commission, the membei'S 
of which have abundant reason to be satisfied with the appear- 
ance their country makes in this grand assembly of the nations 
of the world. 

Switzerland. 

The Swiss section lies on the north side of the main aisle, 
between France and Belgium. It is unenclosed, and is one of 
the plainest in the building in ornamentation. It is not the 
less interesting for this absence of decoration, and receives a 
fair share of the attention of visitors. 

On the front line is arranged a large collection of watches, 
the most important article of the Swiss export trade. Nearly 
all the leading makers are represented, and back of these cases 
are displayed the tools by which the watches are made. A 
number of clocks, including a large electrical clock, form a part 
of this exhibit. Musical boxes and mathematical, scientific 
and philosophical instruments come next, and the display of 
these is excellent and extensive. They are of the finest quality, 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 403 

the Swiss being as proficient in the manufacture of them as they 
are in the making of watches. 

Back of this line is a large pavilion, the entrance to which is 
through an archway in the front. On one side of the arch is a 
splendid map of the geological survey of Switzerland, and on 
the other a fine geographical map, each richly worthy of study. 
The arch itself is composed of panels ornamented with the 
arms of the various cantons, and above it stands the white 
cross of the republic. The pavilion is devoted to an exhihilion 
of tiie educational system of Switzerland, and consists of charts, 
models and apparatus used in the system of object-teaching. 
Drawings, text-books and specimens of the pupils' work in the 
common schools are also shown. The Swiss publishers make 
their exhibit here, and in this pavilion are displayed fine 
photographs of scenery and of the cities and public works of 
Switzerland. These views, together with the maps at the 
entrance, give the visitor a fair idea of the topography and 
scenery of the country. 

One of the most notable features of the Swiss exhibit is the 
disnlav of embroidered lace curtains from the canton of St. 

1 V 

(h\]\. These curtains are made by hand; the patterns are ricli 
and artistic, the workmanship of the finest quality, and the 
completed fabric constitutes a genuine work of art. 

A large exhibit is made of coarse woollen goods for peasant 
wear, and some good silks and fine straw work are shown. 

The wood-carvers, who are so numerous in Switzerland and 
so famous for their skill, make a large and attractive display. 
Their wares exhibit a wonderful degree of patience as well as 
skill, and are as various as they are excellent, consisting of 
miniature chalets, churches, birds and beasts of many kinds, 
cuckoo clocks, tables, brackets, etc. 

The office of the Swiss Commissioners is a pretty chalet, and 
stands against the northern wall of the building. Switzerland 
does not make as large or as comprehensive a display here as 
f»he did at Vienna in 1873, but her exhibit is still deeply in- 
teresting, and should be carefully studied. 



404 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



Sweden. 

The Swedish court is situated on the north side of the main 
aisle, to the west of the space occupied by tlie British colonies. 
It is enclosed along the sides, but the front is open and is 
marked merely by a series of tall, ornamental flag-staflfs, bearin;i 
banners of blue with the Swedish cross in yellow. Festoons of 




EASTERN ENTRANCE TO THE SWEDISH COURT. 

blue and yellow streamers are suspended between the flag-staifs, 
and give to the entrance a light and graceful appearance. 

Six groups of figures are placed at the sides of the entrances 
to the court, illustratintr some of the habits and the dress of the 
peasantry. There is one at each side of the front entrance on 
the main aisle. The group on the east consists of four figures, 
and represents a young man coming to ask for a wife. The 
young man, a tall, fine-looking fellow, stands opposite the 
father, who is seated at a table -mending a clock, and awaits his 
answer. The old man looks down in doubt and smokes, and 
the mother, who is evidently favorable to the suit, stands w^ith 
her hand on the father's shoulder, as if trying to persuade him 
to consent. The girl meanwhile stands between the mother 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 405 

anil the lover, with an expression which seems to say that she 
has made up her mind, and the old man "may as well give in." 
At the west side is a group representing a hunting scene. A 
large elk has just been brought down by the rifle of a hunter 
and lies bleeding on the ground, while the members of the 
hunter's family are standing by enjoying his triumph and 
w^atching the death-struggle of the animal. 

At the entrance on the east side of the court are two groups. 
The one on the south side of the doorway represents the 
christening of a child. The baby is swaddled in the most 
uncomfortable manner, and is ready for the solemn act. Three 
women, one of whom is the mother, are grouped about it, and 
the father sits across a chair, with his pipe in hand, looking at 
the child with paternal pride. At the north side of the door 
is a sadder group. The little one is dead, and lies white and 
still in its little cradle, with the tiny black coffin which is to 
receive it in readiness on the floor. The mother bends over it 
in grief, and the father, clad in a sheepskin coat, stands looking 
on sorrowfully. At the opposite side of the room the good 
pastor, who has been endeavoring to comfort the afflicted 
parents, sits with his Bible in one hand and his arm around the 
remaining child of the family. 

At the entrance on the west side of the court there are two 
additional groups. The one on the north side represents a 
Laplander, with his sledge drawn by a reindeer. He is just 
starting out from home, and his wife stands by the sledge re- 
ceiving his orders. Both figures are dressed in skins, and the 
sledge is a genuine article from "the frozen North." At the 
south side of the door the group consists of two figures — a 
husband and wife seated at opposite sides of a table. The 
man is reading from the Bible, and the woman is listening 
reverently. The figures in all the groups are life-size, and are 
clad in the national dress of the classes they represent. The 
faces preserve the characteristics of each class. 

The Swedish exhibit is one of the most complete and taste- 
fully arranged in the Exhibition. The show-cases are hand- 



406 TUE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY ^ 

sonier than is the rule with the European nations, and the 
articles are displayed to the best advantage. 

At the entrance stands a rich display of beautiful porcelai^i- 
Thq articles are delicate and the tints exquisite. Floral decora- 
tions are much used in these, and with more than ordinary taste. 
The exhibit of pottery and glassware is also attractive. In tliL 
collection are several models in Parian marble of the fountaii.:» 
iu the principal square of Stockholm, which attract much 
attention. 

Furs and leather goods form a considerable and interesting 
part of the display. 

One of the most prominent features of the Swedish collection 
is the exhibit of Bessemer steel, in which the principal part is 
taken by the Sandvik & Fagaster works. The articles exhibited 
cover a wide range. The largest is a piston-rod fiflccn feet in 
Icngtli for a five ton steam-hammer, and the smallest a delicately- 
jx)lis]icd hand-mirror for a lady's toilette-table. Steel files, saws, 
tools of every description, and locomotive tires make up the 
collection. The workmanship in all these articles is masterly. 
Scissors, knives, swords, skates, and steel articles of the finer 
class are also shown in profusion. The remarkable bending 
power of the Bessemer steel under a great strain is shown by a 
railway axle five inches in diameter, double cold, which was bent 
under a fifteen ton hammer. 

Match-making is a prominent industry in Sweden, and is 
represented by an extensive display of safety matches from 
Johnkoping. These matches will not ignite except when 
struck upon a peculiarly prepared surface. 

Tiie educational exhibit is well arranged, and a number of 
illustrated works are shown as specimens of Swedish printing. 
A fine map of the geological survey of the kingdom and a large 
topographical maj) are included in this display. 

The woollen manufactures of the kingdom make a fair exhibit, 
and the show of silks is especially good. 

On the south side of the muin aisle, diagonally opposite licr 
principal exhibit, Sweden has an additional space between 
(he Ja})anese and IXuiish sections in which she displays her 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 407 

military equipment. Here are several wax-figures showing the 
costume of her men-at-arms in the time of the great Gustavus, 
and the uniforms of the officers of several branches of her service 
at the present time. Here are exhibited samples of the cannon 
and small arms use<l in the Swedish army, and the equipments 
of the artillery and hospital services. In the rear of the mili- 
tary exhibit she displays specimens of the work of the pupils 
of her technical schools, and illustrates in a happy manner the 
admirable operations of these establishments. 

Norway. 

The Norwegian court is situated on the north side of the main 
aisle between the Swedish and Italian sections. The space is 
enclosed by a handsome framework of native pine ornamented 
with red lines. Over the entrance from the main aisle is the 
name " Norway/' and a trophy formed of the national arms and 
colors. The cases contained in this enclosure are uniform, and 
are constructed of light woods handsomely decorated. 

At the front, immediately within the enclosure, are three 
handsome cases containing a fine display of jewelry and silver- 
ware. Here are some beautiful specimens of filigree- work from 
Christiana, which would not shame Venice itself. 

Immediately back of these cases arc two groups of figures 
similar to those in the Swedish court. On the east side is a 
group of Laplanders in their dresses of furs, comprising a father 
and mother with an infant and young child. The infant is 
Btowcd away in a leather case or cradle which is suspended from 
the mother's neck, and the older child is clad in a holiday suit 
of white bearskin. On the west side is a group consisting of a 
bride and groom in their wedding costumes. 

Back of these fii^ures is a small but beautiful collection of 
glassware from Christiana. Adjoining it Norway exhibits 
several home-made pianos, and then comes an exhibit of cloths, 
both cotton and woollen, cordage, threads and skins. There is 
also a Qix^c of fine shoes, another of silver ware, another of ancient 
coins and medals, and an imposing display of cod-liver oil. 
^Specimens of ancient armor and weapons form a most interesting 



408 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

exhibit, and contrast strikingly with the handsomely-carved 
modern furniture which stands near them. The iron manufac- 
turers make a large and interesting exhibit, showing both the 
ores and the manufactured iron in various forms. A large case 
of silver ingots stands near by, and opposite are several queer 
little Norwegian carriages, each with a perch behind in which 
the postilion sits, and sometimes stands, to drive — the postilion 
beino- often a rosy-cheeked Norwegian lass. Here is shown a 
sleth^e made in the mountain districts in 1625, and still in 
excellent condition. 

A model of a Norwegian school is shown, with books and 
apparatus illustrating the mode and course of tuition, and a map 
of the geological survey of the kingdom is close by. 

Denmark. 

The Danish section lies on the south side of the main aisle, 
immediately west of the Turkish court, and is enclosed by a 
triple court. The entrance to the first court consists of a 
triumphal arch richly decorated. On each side of the entrance 
is the word " Denmark," surmounted by a golden crown and a 
trophy of colors. Over the arch a sliield with the national arms 
is set in the midst of a trophy of colors. The pavilions are 
draped with warm red curtains, which give to them a rich effect. 

The front or northern court is devoted to a display of Etruscan 
imitations in terra cotta by P. Ipsen's widow, of Copenhagen. 
These are exquisite works, and are generally admired. Here 
also is a fine collection of silverware by a Copenhagen silver- 
smith. The principal object is a large vase of solid silver valued 
at §4290 gold and the duty. The vase is one of the most beauti- 
ful in the building. In the centre is a statue of Fame, at the 
feet of which are grouped the Arts. The base is devoted to a 
series of groups representing the triumph of Neptune. 

In the central court some handsome furniture made of the 
wood of a pear tree is exhibited. Here is shown a collection of 
Esquimaux clothing, and in the southern court is a model of an 
Esquimaux house and an Esquimaux boat, all from Greenland. 
The exhibit includes specimens of the woollen manufactures of 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



409 



Denmark, a collection of furs and skins, chemicals, geographical 
charts, and native Danish woods. 

Spain, 

The Spanish section extends from the main aisle to the south 
wall of the building, and adjoins the Egyptian court on the 
east. It is enclosed by an elaborately ornamented wall finished 
in imitation of granite, with two tall archways on each side. 
In this wall are set lines of show-cases, in which are displayed 
an extensive collection of the minerals of the kingdom. The 




ENTRANCE TO THE SPANISH COURT. 



facade which stands upon the main aisle is one of the most 
imposing structures in the building. A triple arch painted in 
imitation of porphyry supports a heavy entablature which is 
decorated with shields emblazoned with the arms of all the 
Spanish provinces, with the arms of the kingdom over the cen- 
tral arch. Above the royal arms is a painting representing 
Spain drawing back a curtain and displaying the rising sun of 
the New World. Standards and trophies of the national colors 
complete the ornamentation of the top of the structure. The 



410 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

arches are hung with rich curtains of velvet. At each side of 
the central portal is a show-case, and over each is a portrait. 
That on the east side is Isabella the Catholic, whose generosity 
enabled Columbus to make his voyage of discovery; and that 
on the opposite side is Columbus himself. The word " Espana" 
is blazoned across the entablature in gilt capitals. The sides 
of tlis fa9:ide are also decorated with portraits. On the inner 
or sontliarn side are portraits of Cortez and Ponce de Leon, at 
the east end is a portrait of De Soto, and at the west end one of 
Pizarro. 

In the show-cases at the sides of tlie central portal are rich 
specimens of silver and gold work, and ornamental work in 
iron and steel, with fragments of armor and photographs of the 
government museums of ancient armor. In the show-cases 
built in the walls of the court are specimens of the mineral ores 
of tlie kingdom, silver, lead, c()})per, iron and coal, and samples 
of Spanisli marbles, all admirably arranged. 

The exliiblt within the court is not a commercial one. There 
is scarcely an article shown that has a ready market in this 
country. The Spanish kingdom has taken a deep interest in 
the CenlLMinial Exhibition, and has made an unusual effort to 
show its resources and wealth in the most pleasing and varied 
forms. One can hardly believe, in looking at the long lines of 
well-filled cases of all kinds of manufactures, that the Spanish 
people deserve their traditional reputation for indolence. It 
would seem that they must be, after all, a very busy and ir.gen- 
ious nation to produce so many and such attractive objects. 

The woollen, cotton and silk fabrics displayed here are attrac- 
tive as a rule, and many of them very elegant. A sumptuous 
exhibit is made of tapestries, velvets, brocades, laces, shawls, 
scarfs and light dress goods. They are distinct from those of 
either France or Belgium, and the elegance and beauty which 
characterize them are peculiarly their own. A considerable dis- 
play is made of glassware and pottery of excellent qualities, and 
the painted porcelain tiles in this group are noticeably well 
executed. Chemicals are akso exhibited in great abundance and 
variety ; and marbles, building stones, and large blocks of coal 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 411 

show that this branch of the wealth of the kingdom is still 
vigorous after so many centuries have dawned upon it. There 
are a number of specimens of arms, works in metal and inlaid 
work, the principal display being made by the province of Cat- 
alonia, the people of which are the most enterprising of the 
inhabitants of the Peninsula. Hats, shoes, fine woollen blankets, 
articles of wearing apparel and carpets are also shown. The 
entire exhibit is interesting in the highest degree, and, after 
examining it, the best-read visitor will amend his conceptions 
of '^ sunny Spain," and accord to her a more prominent place 
than he has hitherto assigned her among the industrial nations 
of the world. 

Egypt. 

The Egyptian court stands south of the main aisle and to the 
east of the Danish section. It is enclosed by a high wooden 
structure resembling an ancient temple of the land of the Nile, 
and the fa9ade is massive and attractive. It is painted in imita- 
tion of stone, and resembles the portal of a temple. Two 
massive pillars support the entrance, and tlieir capitals are imi- 
tations of the lotus flower. Over the entrance is the globe with 
the encircling wings, the ancient Egyptian symbol of eternity, 
and on either side of the entrance crouches a solemn-eyed 
sphynx. The coloring is subdued, but fine. Upon the sides 
of the entrance are inscribed the words: "Egypt — Soodan — the 
oldest people of the world sends its morning greeting to the 
youngest nation." 

Entering the court you seem to have left the outside world 
behind you, and to have entered a region of romance. Old 
memories of your boyish dreams of the Arabian Kights come 
over you, and you are tempted to look around to see if the good 
Caliph Haroun Alraschid is not watching in disguise the move- 
ments of the people who throng his realm, which has strangely 
strayed across the seas. For the time you may leave the great 
Exhibition out of your thoughts. You are in the East — in the 
land of Isis and Osiris, and you may revel in the treasures 
spread out before you. 

As you enter, you notice on your right a small model of the 



412 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



great Pyramid of Gizeh, and opposite this is a plaster head of 
Raraeses II., who is declared by all the great masters of 
Egyptian science and history to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus, 
the new king which knew not Joseph. Around the walls of the 
court are hung plain and colored photographs and drawings of 
places and scenery in Egypt. 

On the east side of the court is a case containing magnificent 
saddles and furniture for horses. These were formerly used by 
the pashas of Egypt, and are now the property of the Khedive. 




ENTRANCE TO THE EGYPTIAN COURT. 



They are used only upon occasions of the greatest ceremony. 
Tiieir hangings are of crimson velvet, covered "with heavy em- 
broideries of gold. The harness and trappings are of pure bul- 
lion, and are heavv and costlv- Some of the saddle blankets 
are woven of silk. The display is gorgeous, and gives one a 
fair idea of the macrnificence'of an Eastern ruler. 

A fine exhibit is made of oriental and drawing-room furni- 
ture, a prominent object of which is a cabinet of ebony beauti- 
fully inlaid with ivory and mother of pearl, the designs being 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 413 

in imitation of those in the ancient mosques. It is valued at 
$5500, and is for sale. The display of ornaments for the house- 
hold and person is very rich, and includes a large quantity of 
jewelry, precious stones, work in iron and copper, both ancient 
and modern ; fancy articles, dress adornments, fans, walking- 
canes, sun-shades, and pipes of every description, many of which 
are ornamented with jewels. 

Two large cases contain a collection of stuffs woven of silk 
and gold and silver thread. These are of the most gorgeous 
and brilliant character, and it is impossible to convey in words 
an accurate idea of them. Some of the smaller articles are 
worth as much as $2000 each, and one rich robe is a master- 
piece both in workmanship and design. In the same case are 
suspended two hanging lamps of glass, beautifully decorated 
with colors worked into the glass. They are hundreds of years 
old, and the art of making them has been forgotten for centuries. 
They are valued at $5000, and constitute a rare and beautiful 
feature of the exhibit. 

Between these cases lies stretched at full length a large croco- 
dile of the Nile. 

Close by are a number of dromedary saddles ; and near these 
a number of specimens of red pottery ware. There are cases of 
beautiful and curious Arabic books and manuscripts, some of 
them bound in covers of velvet, embroidered with gold thread. ' 
Articles of ivory, horn, and metal for household use, are shown, 
and a number of native musical instruments. One of the rear 
courts contains a fine exhibit of Egypt's chemical products. A 
good display of porcelain and table ware of solid gold is made. 

We next notice an exhibit of silk and silken fabrics, an in- 
dustry which is carried on upon a large scale in Egypt. A 
prominent feature is a display of cocoons, arranged in neat 
r patterns according to tints. They are attached to an upright 
branch, and in the centre is a large bunch of mulberry leaves 
hung with clusters of grapes formed of the small glassy cocoons. 

The rugs and carpets of Egyptian manufacture form an inter- 
ssting part of the exhibit, and will compare well with those of 
Turkey. 



414 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

The Kliedive makes a collective exhibit of over two thousand 
samples of native cotton, representing the crops of eight years. 
Egypt has since 1860 become largely engaged in the culture of 
cotton, and the samples thus displayed are of the highest im- 
portance to us, as they are the announcement that we have a 
determined rival in this branch of our own industry. Each 
sample is ticketed with the name of the buyer, the place of sale, 
and the price in Egypt and in England. 

A collection of photographs exhibits the Egyptian system of 
public works, bridges, railroads, etc., and is of great interest and 
value. 

The sugar, leather, gums, barks, nuts, wheat and other 
grains and the grasses of Egypt are shown by numerous well- 
arranged samples. 

A large collection is showm of the rude arms and armor, the 
rough wooden sandals, the hats woven of reeds, the noisy tom- 
toms, and a barbaric canopy for the chief or monarch of the 
tribes of Soudan in Central Africa. 

The educational system pursued in the schools established by 
the Khedive is shown by a collection of Arabic text-books and 
mechanical instruments executed by the pupils of the Poly- 
technic School at Cairo. 

Altogether the Egyptian display is a bewildering blending 
of the ancient and modern civilizations of that wonderful land, 
taking you from a period four thousand years before Christ to 
the present day, and showing you side by side a bust of the 
Pharaoh of Moses and a portrait of Ismail Pacha. 

Japan. 

The Japanese section is on the south side of the main aisle, 
east of the Chinese court, and immediately opposite the Swedish 
section. It is enclosed with a light bamboo framework, and is 
ornamented with a profuse display of Japanese flags. It is 
about three times as large as the Egyptian space, and is filled 
in every part with a rich and valuable display, the variety and 
beauty of which are one of the great surprises of the Exhibition. 

Just within the entrance from the main aisle is a display of 



OP THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 415 

superb bronzes and of porcelain ware. A number of bronze 
vases are included in this collection, which are the wonder and 
admiration of all visitors. They are of beautiful shapes, and are 
ornamented with such a profusion of engraving and chasing— 
the conceptions of which are so droll and intricate— that a pho- 
tograph would be necessary to give an accurate idea of thcra. 
The work is unique and cannot be reproduced by the most skil- 
ful artificer in either Europe or America. The cheaper vases 
are cast, but the more elaborate ones are worked out wilh the 
hand. One of the largest vases is valued at $2000, and is said 
to have required an amount of work in its manufacture equal to 
twenty-two hundred and fifty days steady labor of a single man. 
The variety of shape and ornamentation of the vases is very 
great and very remarkable. The art is peculiar to Japan, and 
has flourished there for several centuries. It is carried on in 
sixteen different places in the empire. 

The porcelains of the Japanese department are fully equal to 
the bronzes. This is an old art, and attained ]>erfection in 
Japan long before it was known in Euro2)e. The Japanese 
designate their works of this kind by the names of the cities in 
which they were manufactured, or by the peculiarities of manu- 
facture or decoration. The display of porcelains in this single 
department surpasses in beauty of forms and ornamentation the 
combined exhibit of every other nation in the building. One 
must see the collection here to realize this, but few will doubt 
the statement, having once made the comparison for themselves. 
At the front line is a pair of superb vases about ten feet high 
and valued at $2500. The ground is a delicate blue and white, 
and the ornamentation consists of golden dragons and the 
daintiest landscapes. There are a number of articles in green, 
or scarlet and gold, of the class known as kaga ware, which is 
as brilliant as Bohemian glass. The banko ware is also very 
beautiful, its peculiarity being that the colors are worked 
through to the inner surface. It would be impossible to men- 
tion all the varieties of porcelain to be seen here. AVe can only 
speak in a general way of its wonderful beauty and brilliancy, 
A case of porcelain figures from Tokio attracts much attention. 



416 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

They are caricatures of the manners of the various classes of 
Japanese society, and are exceeding droll, and at the same time 
thoroughly artistic. 

The display of lacquered ware is immense, and one of the 
marvels of the Exhibition. The manufacture of this ware is a 
3pecialty in Japan and has attained perfection. The articles 
displayed here range from the tiniest trays, which may be 
bought for about fifty cents, to large and costly cabinets. The 
gem of the collection is a cabinet said to be two hundred and 
fifty years old, which is as exquisitely beautiful and as free from 
signs of wear as on the day it came from its maker's hands. It 
is valued at $5000. Contrasting it with the other beautiful 
wares by which it is surrounded, one can see that it is superior 
to them. The official in charge of the exhibit states that the art 
is now on its decline in his country, and that the ancient master- 
pieces cannot be renewed. There are some curious vases made 
of elephant's tusks ornamented with lacquered woric, and some 
other fine work in ivory. 

The inlaid work is very fine, and a large collection of cabinets, 
work-boxes and European furniture ornamented in this manner 
is shown. These articles are not as expensive as the lacquered 
wares, but equal them in beauty and delicacy of finish. The 
Japanese have successfully imitated, and some claim that they 
have surpassed, the papier-mache of the French. A consider- 
able display is made of richly carved furniture, wood carving 
being an art in which the Japanese excel. 

Going southward we come now to the display of screens, 
which is large and interesting. These are of silk on light 
frames, and are painted and embroidered with scenes in the 
daily life of the people. The outlines of the figures and the 
landscapes are painted, and the costumes, faces, animals, and 
houses, etc., are worked out in relief with embroidery. One 
may find in these screens abundant means for a study of Japan- 
ese life and manners. The 'Japanese gentleman takes great 
pride in his collection of screens, which embody the best picto- 
rial art of his country, and regards them as the European or 



OP THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 417 

American does his gallery of paintings. The designs of the 
screens are often quaint and amusing. 

A fine collection of rich silks and embroideries is shown, one 
exhibit from Yokohama being superb. Cotton and woollen 
goods are exhibited of an admirable quality. Samples of mat- 
ting, which is largely manufactured in Japan, are also to be 
seen. Specimens of the papers made in the empire, the leathers, 
the inks, and the coloring materials of Japan, are shown, as are 
also samples of the woods, grains, and grasses of the country. 
The mineral products are also shown by numerous specimens, 
and the native animals and birds are treated in the same way. 

Near the south wall is a large case representing a bazaar con- 
taining a number of painted plaster images illustrating the dif- 
ferent costumes of all classes of the population of the empire. 
It is one of the most instructive portions of the whole exhibit. 

Immediately behind it is an enclosure in which the Imperial 
Government exhibits its educational system. Here are models 
of the desks and school apparatus used, the work of the pupils, 
the text-books,- philosophical instruments, and photographs and 
colored sketches of the principal schools. Compositions by the 
pupils in English, French, German, and Japanese are shown, 
and one is made fairly acquainted with the progress made by the 
empire in its effort to introduce the learning and civilization of 
Europe. 

The visitor who makes even a hasty inspection of the display, 
of which we have given but a mere outline, must amend his 
ideas of Japan. We have been accustomed to regard that 
country as uncivilized, or half-civilized at the best, but we find 
here abundant evidences that it outshines the most cultivated 
nations of Europe in arts which are their pride and glory, and 
which are regarded as among the proudest tokens of their high 
civilization. 

China. 

The Chinese section is not quite half as large as that of 
Japan, and lies immediately west of it on the south side of the 
main aisle, extending back to the south wall of the building.. 

27 



418 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

It is enclosed by a pavilion, the entrance to which is a copy of 
the portal of a celestial pagoda, gaudily painted and ornamented 
with hideous curled-up dragons, which, though ugly, are well 
carved. Over the entrance is a line in Chinese, said to mean 
"The Chinese Empire.'^ The pavilion is constructed of vari- 
ous kinds of hard wood that grow in China, and is in itself an 
exhibit. ^ 

Every part of the enclosure is of the gaudiest character, and 
here and there rise tall pagodas and towers ornamented with 
the most brilliant colors. All the show-cases are in the Chinese 
style of architecture, and are as gay and odd-looking as the 
pavilion itself. The display gathered within the enclosure is 
rich, valuable, and exceedingly interesting. At the front en- 
trance is a collection of fine vases of exquisite China ware, and 
opposite these a row of screens of the finest silk, covered with 
designs in embroidery, and having richly carved frames. Close 
by these begins the display of inlaid tables and stands and other 
articles of household use which runs through the whole exhibit. 
They are as handsome and as well executed as anything of the 
kind in the Japanese section, which is saying a great deal. 

Just within the enclosure is a tall show-case in the form of a 
pagoda, in which are displayed some superb silks, gold cloths 
and embroideries. The silks are of the most delicate shades of 
color, and are of the finest quality. 

There is a large exhibit of carved furniture, all in the Chi- 
nese style. The carvings are both artistic in design and well 
executed. Two elaborate bedsteads are exhibited, which are 
very handsome, and show that John Chinaman has an eye to 
solid comfort in the midst of all his love of gaudy colors and 
gingerbread ornaments. 

. The display of porcelain and pottery is large and handsome, 
and fully sustains the reputation of the celestials for skill in 
this branch of their industry. , The lacquered wares shown are 
also very beautiful, but are not equal to those in the Japanese 
collection. There is a case of exquisitely carved articles in 
ivory, many of which have been purchased by the Pennsyl- 
vania Museum of Industrial Art. The bronzes, many of 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION 419 

which are old and curious, make up an extensive and interest- 
ing collection, and there is also an exhibit of rare old Chinese 
coins. 

A tall pagoda or joss-house, in imitation of such buildings 
in China, ibrms a conspicuous part of the display. Near it are 
some fine porcelain tiles ornamented with queer Chinese figures. 
Cotton and hemp cloths, and cotton prints, stockings, Chinese 
shoes, hats, articles of clothing, fancy leather work, trunks, and 
toilet-boxes, and samples of native paper, musical instruments, 
minerals, specimens of native woods, wines, grains, flour, honey, 
wax, cotton, hemp, wool, and hair make up a large and inter- 
esting exhibit. 

At the rear of the enclosure is a gaudy little structure of 
carved and gilded wood-work, with panels of scarlet silk, on 
which are painted scenes from Chinese life. It is devoted to 
the offices of the Chinese Commission. 

A number of almond-eyed, pigtailed celestials, in their 
native costumes, are scattered through the enclosure, and you 
may for a moment imagine that you have put the sea between 
you and the Exhibition and have suddenly lauded in some 
large Chinese bazaar. 

The Orange Free State, 

The Orange Free State is a Dutch republic situated in the 
southeastern part of Africa, and adjoins the English colony of 
the Cape of Good Hope on the northeast. It covers an area of 
over 70,000 square miles, and is a thriving and energetic little 
state. Its section in the Exhibition hall lies back of the 
Peruvian court, in the southwestern corner of the building. 
It is enclosed by a handsome pavilion painted in imitation of 
black walnut, and decorated with the national colors of white 
and yellow, and red, white and blue streamers. 

The exhibit is entirely governmental, and is handsomely and 
compactly arranged, rendering the little court one of the bright- 
est and most pleasing nooks of the "great show." The design 
is to show the resources, products and natural wealth of the 
country. Specimens of minerals, grains, leather and skius, and 



420 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

samples of mohair, native woods, specimens of coal, and samples 
of wool make up the principal part of the exhibit. Cases of 
stuffed birds of rare and beautiful plumage, and collections of 
insects are placed at various points in the court, and a number 
of superb ostrich plumes are exhibited. An interesting feature 
is a case of the cream tartar fruit. There are also to be seen 
specimens of ivory, including two enormous elephant tusks, 
and a collection of pipes and other articles of native manu- 
facture. 

Turn's. 

The Tunisian court stands in the rear of the Danish and 
Turkish sections, on the south side of the building. It is 
small, but is brilliantly ornamented, the principal structure 
being a large show-case at the rear end of the court on which 
the goods are arranged. The exhibit is largely the property of 
the Bey of Tunis. His Highness exhibits some pretty gilt fur- 
niture, a collection of fine woollen blankets and shawls, woven 
silks, jewelry, national costumes, native arms richly ornamented, 
some superb decorated saddles, resembling those of the Egyp- 
tian collection. In the Exhibition grounds he also exhibits 
two Arab tents, illustrating the domestic life and customs of 
the Arab sheiks and Bedowin. The Bey also sends a number 
of antique relics dug from the ruins of old Carthage, which is 
situated in his dominions. 

Mexico. 

The space assigned to the Mexican republic lies on the north 
side of the main aisle, and adjoins that of the United States on 
the west. It is enclosed by a handsomely ornamented pavilion 
of light wood, painted in a soft cream color, and designed in the 
Aztec style of architecture. The main entrance to this pavilion 
is opposite the easternmost of the soda fountains in the main 
aisle, and is a handsome arch draped with the arms of the 
republic in gilt set in the midst of a trophy formed of the 
national colors. 

The Mexican exhibit is not as large as had been hoj^ed, and 
scarcely shows the extent or variety of the natural resources and 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 421 

manufactures of the republic, but is still interesting, and should 
receive a careful examination. A very considerable part of the 
display consists of Mexican historical remains of the most inter- 
esting character. They give us a partial view of the civilization 
of the Aztec race, that curious people whose history is at once 
so perplexing and so sad. 

The mineral exhibit is very large and very good, and shows 
the wealth of the leading mines of the country. A large speci- 
men, weighing 1300 pounds, and composed of quartz and bro- 
mide of silver, is a prominent object in this collection, and large 
lumps of lead ore, iron ore, specimens of coal, native marble, a 
sample of a new mineral called libinstone, and specimens of the 
matter thrown up by the volcano of Ceboruco during a recent 
eruption, and specimens of native woods are tastefully arranged, 
and constitute an instructive display. Samples of buckskin 
clothing ornamented with gold and silver embroidery, such as 
the Mexican cavaliers wear, are shown, and each suit is valued at 
$1000. There is a considerable exhibit of ready-made clothing, 
dressed and undressed leather, kid gloves, straw. hats, woollen 
and cotton cloths, and papers; and some porcelain is shown 
which marks the beginning made by Mexico in this beautiful 
art. There are also some pretty silks in the collection. A full 
display is made of the medicinal plants of Mexico, and of the 
fibres of all the varieties of the aguave. The native wines and 
cordials are also well represented. A great variety of ancient and 
modern national costumes is shown, including those of the Indians 
and mixed races. A number of educational and scientific works 
illustrate the efforts being made to diffuse knowledge among the 
Mexican people. 

Brazil. 

The Brazilian court is situated on the north side of the main 
aisle, between the Dutch and Belgian sections. It is enclosed 
by one of the most brilliant and noticeable structures in the 
building. It is a pavilion built in the Moorish style, and con- 
sists of a colonnade of wooden pillars, with brightly ornamented 
capitals and arches, supporting a superstructure of wood painted 
in various bright colors. This colonnade surrounds the entire 



422 



THE ILLU8TEATED HISTORY 



Brazilian section, and on three sides is nineteen feet high. 
Between the pillars are wooden screens six feet high painted in 
panels, the effect of which is very fine. The fagade consists of 
clusters of pillars supporting the superstructure, as on the sides, 
but the columns are closer together and are decorated with gay 
colors and with glass tiles of a novel and attractive kind. These 
tiles have various rich designs, and are used to form the names 
of the different provinces on the frieze extending around the 




ENTRANCE TO THE BRAZLLIAN COURT. 

structure. Over the principal entrance the word " Brazil " is 
placed in colored glass tiles. The central arch rises to a height 
of nearly forty feet, but the arches on the east and west of it are 
uniform in height with those along the sides of the pavilion. 
The pavilion is painted in the gayest colors, the principal being 
the national colors, green and yellow, and red and blue. Bra- 
zilian flags and streamers are draped along the front and fly 
from the prominent points of the structure. 

The show-cases within the pavilion are of plate-glass orna- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 423 

mented with ivory and gold, and are very handsome. They 
are lined with a dark maroon-colored cloth, which adds to the 
richness of their appearance. No less than $30,000 was ex- 
pended by Brazil in the construction of her pavilion. 

At the entrance stands a very large show-case placed on a 
square space paved with marble. It contains a beautiful display 
of artificial flowers made of the gay and brilliant plumage of the 
birds of Brazil, and near it is a collection of butterflies and 
brilliant insects. 

Around the court are displayed photographs showing the 
geological formation and the scenery of the empire, and a series 
of topographical maps. The public works are exhibited in a 
number of finely-executed charts and plans. 

Several eases of books and other specimens of the printer's 
art are to be seen here, showing what Brazil has done in this 
department, and the rise of her national literature is shown in 
the works of a number of her native authors, printed and bound 
in Brazil. 

The native products of the empire are largely represented, 
and among them coffee holds the chief place, being the great 
staple of the country. Rice, cocoa, mandioc, ginger, yams, 
sarsaparilla, and many other tropical products, are shown in 
great abundance. The native woods, in which Brazil is wealthy 
almost beyond computation, are also largely shown, and among 
them we find the castor tree, rosewood, Brazil-wood, caoutchouc, 
cedars, logwood and mahogany. 

An excellent display of furniture is also made, and the speci- 
mens are both wooden and wicker. 

The rising manufactures of the empire are shown in the fine 
exhibit of woollen and cotton cloths, dress goods, laces, em- 
broideries, silks, and straw and wool hats. A considerable dis- 
play is also made of chemical manufactures. The display of 
porcelain and glassware is small. Leather, boots and shoes, 
saddles, and skins, form a considerable part of the collection. 

There are also a number of antiquities ; and the Indian tribes 
are represented by hammocks and other articles peculiar to 
themselves and their ancestors for centuries. 



424 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Altogether the Brazilian exhibit is handsome and deeply 
interesting, and is worthy of the leading nation of the southern 
half of the American continent. 

Argentine Confederation. 

The section assigned to the Argentine Confederation is on the 
south side of the main aisle and next to its western end. It is 
enclosed, and at the front stands a handsome circular pavilion. 
The exhibit is designed to represent the commercial, agri- 
cultural, and mineral wealth of the republic. The articles 
are tastefully arranged, and are attractive and worthy of a 
careful study. 

The mineral exhibit includes the ores of gold, silver, lead, 
copper, and iron, galena, kaolin, sulphate of lime, quartz, mar- 
bles, coal, building stones, gypsum, clays for the manufacture 
of crockery, tiles, and bricks, graphite, soapstones, and other 
varieties. Specimens of the principal metals are also shown. 
There is a large collection of chemical manufactures, and a small 
one of glassware, porcelain, and pottery. The department of 
textile fabrics includes cotton and woollen goods, mats woven 
by State prisoners, fabrics made by Indians irom native plants, 
clothing, laces, and embroideries. Silk sjMin and in cocoons is 
also exhibited in considerable quantities. Wool hats, and boots, 
shoes, and other leather goods, and samples of leather and skins 
make up a large part of the collection. The bows, arrows, clubs, 
and lances of the various Indian tribes, slinirs used bv the hun- 
ters to catch cattle and alpaca on the " plains," and lassos used 
by the hunters of Buenos Ayres are also shown. A number of 
figures of Argentine peasants form an interesting part of the 
exhibit. 

The display here is greater than any made by the Argentine 
republic at any previous World's Fair, and is in the highest 
degree creditable to both the government and the people of that 
country. 

Chili. 

The Chilian section stands at the western end of the ^Main 
Building, on the south side of the main aisle. At the front, 



OF THE CENTENNIAL. EXHIBIT! OX. 425 

which faces the main aisle, is a circular pavilion, gayly painted, 
around the sides of which are arranged show-cases containing 
an extensive and valuable collection of the minerals of the 
republic. The animals of the country are represented by stuffed 
hides of the cougar, jaguar, llama, guanaco, and monkeys. 
There is also an exceedingly valuable and interesting display 
of old pottery and domestic utensils, agricultural implements, 
and weapons of war used by the Indian tribes. 

Specimens of Chilian silks, raw and manufactured, are shown, 
and also some fine worsted work. A classified exhibit is made 
of the vegetable products, the native wines, and the leather 
of Chili. 

Peru. 

The Peruvian court is enclosed by a neat and tasteful pavilion 
decorated with the arms of the republic and the national colors, 
and stands at the western end of the building, immediately in 
the rear of the Chilian and Argentine sections. The entrance 
is from the west. 

Around the sides of the pavilion the mineral wealth of the 
republic is faintly shown by a number of specimens. Gold, 
silver and precious stones are included in the collection. Quick- 
silver, copper, iron, lead, sulphur, saltpetre, and salt are exhibited 
in a variety of forms. 

The principal manufactures shown are leather, soap, and 
sugar. The native wines and liquors are also extensively dis- 
played. Cotton, cocoa, coffee, cinnamon, pimento, pepper, 
tobacco, Peruvian bark, indigo, sarsaparilla, vanilla, caoutchouc 
and a variety of drugs and dye stuffs are shown. 

There is a large display of ancient pottery, the work of the 
aborio-inal inhabitants of Peru, showing that they were far 
advanced in the arts and customs of civilization ; and by the 
side of these is an exhibit of the dresses and weapons of the 
Indian tribes. 

Hawaii. 

The kingdom of Hawaii, better known as the Sandwich 
Islands, has a handsome pavilion, with two arched entrances, 



426 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

situated against the south wall of the building immediately back 
of the Tunisian court. 

The exhibit includes several specimens of native sugar, coffee, 
and native woods. The fibres of a number of trees — strong and 
tough — are also shown, and a considerable quantity of straw 
work makes up the display. There are a number of specimens 
of lava thrown out by the volcano of Kilauea, the largest now 
in action in the world. Manufactured articles from the native 
woods, and calabashes used by the natives to hold their food are 
among the articles exhibited. A fine collection of specimens of 
lava, mosses, and ferns is shown, and was made by Mr. Hitch- 
cock, the special commissioner, during a residence of fourteen 
years in the islands. There are cases of beautiful native birds, 
and a rich display of pink and white corals, shells, and seaweed. 
Queen Emma exhibits a case of fans and feather- work, native 
millinery, and historical curiosities. Photographs of scenes in 
the islands are displayed about the enclosure. 

Russia. 

The Russian space is situated on the south side of the main 
aisle, between the Spanish and Austrian sections, and extends 
back to the south wall of the building. It is unenclosed, and 
but little effort has been made to ornament it. A handsome 
shield emblazoned with the imperial arms, and set in the midst 
of a trophy of Russian and American colors, is afBxed to the 
pillar at the south side of the aisle. Along the front line is a 
row of lofty octagonal and square cases of dark oak and plate- 
glass, filled with rare and beautiful articles. 

At the western end of the front line, Sazikoff, of Moscow, has 
two handsome cases containing a magnificent display of gold 
and silver articles for table service, personal use, and household 
ornament. They are richly carved, and some of them are 
enamelled in a masterly manner. There are a number of 
statuettes of solid silver, prominent among which is one of Peter 
the Great. The gem of the whole collection is a superb work 
in reponsse, representing the "Adoration of the Magi." It is 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 427 

one of the most perfect specimens of this school of art in the 
Exhibition. 

Near the east end of the front line, P. Ouchinnikoff, of Mos- 
cow and St. Petei-sburg, makes an equally handsome display of 
richly chased articles in gold and silver and enamels on gold 
and silver. Prominent in the collection is a fine altar-piece, 
representing the Saviour with the Gospel in his hand. The 
work is done upon a gold surface, and the portrait of the 
Saviour is in enamel of various colors. The effect of the 
whole is very rich and beautiful. A superb tankard made 
of a single piece of silver, with decorations in gilt, is shown. 
At the top is a small copy of the statue of Peter the Great, 
and around the si<Ies of the vessel is a superb representation 
in high relief of the entry of Peter into Moscow after the 
battle of Pultawa. The tankard is valued at $3000. A 
massive salver of silver with ornamentations in gilt, and a 
centre-piece carved with a representation of the Kremlin, is 
valued at $2000. 

At the east end of the line, Felix Chopin, of St. Petersburg, 
displays a collection of fine bronzes in the best style of the art. 
They represent scenes from the life of the Russian peasantry, 
and are much admired. A conspicuous object of this collection 
is an immense candelabra of gilt and porcelain, fully fifteen feet 
high, capable of holding one hundred candles, and with vases 
for flowers around the base. Opposite it is a gilt clock of 
peculiar design, about four feet high. The hours encircle a 
large globe of silver and move around it, and an angel in the 
act of flying points to the hour with one hand and towards 
heaven with the other. 

Along the eastern border of the Russian section, Messrs. 
Hoessrich and Woerffel, of St. Petersburg, have an extensive 
and valuable display of articles in malachite and lapis lazuli. 
These are of an infinite variety, consisting of cabinets, mantels, 
tables, statuettes, clocks, caskets, candelabra, and some beautiful 
jewelry and small articles for personal use. One fine centre- 
table in gilt and malachite is valued at $2400, and a large mass 
of malachite in the rough is held at $4800. 



428 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Just back of the front line is a rich and large display of silks 
and velvets magnificently embroidered with gold, and cloth of 
gold with decorations of silver worked into it. These fabrics 
are superb, and are equal to anything in the Egyptian or Turk- 
ish exhibits. 



THE SPANIS:^ BUILDING. 

Back of these is a large exhibit of furs, equal in quality and 
beauty to anything in the building ; and stuffed specimens of 
fur-bearing animals are shown in connection with this display. 
There is a good exhibit of cotton and linen goods, and of hats 
and military caps. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. . 429 

In the centre of the section, the Eussian American Eubber 
Company, of St. Petersburg, have a fine octagonal pavilion of 
ebony and plate-glass, containing a handsome collection of their 
goods. Opposite, on the west side of the court, a tailoring firm 
shows a case of uniforms of the different branches of the Eus- 
sian army. 

The exhibit of mathematical and philosophical instruments 
is small but very interesting, and is located near the south- 
west corner of the court. Immediately to the east of it is 
a case of ornamental cast-iron work. The collecction consists 
of a number of statuettes, busts, vases, etc., the principal 
object being a copy of the statue of Peter the Great, at 
St. Petersburg. There is a softness about the work which is 
very pleasing, and it greatly resembles the darkest antique 
bronze. It is much lighter in weight than bronze, and much 
less expensive. 

The paper makers have a small exhibit, and close by is an 
extensive and valuable collection of the minerals of the Eussian 
empire. At the south end of the court is a case of inlaid 
caskets, boxes, waiters, etc., the work u})on which is exceedingly 
beautiful. In tlie next case a bookbinder shows specimens of 
his work. The books are merchants' account books, and show 
the Eussian system of bookkeeping. At the southeast corner 
of the court is a fine carved oaken billiard table, one of the 
handsomest in the Exhibition. There is an excellent though 
small exhibit of cutlery, and several excellent pianos form a 
part of the Eussian exhibit. A number of carved oaken cabinets 
stand along the eastern line, where also may be seen a case of 
rich embroideries, worked on colored cloths with gold and silver 
threads. 

There is a small exhibit of perfumes and soaps, and a few 
pieces of porcelain and majolica-ware complete the display. 

Eussia w^as one of the last of the European powers to take 
part in the Exhibition, and her space w^as not in complete order 
until near the last of June. Her display is at once unique and 
beautiful, and receives much praise, from visitors. 



430 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Portugal. 

Like the Russian, the Portuguese exhibit was not in order 
until the latter part of June. The section assigned to Portugal 
is on the south side of the hall, and immediately in the rear of 
the Turkish and Egyptian courts. It is about as large as the 
Egyptian section, and is enclosed with a line of handsome show- 
cases of wood, stained in imitation of black walnut, with 
entrances at the north, east, and west ends. 

Along the southern wall the Portuguese department of public 
works exhibits a collection of toix)graphical and geological maps 
and charts of the kingdom, with drawings of the principal har- 
bors. In this section of the space is the display of glassware, 
pottery, and porcelain, which, though not large, is very good. 
Some fine dyes and specimens of woollen fabrics dyed in them 
are also shown. 

The cases which form the east and west sides of the enclosure 
are filled with cotton and woollen goods, generally of a coarse 
texture. The blankets shown here are very good. 

A good display is made of silk fabrics, of various kinds, and 
a case is also shown of cocoons and raw silk. Some of the silks 
are beautifully embroidered. A number of excellent specimens 
of wood-carving are shown, and a series of photographs of 
places in Portugal show some admirable work in this line. 

A case containing flowers, baskets, ships, and other objects 
made of the fibre of the fig tree, from the island of St. Michael, 
in the Azores, attracts great attention. The material is exquis- 
itely beautiful and the work very fine. There are a number of 
statuettes in colored plaster, representing different types of 
Portuguese brigands and peasants. At the northern end of the 
section is a collection of tinware, showing the fine quality of the 
native tin of Portugal, and here is to be seen the finest porcelain 
and glassware of this exhibit. 

The Mineral Annex, 

The space in the main hall being filled, a couple of long, 
narrow, wooden buildings were erected on the south side of the 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 431 

Main Building. In these structures is shown a large and inter- 
esting collection of the minerals of the United States, prominent 
in which are a number of immense blocks of coal taken from 
the mines of Pennsylvania and some of the Western States. 

The Carriage Annex. 

The annex to the Main Building, devoted to the display of 
carriages and other articles, is situated on the north side of the 
Avenue of the Republic, just north of Memorial Hall. It is 
built of corrugated iron and glass, and is 346 feet long and 231 
feet deep. The greater part of the space is taken up by 
American exhibitors. 

The display of carriages in the American department is very 
fine, and includes vehicles of all classes, and several old- 
fashioned Concord stages, \yheels, hubs, spokes, harness, 
carriage hardware and fixtures, springs, etc., are displayed here, 
and make a handsome showing. The collection of carriages for 
children is also very pretty. 

A number of railroad cars are exhibited in this building. 
The Pullman Palace Car Company show one of their hand- 
somest parlor cars, and a superb hotel car, to both of which 
visitors are admitted. The latter shows the entire arrange- 
ment for providing passengers with meals cooked to order while 
the train is in motion. A boudoir and library car, built for 
the St. Paul & Rio Janeiro Railway of Brazil, is a model of 
beautiful workmanship and comfortable arrangement. It is a 
narrow gauge car, and smaller than the Pullman coaches by 
which it stands. Several other fine cars for ordinary use 
are exhibited, and show what the various railway lines of 
the country might do for the comfort of their passen- 
gers. Several magnificent street railway cars stand by the side 
of the larger coaches, and are beautiful specimens of workman- 
ship. 

A large part of the American department is devoted to an 
exhibition of stoves and heating apparatus of various kinds, tin 
and ironware, and house-furnishing goods. These make up a 
pretty and attractive display, and draw many visitors. 



432 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 



lu the English department we notice several fine drags 
of the most elaborate style, and a number of broughams, 
coupes and a species of one-horse barouche. Tlie English 
vehicles are all substantially made and are elegant and tasteful. 

Canada exhibits her fine sleighs, which are much admired. 

Italy sends two specimens of a curious little closed 



carriage. 



The display is very fine, and the carriage annex is one of 
the most interesting halls in the Exhibition. 

It is large and airy, and the articles exhibited in it are dis- 
played to the best advantage. The beautiful work upon the 
wooden bodies of the carriages is esjiecially noticeable for its 
beauty and skilful joining. 

One of the pleasantest features of the hall is the view from 
the north entrance. You look down into the wooded depths of 
Lansdowne Yalley, beyond which are the towers of Agricultural 
Hall and the pretty buildings on its slopes. There is generally 
a breeze stirring here, and you may seat yourself on the benches 
which the thoughtfulness of the Commission has provided, and 
enjoy as rural and as enchanting a view as the eye ever rested 
upon. 




CHAPTER XIII. 

MACHINERY HALL, 

Description of the Building — The Interior — Conveniences for Visitors — Pre- 
cautions Against Fire— The Corliss Engine — Distribution of Power — The 
American Display — Curious and Interesting Machines — The Steam-Engines 
— The First Steam-Engine in America^ — The Blast Furnace — The Sewing 
Machines — A Handsome Display — The Suspension Bridge Exhibit — A 
Monster Cotton Press — Weaving Machines — Making Watches by Machinery 
— Carpet Weaving — The Water Motors — The Locomotives — The Eailway 
Exhibit — The Vacuum Pan — The Tobacco Factory — Making India Rubber 
Shoes — Making Candies by Machinery — The Massachusetts Marine — Among 
the Printing Machines — The Old Franklin Press — Printing the New York 
Herald — The Ice Yacht — American Machine Shops — Nail and Tack Making 
— The Hydraulic Annex — The Tank — The,. Cascade — The Hydraulic and 
Blowing Machines — The British Section — The Road Steamers — Iron Armor 
Plate — Weaving Machines — Railway Models — The Walter Press — The 
Sugar Mill — The Canadian Exhibit — The German Section — The Krupp 
Guns — The French Section — Silk Weaving — Lithographing — Belgian 
Machinery — The Well-Borer — The Swedish Section and Exhibits — The 
Russian Guns — The Brazilian Section — A Handsome and Characteristic 
Display. 

ACHINERY HALL is designed for the exhibition of 
machinery in motion, and the second of the Exhibition 
buildings with regard to size. It stands immediately 
west of the Main Building, at a distance of five hun- 
dred and forty-two feet from it, and its southern wall is 
two hundred and seventv-four feet from the north side of Elm 
avenue. The length of the building is from east to west, and 
its north front is on the same line as that of the Main Exhibition 
Building, thus presenting a frontage of thirty-eight hundred and 
twenty-four feet from the east to the w^est ends of the Exhibition 
buildings upon the principal avenue within the grounds. 

The machinery building consists of the main hall, fourteen 
28 433 




434 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

hundred and two feet long by three hundred and sixty feet 
wide, and an annex on the south side of two hundred and eight 
by two hundred and ten feet. The entire area covered by tlic 
building and the annex is 558,440 square feet, or about 12.82 
acres. Including the upper floors the Exhibition space is about 
fourteen acres. 

Tlie principal portion of the building is one story in height, 
with the main cornice u\kh\ the outside about forty feet from 
the ground. The roof is seventy feet from the floor of the 
avenues, and forty feet from the floor of the aisles. The main 
entrances at the east and west are finished with handsome 
fa9ades, consisting of a square tower at each side rising to a 
height of seventy-eight feet, with a tasteful entrance between 
them. The central entrance and the towers are each provided 
with light ornamental galleries, and over the central gallery a 
large eagle is placed, with a clock immediately beneath him. 
A similar projection with a similar fa9ade stands at the ends of 
the transept upon the north and south sides of the building, 
giving to it a fine and picturesque effect ; and in order to further 
relieve the monotony which would have resulted from the long 
unbroken lines of the exterior, other projections have been in- 
troduced upon the north and south sides of the building, with 
tasteful fiiQades. A chime of thirteen bells, representing the 
thirteen original States, is hung in the northeast tower of the 
building. They weigh twenty-one thousand pounds, the largest 
weighing over three thousand pounds and the smallest three 
hundred^ and fifty pounds. They cost $12,000, and were cast 
by Henry McShane & Brother, of Baltimore. 

The building is painted in a light and pleasing blue, with 
ornamentations in other colors. As its length is eighteen times 
its height it has necessarily a low and " squat " effect, but the 
general appearance is pleasing, and the structure is so admirably 
adapted to the purposes it is designed to serve that criticism 
is disarmed. While there is nothing mean or shabby about it, 
it is plain and simple, but little effort having been made at 
ornament. The building is in perfect good taste throughout, 
and while it is not as handsome or as imposing as its gigantic 



OF THE CENTENXIAL EXHIBITION. 435 

neighbor, the Main Exhibition Building, it is still attractive 
and pleasing, and the gazer is profoundly impressed with its 
expression of vastness. 

The eastern doors open upon the grand plaza at the main en- 
trance to the grounds, and form the principal approach from 
the street cars, the Pennsylvania E-ailroad Depot and the Main 
Exhibition Building. The western doors lead to the Total 
Abstinence Eountain and to George's Hill and the buildings 
clustered about its feet. 

The arrangement of the ground-plan is very simple. It shows 
two main avenues, each ninety feet in width and thirteen hun- 
dred and sixty feet long, with a central aisle between them and 
an aisle on either side. Each aisle is the length of the avenues, 
and is sixty feet in width, thus making the aggregate width of 
the avenues and aisles three hundred and sixty feet. At the 
centre of the building is a transept ninety feet wide, which at 
the south side is prolonged beyond the main building to the 
southern end of the annex. At a distance of thirty-six feet 
from the main hall a series of aisles extend on either side of the 
transept for a distance of two hundred and eight feet to the 
southward, forming with it the annex for hydraulic machines. 
These aisles are sixty feet in width. The promenades in the 
avenues are fifteen feet wide; those in the transept twenty-five 
feet wide, and those in the aisles ten feet wide. All other walks 
extending across the building are ten feet wide, and lead at 
either end to exit doors. 

The foundations of the building are piers of solid masonry. 
" The superstructure consists of solid timber columns supporting 
roof trusses, constructed with straight wooden principals and 
wrought-iron ties and struts. As a general rule, the columns 
are placed lengthwise of the building, at the uniform distance 
apart of sixteen feet. The columns are forty feet high to the 
heel-block of the ninety feet span roof trusses over the avenues, 
and they support the heel of the sixty feet spans over the aisles 
at the height of twenty feet. The outer walls are built of 
masonry to a height of five feet, and above that are composed 
of glazed sash placed between the columns. Portions of the 




436 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 437 

sash are movable for ventilation. Louvre ventilators are intro- 
duced in continuous lengths over both the avenues and the aisles. 
The building is lit entirely by side light, and stands lengthwise 
nearly east and west.^^ 

Machinery Hall was the first completed of the Exhibition 
structures. The contract for its erection was made on the 27tli 
of January, 1875, and the work was immediately begun. It 
was completed on the 1st of October, 1875, and was turned over 
to the Board of Finance about the close of the year. The cost 
of the building was $542,300. The engineers and architects 
w^ere Henry Pettit and Joseph M. Wilson, of Philadelphia, and 
the contractor, Philip Quigley, of Wilmington, Delaware. The 
wrought and cast-iron work used in the building was furnished 
by Pusey, Jones & Co., of Wilmington, Delaware. 

The building is fitted up with especial care for the comfort 
and convenience of visitors. Water-closets are placed at the 
east and west ends, with attendants. Rolling-chair stations are 
located at the main entrances, and telegraph offices are estab- 
lished at prominent points. Stands for the sale of the official 
catalogue are placed in the central aisle, and letter-boxes are 
scattered throughout the building. The fire service is perfect, 
alarm stations being placed at regular intervals, each with its 
proper number, and Babcock extinguishers are scattered over 
the building ready for instant use. At the north end of the 
transept is a restaurant, the proprietor of whicli promises to fur- 
nish a good dinner for the moderate sum of fifty cents. Ad- 
joining the restaurant is a confectionery, and by the side of this 
the pop-corn man has a tasteful stand, from which he does a 
thriving business in this peculiarly American eatable. Soda- 
fountains are placed at several points in the building, and are 
under the same management as those in the other halls. 

The interior decorations are simple, the roof and pillars being 
painted in light colors, the object being to render the interior as 
light as possible. 

From the gallery one looks down upon a busy scene. The 
great engine in the centre drives several miles of shafting and 



438 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

belting, and the hall resounds with the hum and click of the 
machinery in motion. 

No fires or furnaces are allowed in the hall. The boilers of 
the great Corliss engine are placed in a separate building on the 
south side bf the hall, and steam is introduced into the hall by 
a service of pipes. 

The motive power for all the machinery in motion in this 
vast hall is a double-acting duplex vertical engine, erected by 
Mr. George H. Corliss, of Providence, Rhode Island, its in- 
ventor. It stands in the centre of the hall, and is built upon a 
platform fifty-six feet in diameter, and three and one-half feet 
above the floor of the hall. The engine rises to a height of forty 
feet above the platform, and is the most conspicuous object in 
tlie hall. " It has cylinders of forty-four inches in diameter and 
ten feet stroke, the p(?culiar variable cut-off arrangement being 
actuated by the governor, as common in the Corliss engines. 
Between the vertical engines is a fly-wheel of fifty-six tons 
weight, thirty feet in diameter and twenty-four inch face; it 
makes thirty-six revolutions per minute, the rate being kept 
equal by means of the governor cut-off, which immediately 
responds to any change in duty, owing to the throwing off or 
on of machines either singly^or embraced in a whole section of 
the building. The tubular boilers are twenty in number, in a 
separate building, and each represents a nominal power of seventy 
horses, the work of the engine at sixty pounds pressure being 
about fourteen hundred horse-power. The fly-wheel has cogs 
on its periphery, which match with cogs on a pinion which 
rotates a line of underground shafting, and this by means of 
mitre-gearing rotates other underground shafts, so that motion 
is communicated to eight points in the ground-plan at the tran- 
sept, at which are pulleys from which belts rise through the 
ifloor and thence pass around primary pulleys on the eight 
principal lines of shafting, which, reach from the transept to the 
extremities of the east and west end of the building. The sunk 
shafting, its mitre-gears, pillow-blocks and pulleys, weigh tw^o 
iinndred tons.'^ The work on the engine was completed on the 
10th of April, the day promised by its inventor, and the entire 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



L39 



cost of its construction— §200,000— was borne by Mr. George 
H. Corliss. 

Eight main lines of shafting are provided for the machinery 
in the avenues and aisles, the larger portion being speeded to 
one hundred and twenty revolutions per minute, and one line 




THE CORLISS ENGINE IN MACHINERY HALL. 



to two hundred and forty revolutions per misute, principally for 
the wood-working machines, which occupy the larger part of the 
west end of the southern aisle. With the subsidiary lines, the 
length of shafting is estimated at 10,400 feet, each main line of 
six hundred and fifty feet transmitting one hundred and eighty 
horse-power to the various machines connected with it. 



440 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

The exhibit displayed in Machinery Hall is classified by the 
Centennial Commission as follows : 

Department V. — Machixery. 

500—509 Machines, Tools, etc., of Mining, Cheraistr>', etc. 

510 — 519 Machines and Tools for working Metal, Wood and Stone. 

520 — 529 Machines and Implements of Spinning, Weaving, etc. 

530—539 Machines, etc., used in Sewing, making Clothing, etc. 

540 — 549 Machines for Printing, making Books, Paper Working, etc 

550 — 559 .... Motors, Power Generators, etc. 

560 — 569. . . .Hydraulic and Pneumatic Apparatus. 

570 — 579 Railway Plant, Rolling Stock, etc. 

580 — 589 Machinery uaed in preparing Agricultural Products. 

590 — 599 Aerial, Pneumatic and Water Transportation. 

Machinery and Apparatus especially adapted to the require- 
ments of the Exhibition, 



The United States. 

The space occupied by the United States covers about three- 
fourths of the area of Machinery Hall, and extends from the 
western end entirely across the hall to a point nearly half way 
between the transept and the eastern doors. Being at home, 
the American exhibitors were naturally the first to have their 
machinery in readiness. The machinery displayed covers a 
wide range, extending from the most delicate machines for the 
manufacture of watches to the most powerful trip-hammers and 
rolling-mills. 

We begin our inspection at the west end of the building, and 
start from the western end of the south aisle and pursue our 
way eastward along this aisle. 

On the south side we notice an extensive collection of gas 
meters and kindred machines. These are very handsome and 
complete in every detail, and the visitor can but wonder that 
such pretty and attractive things should be such an unending 
source of trouble to every householder. The whole system of 
registering the consumption of gas is shown, but we are not 
treated to an exhibit of the method of making a meter register 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 411 

more gas than is burned. That is a secret which the gas com- 
panies do not care to make public. 

A large collection of machines for making illuminating gas 
from naphtha is shown beyond the gas meters, the largest ex- 
hibit being made by the Springfield Gas Machine Company, 
of Massachusetts, whose machines are admitted to be the best 
and safest in use. 

Beyond the gas machines the Hagner Drug Milling Com- 
pany, of Philadelphia, exhibit a pair of double-run flaxseed 
chasing mills, which attract considerable attention by their size 
and excellent workmanship. To the east of this is a large 
frame model of an anthracite coal-breaker, showing the pro- 
cess of crushing coal and separating the d liferent sizes for the 
market. 

A fine display of steam-drills comes next, and below these is 
a blast-furnace, with plans showing its operation. A capital 
display is made of steam-engines, stationary and portable. The 
Atlantic Mills, of Philadelphia, show some powerful machin- 
ery^ and below these the scroll-saw men are at work with their 
machines cutting out scroll work in wood. Some of these saws 
are driven by steam and some by foot-power. A handsome 
specimen of their work is a "Centennial clock," the frame of 
which is made of wood sawed in this way. 

We have now reached the transept, and turn back to ex- 
amine the display along the north side of the aisle. We are 
attracted at once by the exhibit of barrel, hoop and stave- 
making machinery in operation. These machines cut out the 
staves and hoops and set up the barrels and head them in an 
exceedingly short space of time. 

Close by is an automatic shingle- maker, which can turn out 
25,000 shingles in a day; and next to it is a "Dovetailing, 
Carving, Moulding and Panelling Machine," exhibited by the 
Battle Creek Machinery Company, which is one of the curi- 
osities of the Exhibition. Beyond these machines William 
Cramp & Son, of Philadelphia, exhibit two fine marine engines. 
In the next space J. W. Griffiths, of New York, exhibits a 



442 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

maclihie for bending wood, and shows by its operation the 
process of bending stout wooden beams for ships' frames, or for 
arches. 

AVe are at the west end once more, and pass into the south 
avenue. As we move down this avenue we confine our in- 
spection to its south side, and notice first a large road steam- 
enofine of American make. It is the invention of George W. 
Fitts, of Philadelphia, and compares favorably with the English 
steamers at the other end of the hall. Adjoining this space is 
one occupied by Wm. Andrews, of Williamsport, Pennsyl- 
vania, who exhibits a number of circular and straiglit saws of 
the best workmanship. Here is to be seen the first saw-maker's 
anvil ever brought to the United States. It was brought from 
London in 1819, by an uncle of its present owner, who had 
used it in the old country, and has been in steady use for over 
seventy years in this family. It looks as if it was good for 
seventy years more of work. 

We now reach an extensive collection of saws, moulding- 
machines and steam engines, noticeable among the latter being 
the splendid automatic cut-off and throttling steam-engines of 
the Buckeye Company, of Salem, Ohio. In the midst of this 
group Cornell University displays some of the results of her 
department of mechanical engineering in the work of her 
students and in a fine collection of machinery. Here are a 
foot-lathe, magneto-electrical machine, measuring machine 
and steam-engine, all of which are handsome pieces of work- 
manship. 

Having reached the end of the avenue, which is here closed 
in by the space assigned to an exhibitor, we notice on the north 
side a section of the first steam-engine ever introduced into the 
United States. This venerable relic is exhibited by Messrs. D. 
M. Meeker & Son, of Newark, New Jersey. Its history is so 
interesting that we give it here as related by Mr. Justice Brad- 
ley, of the Supreme Court of the United States, in a letter to 
Mr. D. M. Meeker : 



OF THE CENTEXJsIAL EXHIBITIOX. 443 

" Washington, September 20th, 1875. 

"David M. Meeker, Esq.: 

^' Dear Sir: The steam-engine of which you possess a relic 
was, as you suppose, the first ever erected on this continent. It 
was imported from England in the year 1753 by Colonel John 
Schuyler, for the purpose of pumping water from his copper 
mine opposite Belleville, near Newark, New Jersey. The mine 
was rich in ore, but had been worked as deep as hand and 
horse power could clear it of water. Colonel Schuyler, having 
heard of the success with which steam-engines (then called fire- 
engines) were used in the mines of Cornwall, determined to 
have one in his mine. He accordingly requested his London 
correspondents to procure an engine, and to send out with it an 
engineer capable of putting it up and in operation. This was 
done in the year named, and Josiah Hornblower, a young 
man, then in his twenty-fifth year, was sent out to superintend 
it. The voyage was a long and perilous one. Mr. Hornblower 
expected to return as soon as the engine was in successful opera- 
tion. But the proprietor induced him to remain, and in the 
course of a couple of years he married Miss Kingsland, whose 
father owned a large plantation adjoining that of Colonel 
Schuyler. The late Chief-Justice Hornblower was the youngest 
of a large family of children which resulted from this marriage. 
Mr. Horn blower's father, whose name was Joseph, had been 
eno;ao^ed in the business of constructinfi^ eng-ines in Cornwall 
from their first introduction in the mines there, about 1740; 
and had been an engineer and engine-builder from the first use 
of steam-engines in the arts, about 1720. The engines con- 
structed by him and his sons were the kind known as New- 
comen's engines, or Cornish engines. That brought to America 
by Josiah was of this description. Watt had not then invented 
his separate condenser, nor the use of high pressure. But it is 
generally conceded that, for pumping purposes, the Cornish 
engine has still no superior. 

"After 1760 the Schuyler mine was worked for several years 
by Mr. Hornblower himself. The approach of the war, in 
1775, caused the operations to cease. Work was resumed, 



444 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Iiowever, in 1792, and was carried on for several years by 
successive parties. It finally ceased altogether early in this 
century, and the old engine was broken up and the materials 
disposed of. The boiler, a large copper cylinder, standing 
upright, eight or ten feet high, and as much in diameter, with 
a flat bottom and a dome-siiaped top, was carried to Phila- 
delphia. The relic in your possession was a portion of the 
cylinder, and was purchased by some person in Newark. 

"In 1864 I met an old man named John Van Emburgh, 
then a hundred years old, who had worked on the engine when 
it was in operation in 1792. He described it very minutely 
and, I doubt not, accurately. It is from his description that I 
happened to know the kind of engine it was ; although, from 
the date of its construction and the use to which it was put, 
there could have been but little doubt on the subject. 

" What changes have been wrousrht in one hundred and 
twenty-two years ! What mighty power has been created on 
this continent, in that time, by the multiplication and improve- 
ment of the steam-engine ! We may well look upon this relic 
with a sort of superstitious veneration, and, looking forward as 
well as backward, w^onder w'hat another century will bring 
forth ! Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"Joseph P. Bradley." 

Leaving the south avenue at its western end, we pass around 
into the central aisle and continue our inspection on the south 
side of that aisle. We pass a number of vertical and other 
steam-engines, and pause to examine the immense high speed 
blowing engine erected by the Weimar Machine Works, of 
Lebanon, Pennsylvania. This fine engine has a capacity of 
5000 cubic feet per minute at ten pounds pressure. The same 
company also exhibit a section of an apparatus for charging a 
blast furnace. 

Below this is a display of fire-engines, three of which are 
handsome steamers, and a case of firemen's hats, overhauls, etc. 
Beyond the engines a fine hook and ladder carriage is placed. 
Several old-fashioned hand-engines are included in the display, 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 445 

and look odd indeed beside the glittering steamers. Passing 
on we come to the display of chemical fire-extinguishers, the 
largest and handsomest exhibit being made by the Babcock 
Fire-Extinguisher Company, whose machines are used in the 
Exhibition buildings. 

Farther on, I. P. Morris & Co., of the Port Richmond Iron 
\Yorks, Philadelphia, exhibit a large and complete blast furnace 
which towers to the roof, high above all the surrounding 
objects. Near the intersection of the aisle with the transept, 
E. M. Boynton, of New York, has a handsome pavilion of 
black wahiut, velvet and gilt, ornamented with specimens of his 
saws. It is one of the most conspicuous objects in the hall, and 
is admirably suited to the display of the articles it contains. 

Turning westward again, and crossing to the north side of 
the aisle, we notice a handsome display of paintings and models 
of the steamers of the American Line, from Philadelphia to 
Liverpool, made by the steamship company. 

The north side of the central aisle, from the transept west- 
ward, is taken up almost entirely by the exhibit of the sewing 
machine manufacturers. All the sewing machines of the 
country are represented here, and the display made by them is 
one of the most attractive features of the Exhibition. The 
spaces occupied by the various manufacturers stand side by side, 
and are fitted up in the handsomest style. Rich native woods 
and costly hangings are used in the construction of the en- 
closures and pavilions of the various manufacturers, and neither 
expense nor taste has been spared to render these. as brilliant 
and imposing as possible. Each firm exhibits its best machines^ 
finished in the handsomest style, and displays conspicuously 
samples of fine needlework done by its operators. The ma- 
chines are operated by a number of young ladies, and are shown 
to all who are disposed to examine them. The handsomest 
displays are made by the Wilson, Weed, Wilcox & Gibbs, 
Howe, Domestic and Home Companies. The How^e pavilion 
contains a portrait of Elias Howe, the inventor of the sewing 
machine, and the pavilion of the Home Machine is the richest 
and most beautiful structure in Machinery HalL 



446 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

To the west of the sewing machines are the knitting ma- 
chines, the workings of which attract much attention ; and 
beyond these is a handsome model of a steam tug, with an 
exhibit of improved screw propellers for steam vessels, and we 
enter once more the space devoted to steam-engines. Among 
these we notice a machine for ditching and draining, exhibited 
by Randolph Brothers, of New Jersey. Several sizes of this 
machine for horse and steam power are made. The largest size 
will dig eight cubic yards per minute in clay soil, or as much 
as a single man can dig in a day. A two-horse machine, 
weighing 1600 pounds, will do the work of forty men. The 
next space is occupied by Pusey, Jones & Co., of Wilmington, 
Delaware, with a large display of machinery of various kinds; 
and just beyond N. AV. Twiss & Co., of New Haven, exhibit a 
number of beautiful vertical engines. The yacht engine ex- 
hibited here is one of the prettiest and most complete machines 
in the building. 

We are at the west end of the aisle, and pass around to the 
north avenue, at the western end of which, on the south side, 
Messrs. Poole & Hunt, of Baltimore, have a large display of 
machines of various kinds. Eastward of this exhibit, on the 
same side of the avenue, the steam-engines stretch away for a 
considerable distance. Beyond these the American Iron Works 
of Pittsburgh, make an extensive display of wheels, shafting, 
pulleys, bar, sheet, plate iron, and T rails. 

Immediately to the south of this exhibit a loom is at work 
weaving suspenders for the National Suspender Company, of 
New York. You may have a pair woven w^th your name 
while vou wait for them. 

Below the American Iron Works, is one of the handsomest 
displays in the hall. It is the exhibit of the John A. Roeb- 
ling's Sons Company, of Trenton, New Jersey, manufacturers of 
wire rope and suspension bridge cables. Here are shown sec- 
tions of the cables of the suspension bridges over the Niagara at 
Niagara Falls, and those over the Ohio at Pittsburgh and Cin- 
cinnati, which were made by this firm. Handsome drawings 
of these bridges are displayed. A splendid plan of the suspen- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 447 

sion bridge now in course of construction over the East river, 
at New York, forms one of the most conspicuous objects of the 
collection, and beneath it is a section of the cable for this bridge 
now being made by this firm. It is composed of six thousand, 
No. 7, galvanized steel wires. The ultimate strength of this 
cable is 22,300,000 pounds. A model of a large merchant ship 
rigged with wire rope is exhibited, and samples of the wire 
ropes and other articles made by the company are to be seen 
also. 

Beyond this space is an enormous direct acting steam and 
hydraulic cotton press, from the Taylor Iron Works, of Charles- 
ton, S. C. It is constructed entirely without pumps, and has 
but a single valve. It is the most powerful cotton press in the 
world, and among its other feats is said to have recompressed a 
bale of cotton into two-thirds of its original size. 

We now enter a region of looms a._d cotton machinery, and 
pause to notice the process of making and winding spool cotton 
as shown by the Willimantic and Hopedale Companies, of Con- 
necticul: and Rhode Island. Beyond these machines a large 
power-loom is weaving corsets for the United States Corset 
Company. A lady operates the machine, and a number of her 
sex are generally interested lookers-on. Next door, a larger 
sized loom is weaving jute cloth. Both of these machines are 
the Lyal] Positive Motion Loom, the accuracy and rapidity of 
the work of which are wonderful. 

In the next stand on the east, the Pyramid Pin Company, of 
New Haven, Connecticut, have a machine, in charge of a little 
girl, at work sticking pins in papers. This machine is caj^able 
of sticking 180,000 pins per day in this way. 

Next below is one of the most interesting exhibits in the hall. 
The American Watch Company, of Waltham, Massachusetts, 
have a work-shop, in 'svhich a number of their most experienced 
and skilful workers are engaged in the manufacture of watches 
by machinery. Every part of the process is illustrated by the 
work done here. The machines used are of the most delicate 
and perfect character, and the operations are marked by an 
accuracy and skill which elicit the warm praise of the inter- 



448 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

ested spectators who surround the workshop. The Waltham 
watches have long been regarded as tlie best of American 
manufacture, and the universal testimony of all who have used 
them is that they are unexcelled by any in the world. 

Adjoining the shop of the Waltham Company is ^ curious 
machine for engraving patterns for embroidery and laces. 

The transept is reached again, and we turn back westward 
again. On the right, opposite the Waltham shop, the Nono- 
tuck Silk Company, of Florence, Massachusetts, show the pro- 
cess of labelling spools and winding machine twist and sewing 
silk for the market. In the next space beyond William Wood 
& Co., of Philadelphia, have a loom at work weaving cotton 
cloths; and above this the Monitor Carpet Mills, of Philadel- 
phia, have a power-loom at work weaving carpets without the 
use of a shuttle. Two power-looms are engaged beyond this one, 
weaving Brussels carpets. The Falls of Schuylkill Carpet 
Mills operate one of these looms, and thus illustrate the process 
by which the beautiful carpets displayed by them in the Main 
Building are woven. Going westward we pass several looms 
engaged in weaving cloth, and a number of wool-carding 
machines, and notice a fine Murkland power-loom at work 
weaving ingrain carpets for Messrs. John Bromley & Sons, 
Philadelphia. The rapidity w-ith which this loom does its 
work is surprising. With a competent operator it will run off 
thirty-five yards of carpeting in a working day. Beyond this 
is the Garnett machine, which takes the waste of woollen facto- 
ries and works it up into fibre again, washing it clean at the 
same time. 

An interesting display is made of meters for registering the 
consumption of water ; and the exhibit of steam-gauges is both 
large and handsomely arranged. Here is seen a little register- 
ing apparatus which records every revolution of the Corliss 
engine at the distant centre bf the hall. Near the door is a 
hydraulic ram of novel construction, exhibited by the Dexter 
Spring Company of Pennsylvania. It furnishes its own power 
and is a perfect automatic pump. 

From the western end of the avenue we have been traversing 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 449 

we pass into a small aisle to the north of it. The first notable 
exliibit is that of the Stillwell & Bierce Manufacturing Com- 
pany, of Dayton, Ohio. They exhibit a boiler for use in lime- 
stone countries, which removes the deposit of lime from the 
water and prevents it from encrusting the interior surface of the 
boiler. Beyond this space is the Backus Water Motor, which 
would seem to be the long desired motive power for running 
sewing machines. Beyond this is a most interesting exhibit of 
asbestos, a mineral which has the peculiar property of being a 
non-conductor of heat. Farther on the Westinghouse Air-brake 
and Henderson^s Hydraulic Brake for railroad cars make large 
and interesting displays of the merits of their respective ma- 
chines. At the lower end of the aisle, on the south side, is a 
tall machine for drying paper-collar stock, and below this 
machines for drying cotton and worsted dyed goods. 

AYe have reached the transept once more, and enter upon the 
section devoted to the display of locomotives, which is one of the 
most prominent as well as one of the most attractive features of 
the Exhibition. About ten locomotives built by the Baldwin 
Works, the Pennsylvania and Reading Railroad Companies, and 
other well-known manufacturers, make up the collection, in which 
the latest improvements and the highest skill in this branch of 
the mechanic arts are shown. A narrow gauge locomotive and 
one for mining purposes are included in the collection. The fin- 
ishing of these splendid machines is handsome, but substantial. 
They are no finer in appearance than is usual, and represent 
faithfully the superior appearance as well as construction of 
the American locomotive. 

Leaving the locomotives behind, we pass to the north aisle, 
where w^e notice a large display of machinery for mills by J. T. 
Noye & Son, of Buffalo, New York, beyond which is an im- 
mense hoisting engine for mines, and a display of mining 
machinery, including a powerful Cornish pumping engine made 
by the Dickinson Manufacturing Company, of Scranton, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Both sides of the aisle are now occupied by the display of the 
scale makers. All the principal manufacturers are represented, 
29 



450 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 

and this department is one of the largest and handsomest in the 
hall. The various styles of scales are shown — platform scales, 
those for counters, letter scales, and balances. Every article is 
finished in the handsomest and showiest manner, and with a 
generous disregard of expense. A number of the makers show 
platform scales adjusted to the standards of the principal nations 
of Europe. 

Then follows, on both sides of the aisle, a collection of car- 
wheels, trucks, springs, railroad iron and rails, switches, seats 
for cars, and other railroad material, in the midst of which the 
Wharton Patent Switch makes an interesting shovving of its 
"workings. It is claimed for this switch that it is automatic in 
its movements, and that where it is used accidents are impossible. 

On the left hand side, above the AVharton Switch, the Baxter 
Steam-Engine Company make a handsome exhibit of tlioir 
famous engines; and on the opposite side of the aisle is a hand- 
some arch made of lapwelded wrought-iron tubes, ornamented 
with the names of the States, and exhibited by the Xational 
Tube Company as specimens of their workmanship. 

On the north side of the aisle, at the western end of the 
building, is a huge vacuum pan for clarifying sugar, exhibited 
by the Col well Iron Works, of Xew York. It towers to a 
height of thirty-five feet above the floor of the hall, and the 
vacuum pan has a diameter of ten feet. There are two plat- 
forms or stories one above the other. On the ground floor is a 
powerful horizontal engine working an air-pump to make the 
vacuum in the pan. The air-pipe connecting with the top is 
some eighteen inches in diameter, of iron, and has several 
drums. Underneath the pan is a large circular valve to run 
off the product of evaporation. There are also connected with 
this drying pan sugar boxes to receive the sugar and moulds 
for moulding the sugar loafs. The whole apparatus is of the 
most complete description, and' is a fair sample of the vacuum 
pans used in the largest sugar refineries in Cuba or Louisiana. 

We pass around into the north aisle and start eastward 
again, noticing first, on the right, or south side of the aisle, a 
large collection of washing, wringing, and mangling machines 




451 



452 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

of every kind and description, to run by hand or by steam-])()\\Tr. 
On the opposite side of tiie aisle a large machine for printing 
wall paper is shown by Messrs. Howell & Brothers, of Phikidel- 
phia, the largest manufacturers of wall paper in the United 
States. Diagonally opposite this machine a number of glass- 
blowers are at work making fancy articles of glass by means of 
the blow-pipe. The left hand side of the aisle is taken up for 
a considerable distance by machinery for making paper in oper- 
ation, and on the other side a cracker-making machine is at 
work. Below tiie lust are several niachines engaged in the 
nuinufacture of fine candy hon-hons, and beyond these, on both 
sides of the aisle, we notice machines for butchers, bakers, and 
flour mills. 

Opposite these, on the north side of the aisle, is a small model 
of an old Virginia tobacco factory. All the o])eration& of manu- 
facturing chewing tobacco are shown liere, with the exception 
of the flavoring process. Four negro men are at work twisting 
the rolls from the leaves, and these rolls are pressed into the 
plugs of commerce while the visitors look on. The negroes, as 
they work, sing the songs and hymns which are familiar to 
those who have visited the tobacco factories of the South. . The 
establishment is the exhibit of Mr. Albert Ordway, of Eich- 
mond, A^irginia. 

Below the tol>accc factory is a pretty display of small mills 
for grinding coffee and spices, below which the butchering 
machinery greets us again, and still farther east, on the north 
side, the process of making India rubber shoes is illustrated by 
machinery at w^nrk. The various stages of the process of work- 
ing \\\) the soft mass of rubber and moulding it into shoes is 
exceedingly interesting, and the visitor may order a pair of 
shoes here and have them made under his own observation 
while he waits for them. 

The south side of the aisle, opposite the tobacco and India 
rubber works, is occupied by an exhibit of French burr mill- 
stones and wheat-cleaning machines. Below these is a large 
centrifufjal vSU2:ar draim'ng and dryinjs^ machine in operation, 
exhibited by H. W. & R. Lafferty, of Gloucester, Xew Jersey. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 453 

Diagonally opposite, on the north side of the aisle, below the 
rubber works, Messrs. Whitman & Son, the well-known Phila- 
delphia confectioners, make a practical exhibit of their process 
of preparing their bon-bons and fine candies. These are made 
and sold here daily. 

At the intersection of the aisle with the transept is a restau- 
rant, which appears to be doing a thriving business, and which 
offers good hot dinners for fifty cents. Immediately in front 
of the locomotives, and before the door of the restaurant, is the 
stand of the pop-corn man, already referred to in another part 
of this chapter. 

We cross the transept, and continue on our way down the 
north aisle. On the east side of the transept and extending 
eastward along the north aisle for some distance is the exhibit 
of the Massachusetts marine prepared by the Commissioners of 
that State. It occupies a large stand handsomely draped with 
flai'-s and streamers, and consists of models of all the various 
kinds of sailing and steam vessels, both old and new style, 
owned in the ports of Massachusetts. Here is a fishing 
schooner, with her crew holding the lines which have been 
thrown overboard, a graceful yacht, a clipper ship, man-of-war, 
and whaler, each one complete in its way» The collection 
includes models of keels, fixtures of various kinds for vessels, 
steering gear, diving armor, and life-saving apparatus. The 
articles are arranged with great taste, and the collection consti- 
tutes one of the most conspicuous displays in Machinery Hall. 

On the opposite side of the aisle the type-writer, an ingenious 
machine for printing letters or manuscripts instead of writing 
them with the pen, is at work, and beyond it the system of 
setting up music type is shown. 

Passing on we enter the department of printing machinery. 
Here are presses of all kinds and of every make, from the little 
hand press designed for amateurs, to the great Bullock machines 
which strike ofiP 20,000 copies of the New York Herald in an 
hour. The presses stand on both sides of the aisle, and extend 
over to the north avenue. 

In a prominent space near the northern wall we notice a splendid 



451 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

six roller stop cylinder press, a roller-drum press, and a peru,'cting 
press for illustrated cut work, all made and exhibited by Messrs. 
Cottrell & Babcock, of New York. These presses attract great 
attention, and are pronounced by competent judges the best of 
their kind in the world. The perfect distribution of the ink, the 
registering apparatus, which does its work with a mathematical 
exactness, and the uniformity and beauty of its impressions, con- 
stitute it the most perfect printing machine for fine book work 
ever made. The publishers of this book have long used it in 
the printing of their finest illustrated works, and have found it 
superior to any press they have ever used. The drum cylinder 
press is provided with Charles Eneu Johnson's automatic paper 
feeding machine, which dispenses with the services of a feeder 
for the press. 

We are now at the end of the American department, and pass 
into the north avenue to complete our examination of the print- 
ing machinery. We notice two large ])resses at the eastern end 
of that avenue made by the Bullock Printing Press Company. 
They are in daily operation, and every afternoon a number of 
copies of the New York Herald and Sun are struck off from 
stereotype plates sent over from New York in the morning. 
The papers are distributed among the visitors. These presses 
have a capacity of 20,000 impressions per hour. 

Paper cutting machines stand on the north side of the avenue, 
and in this department are book binders' machinery, presses for 
steel and cop})er plate and lithographic printing, and machinery 
for stereotyping and electrotyping and for type founding. 

On the north side of the aisle ^lessrs. K. Hoe & Co., of New 
York, show several of their improved presses, one of which is 
engaged in printing the fine illustrations contained in " Pictur- 
esque America," thus giving a practical demonstration of its 
excellence ; and at the w'estern end of their space is the venerable 
hand press at which Benjamin Franklin worked as a journey- 
man printer during his first visit to London. 

On the south side of the avenue opposite these presses is a 
fine ice yacht, a peculiarly American institution, and above it 
an American double life-boat with its equipments, beyond whicit 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 455 

is a collection of boats and shells, and a half-size model of the 
famous Monitor life raft, which, it will be remembered, made a 
successful voyage across the Atlantic a few years ago, and has 
since been adopted by the navy of the United States. Beyond 
this is a full-sized steam yacht exhibited by Baird & Huston, 
of Philadelphia, showing an improvement in the arrangement 
of the propeller. On the opposite side of the avenue, the 
New York Safety Engine Company exhibit a fine upright 
engine. 

At the head of the north avenue, and along the transept, 
John Roach & Sons, the famous shipbuilders of New York and 
Chester, Pennsylvania, exhibit a handsome collection of models 
of the noted iron steamships they have built for the Pacific Mail 
Company and other shippers, and models of the ironclads 
Puritan and ^Miantonomoh built by them for the United States. 
They exhibit also a sample of armor plating, and other work for 
iron vessels. 

Passing along the transept into the central aisle, we notice a 
number of models of vessels, life-saving apparatus, rafts, etc., 
and turning into the central aisle pause to notice the glass 
cutters and engravers at work at the head of the aisle, orna- 
menting glassware by engraving designs upon it by means of 
small grindstones worked by the foot. 

To the eastward of this stand we enter a region of machinery 
of various kinds for weaving cotton, woollen and silk cloths. 
On the left hand side of the aisle the Phoenix Manufacturing 
Company, of Paterson, New Jersey, have a Jacquard loom at 
work weaving Centennial badges in silk, with the arras of the 
United States and a portrait of Washington woven on the face. 
These are beautiful pieces of work, and large numbers of them 
are purchased by visitors as souvenirs of the Exhibition. 

Opposite the loom A. F. Prentice & Co., of Worcester, Mas- 
sachusetts, exhibit a fine collection of machinists' tools, with a 
number of presses, dies, and other machines for working in 
metal. On the left hand side of the aisle, the Danforth Machine 
Company, of Paterson, New Jersey, exhibit three fine machines 
for spinning silk thread. All the stages of the manufacture of 



456 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

this article, from the raw silk to the complete thread, are shown 
here. 

Below this W. E. & E. D. Lockwood, of Philadelphia, make 
an interesting exhibit of a self-feeding machine for the manu- 
facture of paper envelopes. The machine is almost entirely 
automatic, and cuts, folds, gums and counts 120 envelopes per 
minute. By the side of this machine is another for printing 
envelopes, which prints 60,000 per day. A third machine is 
engaged in making paper collars. 

On the next space below, the process of making paper boxes 
by machinery is shown, and farther on is a brick-making ma- 
chine which works the clay, moulds the bricks and turns them 
out ready for baking. The machine takes the clay direct from 
the bank, tempers it in water, moulds it into bricks of uniform 
size with sharp angles and smooth surfaces, the bricks being 
stiff enough to wheel and stack in the sheds immediately with- 
out sun-drying. The largest size of this machine is capable of 
producing from 25,000 to 40,000 full-sized bricks in ten hours. 
The machine is exhibited by Chambers, Bro. & Co., of Phila- 
delphia, and always draws a crowd about it to witness its opera- 
tions. 

At the end of the aisle, William Sellers & Co., of Philadel- 
phia, make an extensive exhibit of powerful machinery for 
certain lines of work. They have a complete machine shop, 
which could at any moment be started upon the most difficult 
and the heaviest work. Among the articles included in their 
collection is the largest machine tool in the hall. It is a plan- 
ing machine of eighty-one tons weight, having a bed weighing 
fifteen tons and a traverse of forty-four feet. 

In the next space Pratt & Whitney, of Hartford, Connecticut, 
exhibit a number of machinists' tools, somewhat similar to, but 
of a smaller class than, those of Sellers & Co. Some of these 
tools are remarkable adaptations to certain classes of work, and 
exhibit the highest skill in their 'designs and construction. 

We are now at the end of the American department, and pass 
over to the south avenue, and work our way westward along it. 
On the right is the machine shop of Sellers & Co., and on the 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 457 

left an extensive exhibit of valves and steam pipe connections, 
steam fittings of various kinds, and nuts, bolts and screws. 

Immediately on the west of the Sellers machinery, the INIid- 
vale Steel Works, of (Nicetown) Philadelphia, make a splendid 
display of specimens of steel, including large axles and shafts of 
finely forged metal, and tw^isted and cold chilled bars. An 
axle is shown which was tested at the United States navy yard 
at ^yashington, D. C, and which required a strain of 122,300 
pounds to the square inch to snap it. 

Diagonally opposite, on the south side of the avenue, the 
Pittsburgh foundry shows some fine rollers of chilled iron for 
rolling brass, with a broken section of a roller, showing the 
depth of crystallization. 

Above this, on the south side of the avenue, is a tall Tuscan 
column, built of thirty-eight different kinds of grindstones used 
in the mechanic arts, surmounted by a bronze eagle. It is the 
exhibit of J. E. Mitchell, of Philadelphia. 

Diagonally opposite a wood-turner is at work with a lathe, 
turning out handsome ornamental wooden boxes, and in the 
next space on the west, Hoopes & Townsend, of Philadelphia, 
have a handsome and unique pavilion ornamented w^ith a large 
display of bolts, screws, and nuts. On the opposite side of the 
aisle is another stand with glassblowers at work making fancy 
articles for sale, and next above this a soda fountain. Opposite 
the soda fountain is a striking display of files of various kinds 
and sizes in a handsome show-case, and immediately opposite 
this exhibit is one of Otis & Co.'s finest elevators with the lift- 
ing machinery. 

Having reached the transept again we turn into the south 
aisle, and notice on the right, within a few feet of the transept, 
a corkmaking machine at work, cutting out corks of various 
sizes from the bark. Here is a section of the bark of a cork 
tree, said to be the largest in the world. 

On the opposite side of the aisle Steinway & Sons, of New 
York, show metal frames for pianos, the mechanism of that in- 
strument, and specimens of the machinery used in its manufac- 
ture. 



458 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Both sides of the aisle are now taken up with a collection of 
machinery of various kinds. On the north side of the aisle the 
Pennsylvania Tack Works, of Norristown, have six of their 
machines at work cutting tacks out of thin strips of metal. 
The machines used are " Weaver's patent," which make 400 
tacks per minute, and over 2500 different kinds and sizes. 
In the next space below, the Duncannon Iron Company of 
Philadelphia show the process of making nails by a machine 
operated by a nail cutter. Immediately back of this is an auto- 
matic nail cutter, which does not require the services of a man 
to turn the metal plate as in the ordinary machine. The 
remainder of the aisle is taken up with machinery for charging 
soda fountains. 

Having now finished our inspection of the American depart- 
ment in the main hall, we go back to the Corliss engine, and 
examine 

The Hydraulic Annex, 

which is a prolongation of the south transept, as we have stated 
elsewhere. 

Immediately south of the Corliss engine is a collection of 
brass and nickel plate stop-cocks, and another of machinists' 
vises and tools. On the west side of the main aisle of the 
annex is an exhibit of files in a handsome case. The principal 
object of this collection is a large file-blade of polished steel 
suspended in the case. It is ornamented with a series of fine 
etchings, representing the workshops of Alexander Krumbhaar, 
of Philadelphia, by whom the exhibit is made. On the other 
side of the file is etched a fine view of Philadelphia. The 
etchings are by C. F. Pluemacher. 

On the right hand of the aisle, just beyond the files, the Silsby 
Manufacturing Company, of Seneca Falls, New York, display 
several handsome steam fire-engines, and horse and hand hose- 
carriages, and close by the sajne company have one of their 
famous rotary steam-pumps. 

The central portion of the annex is occupied by a sunken 
tank, 106 feet long by 60 feet wide, which is filled with water 
to a depth of about ten feet. At the south end of this tank is a 



OF THE CENTENIsIAL EXHIBITJOX. 459 

smaller tank raised about forty feet from the floor of the hall, 
from which a steady sheet of water pours in a cascade down into 
the pool below. The water is raised by two rotary pumps, 
driven by a steam-engine of 150 horse-power, which raise 30,000 
gallons of water per minute to the upper tank. The pumps and 
engine were made by Robert Wetherill & Co., of Chester, Penn- 
sylvania. The fall has a w^eir depth of about four inches and 
a width of thirty-six feet. The effect is very fine, and the cascade 
forms one of the principal attractions of the hall. 

The pumps and hydraulic machines are grouped around the 
lower tank, and discharge steady streams of water into it. Here 
are hydraulic rams, presses, steam and hand pumps, pumps for 
mines, sugar refineries, and other special uses, turbine water- 
wheels and blowing machines and ventilating apparatus. 
Great Britain and several foreign nations participate in the 
exhibit, their machines being located on the east side of 
the annex. 

With the Hydraulic Annex, we conclude our inspection of 
the American department, and turn our attention next to the 
exhibits of the foreign nations. 

Great Britain and Ireland. 

The space assigned to Great Britain and Ireland covers about 
one-third of the area occupied by the foreign exhibits. Banners 
of red with letters of white suspended from the roof mark the 
British section. We begin our tour through it in the southern 
aisle, at its eastern end, just above the German section. 

On the south side of the aisle are two of the famous traction 
engines made by Aveling & Porter, of Rochester, England. 
They attract much attention, and have no superiors in the world. 
Across the aisle Messrs. Howard & BuUough exhibit some fine 
cotton machinery, including a large carding machine. In the 
next space is a display of submarine armor and diving apparatus, 
made by Siebe & Gorman, of London. 

We cross now to the south avenue, on the south side of which 
several steam-hammers are displayed by B. & S. Massey, of ]Man- 
chester. This firm exhibit also steam-stampSj and circular-saws 



460 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

for cutting hot iron and steel. A section of nine-inch iron 
armor-plate is also exhibited, in which are several deeply-indented 
shot holes, which show the severity of the test to which it was 
subjected. On the opposite side of the avenue is another section 
of iron plate, 21f inches in thickness, which is polished on one 
face. The outer edge shows the manner of building up plate 
upon plate to gain the required thickness. Armor of this kind 
is doubtless designed for land batteries and forts rather than for 
vessels. We have no rolling-mill plants in this cx)untry capable of 
making such heavy plating, and this is therefore without a rival. 

On the south side of the avenue we pass a group of machinery 
for weaving cotton cloths, and come upon two immense steam- 
cranes made by Appleby Brothers, London. These have done 
good service since their arrival at the hall, their exhibitor hav^ 
ing generously allowed them to be used in lifting and placing 
heavy articles in position. 

Opposite the cranes, Thomas Gadd, of Manchester, has a fine 
machine for printing calicoes, which prints eight colors at once, 
and an engine for running it; and below this, Clarke, Stanfield 
& Co., of London, show a pretty model of a floating dry-dock, 
with a steamship drawn up on one, to illustrate its workings. 

We are at the eastern end of the British section once more, 
and pass northward into the central aisle, and turn westward 
asfain. On the north side of the aisle ^Messrs. Newton & Wil- 
son, of London, make a large display of their sewing machines, 
many of which are operated by the hand instead of the foot, a 
style very popular in England. The machines are handsome, 
and are displayed in an attractive manner. On the opposite side 
of the aisle, a Jacquard loom is weaving badges of silk, and 
above the loom is another exhibit of sewing machines, these 
beino^ the " Kimball & Morton machine." They are made in 
Glasgow, and are famous in the united kingdom as the machine 
that broke up the combination monopoly, and compelled the 
trade to lower the price of sewing machines. Immediately on 
the west of these machines, the well-known cotton-spinners, J. 
& P. Coats, of Paisley, Scotland, have machines at work wind- 
ing and spooling cotton thread, which finds a ready sale to 
visitors to the hall. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 461 

At the west end of the British section in this aisle we notice 
a large table on which Messrs. Brierly Sons & lieynolds, of 
London, have a beautiful model of a railway junction, by means 
of which they illustrate the English system of managing railway 
switches and signalling the movements of trains. A similar 
exhibit is made immediately north of this one by Messrs. Saxby 
& Farmer, of London, who also show photographs and drawings 
of the workings of the switch system of the great depots of Lon- 
don. These two exhibits are among the most interesting objects 
in Machinery Hall. They show the practical workings of the 
^' block system ^' of running trains, which has been adopted by 
a number of our leading railroad lines, and embody some valua- 
ble features which our roads generally might adopt with advan- 
tage to the public. 

Adjoining Saxby & Farmer's model, the Inman Steamship 
Company exhibit a full-rigged model of their fine steamer, the 
City of Berlin. To the east of the railway model, Mr. John 
Walter, of the London Times, exhibits the printing press which 
bears liis name. It is a fine machine and a worthy rival of the 
great American presses. It prints a daily edition of the New 
York Times, and attracts much attention from visitors. 

On the east of the Walter press, Messrs. JNlirlees, Tait & 
AVatson, of Glasgow, make an extensive display of machinery 
in motion, consisting of a sugar mill, and a valveless engine 
working an air-pump for a vacuum-pan, and driving centrifugal 
machines. This is one of the largest exhibits in the hall, and 
the machinery is all of the largest class. 

Though the English display of machinery does not fairly 
represent the capacity of Great Britain for dealing successfully 
with the heaviest as well as the most delicate branches of the 
mechanic arts, it is still deeply interesting, and is in many par- 
ticulars unequalled by anything in the hall. 

Canada. 

Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia make a collective 
exhibit under one general title, as above. They have planing 
and moulding machines, two kinds of turbine wheels, horizontal 




462 



THE CENTEN]S^IAL EXHIBITION. 463. 

and radial boring mills, from Dundas, stationary, vertical, hori- 
zontal, and portable steam-engines, and seamless lead trap 
machines from Montreal ; car-wheels, soda-water apparatus, 
and marbles, from Toronto ; and railway signals from Belle- 
ville, in Canada. Nova Scotia sends quartz-crushers from 
Halifax; and Xew Brunswick, vertical steam-engines and circu- 
lar-saws from St. John's. Lathes, drills, brick-making machinery, 
a steam fire-engine, sewing machines, from Canada, canoes, and 
boats of various kinds, make up the remainder of the exhibit, 
which is very interesting, and fully sustains the views we have 
expressed with reference to the enterprise and skilfulness of our 
northern neighbors, in our account of the Canadian display in 
the Main Building. 

The Canadian section is at the eastern end of Machinery Hall, 
and in the centre of the building. 

Germany. 

The German section occupies the southeast corner of 
Machinery Hall, and is about one-half as large as that assigned 
to Great Britain. The German display is neither very large 
nor very varied, and does not give the visitor a fair idea 
of the resources of Germany, or the progress made by her in 
mechanics. 

Upon entering the southeastern doors of Machinery Hall, 
the visitor's attention is at once drawn to two immense breech- 
loading siege guns that are mounted on carriages of a peculiar 
construction. These are the famous 1200-pounder breech-load- 
ing Krupp guns, from the foundry of that maker, at Eisen. 
These guns have been adopted by the German government for 
the fortifications of the empire and for siege purposes. They 
were well tested during the Franco-German war a few years ago 
in the sieges of Strasburgh, Metz, and Paris, and are considered 
among the most formidable and eifective weapons in the world. 
A number of smaller rifled steel-guns of the same maker, for 
field uses, are grouped about the base of the monsters w^hich 
frown down from their lofty position upon the peaceful assem- 
blage about them. 



464 THE ILLUSTBATED HISTORY 

On the north of the Krupp guns is a tall column of exhibits 
from the iron mine from which the metal for these guns is drawn. 
The base of the column is of crude iron ore, and the shaft of the 
smelted ore. It is a conspicuous object in this part of the hall. 
To the north of it is a fine collection of copper and iron wire 
piled in pyramidal form. 

On the south side of the space occupied by the Krupp guns a 
larire machine is at work makino; full-sized bricks of a fine 
quality. It is exhibited by C. Schlickeysen, of Berlin. 

Prussia makes a fine exhibit of sulphur and copper ores, and 
on the south of this are a number of railroad car-wheels, a rail- 
road switch, and machinery for railroad cars. Along the south 
aisle several gas-engines of a. peculiar construction are in opera- 
tion, showing how a steady motive power is derived from the ex- 
plosive force of ordinary burning gas. They are exhibited by the 
Gas Motor Factory, of Deutz. At the eastern end of the German 
section a collection of steam gauges from Hamburg and ^lagde- 
burg is shown. The German sewing machine manufacturers 
make a collective display, and Aix la Chapelle shows her 
needles in handsome style. There are printing presses from 
Leipzig, steam-engines from Bremerhaven, and machinery of 
various kinds from Hamburg and Berlin in the remainder of 
the collection. 

France. 

The French section occupies the northeastern corner of 
Machinery Hall, and is equal in size to that of Germany. 

At the eastern end of the north avenue of the building, A. 
Guinet & Co., of Lyons, have a loom, for the illustration of the 
process of weaving silk ; and beyond the loom E. Secretan, of 
Paris, has an exceptionally elaborate pavilion, constructed of 
brass and copper, in which he exhibits specimens of his work in 
those metals. To the north of this pavilion, the French choco- 
late and bon-bon makers are at' work, making and selling their 
finest confections ; and the same firm, Beyer Brothers, of Paris, 
have a set of machines turning out their fine soaps, which find a 
ready market. 

On the north side of the aisle, near the east door, F. Arbey, 



OF THE CENTEN^7AL EXHIBITION. 465 

of Paris, exhibits a collection of wood-working machinery, and 
to the west of this Morane, of Paris, exhibits some admirable 
machinery for making stearine candles. 

In the north aisle, near the western end of the French sec- 
tion, P. Alauzet & Co., of Paris, have a series of lithographic 
printing machines. One of these is a railway printing machine, 
the bed of which is carried on wheels, which run on tracks. 
Around the sides of their space are displayed specimens of their 
lithographic printing. 

The remainder of the French exhibit consists of a variety of 
machines. A fine apparatus for making beet-root sugar is 
shown by Beyer Brothers, of Paris. A Charleville house ex- 
hibits portable forges ; Sascole, of Paris, has an interesting 
machine for making illuminating gas; D. Segat, of Paris, ex- 
hibits a machine for sewing straw hats ; E. Cornely, of Paris, 
a machine for embroidering; E. Carre, also of Paris, a machine 
for making ice; and Leon Edoux, of Paris, a special system for 
mountain railways. The machines of the French exhibit are 
made with a neatness and display a completeness of workman- 
ship that challenge the admiration of all who examine them. 

Belgium. 

The Belgian exhibit is small, but very complete, and occu- 
pies a space about one-third as large as that of Great Britain. 
It is situated on the north side of the hall, immediately west of 
the French section. 

One of the largest single machines in the hall is a Belgian 
well-borer, exhibited by Joseph Chaudron, of Brussels. It is 
an enormous leg of iron, with a foot having a row of chisels on 
the side, used to stamp holes into the ground. " It weighs 
20,000 pounds, and, being rotated six inches after each stroke, 
makes a circular hole ten feet across. Claws and valved 
buckets lift up stones and mud respectively, for the creature 
delights in water; and when a hole is made a certain depth 
another still larger shaft, with a foot fifteen inches long, and 
weighing 30,000 pounds and having chisels to match, is 
30 



466 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

stamped up and down to enlarge the hole, which is then cased 
with cast-iron pipe/' 

Louvain sends a fine exhibit of railway car-wheels and axles; 
Mariemont, railway stock of various kinds; Verviers, wool- 
cleaning and carding machines and looms; and Brussels, em- 
broidering and sewing machines. Auguste De Tombov,.of 
Marcinelle, near Charleroi, exhibits the model of a trip-hammer 
and one of steam shears, and close by is a collection of machin- 
ery for making bolts. Emile Van Flaecht, of Haeren, near 
Brussels, shows some beautiful models of fat-rendering works, 
with samples of stearine and olcine. 

One of the finest of the Belgian exhibits is that of P. Van dcr 
Kerchove, of Ghent, and consists of a beautiful horizontal Cor- 
Jiss engine, built for the Belgian mint, at Brussels, and a smaller 
one with Rider valves. 

Verviers sends beautiful machines for working in wool ; and 
Celestine Martin, of the same city, has a ring and traveller 
spinner. Brussels, Xamur and La Louviere send multitubular 
filters, rotary pumps and punching machines. 

From the above description it will be seen that but a fewvof 
the great Belgian manufacturers take part in the display in 
Machinery Hall, a circumstance much to be regretted, as there 
is no country in Europe which could offer such a varied, in- 
teresting and valuable mechanical exhibition as the ^' Republi- 
can kingdom." 

Sweden. 

The Swedish space is loss than a third as large as that of 
Belgium, and lies along the north side of the north aisle, im- 
mediately opposite tiie Belgian space. The tall stoves of the 
country form conspicuous portions of the exhibit. The ma- 
chines for working in wood and metal are among the very best 
in the hall, and there are quite a number of them. Norway 
has some fine machinery for the same purpose, her collection 
being shown with that of Sweden. There are several trip- 
hammers in this section, and machines for making bricks oi" 
peat ; also two stationary horizontal, and one vertical steam- 
engine. Sewing machines, a fire-engine, railway axles and 



i 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 467 

springs, and fire-ascaping apparatus are exhibited. A small 
narrow gauge locomotive, called the " Nyhammer," stands at 
the western end of the Swedish space, and is a singular-looking 
machine. 

Russia. 

Russia does not make much of a display in Machinery Hall. 
She has two sections, one of which is situated on the north side 
of the north aisle, on the west of the Swedish space, where she 
displays some fine brass mortars and naval guns; and another 
between the central aisle and northern avenue, and between the 
American and British sections, in which some interesting ma- 
chinery is shown. 

Brazil, 

The Brazilian section lies between the north avenue and 
north aisle, to the west of the Belgian space. It contains one 
of the most complete displays made by any of the foreign 
nations in this hall. One of the most conspicuous objects of 
the collection is a stationary engine of very peculiar construc- 
tion, which can be constructed for either high pressure or low 
pressure, and is said to be very simple and easy to keep in 
order. There are also several models of marine engines. 

"There are three models of men-of-war, representing differ- 
ent styles. One of these is to represent a ship carrying a square 
battery amidships, being almost as wide as the vessel itself, and 
pierced for four guns, one on each face. The second carries 
amidships a turret that is flat on the sides and circular on the 
ends, at one of which is the porthole for the single gun it 
carries. The third model is for a gunboat of ordinary construc- 
tion. The models in elevation showing the lines of the vessels 
are some fourteen in number, and are representations of vessels 
of various sizes, from a large sloop-of-war to an ordinary sized 
gunboat. They are all v;ell made and will bear inspection. 

" The machine shop at the arsenal of Marinha, at Bahia, is 
here beautifully represented by a miniature model, in which 
are represented the engines and boilers and all the different 
pieces of machinery. There are three boilers and tw^o engines, 



468 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

and a complete line of shafting, with couplings, counter-shafiing 
and hangers, all complete. Here we can see, all arranged in 
methodical order, planes, upright drills, boring machines and 
several lathes. Small as these latter are, and all are made to 
scale, they show every part as perfect as in the larger machines. 
Besides the engines and boilers and the shafting, there are 
twenty-one different machines represented, and also the rail 
tracks with the two turn-tables and two trucks. There are 
also two models of stone dry docks, being made to scale from 
those at Santa Cruz and the Imperial dry dock. These are also 
complete, and give a very good idea of those important govern- 
ment works. A very handsome model of a stone casemate, with 
gun and carriage, is also a very prominent piece in this section. 
It is very accurate and complete to the most minute details, 
every part of the carriage and the training tackle being shown, 
as well as the rifling in the guns. 

"A pin-making machine is shown, completed, and a series of 
the different pieces are also shown, both complete and in section, 
so as to give a perfect idea of the entire construction. It is 
worked by hand, and makes the ordinary solid-headed pin, and 
is apparently very simple and effective in construction. It is 
not a large machine, being not over two feet in length and a 
foot in width, and so constructed as to be placed upon any table. 
A couple of the machines used in the Imperial mint are also 
shown, one of which is for stamping the coin. 

" The army and navy of Brazil are represented by full suits 
of the uniforms of the several grades of the service, and also a 
large case full of the various small arms, rifles, carbines, swords 
and pistols. One of the latter is a silver and gold-plated re- 
volver of very handsome make. A very handsome model of a 
brass field-piece, all limbered up with caisson and everything 
complete, is a fine piece t)f workmanship. There are here also 
three bronze mortars of the sizes used in the service. They are 
mounted on their carriages, or beds, all ready for service. One 
field-piece of bronze is mounted and in position. It is about 
the size of one of our twelve-pounders. There is a larger one dis- 
mounted, and also a specimen of a howitzer. These pieces are 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 469 

very highly finished in every part, A couple of small camp- 
chests of leather, and also of ammunition-buckets of the same 
material, are shown. 

"Quite a number of brass pumps are here on exhibit, as well 
as two or three stationary fire-engines. The specimens of brass 
cocks are some of them rather unique in shape to us, but they 
are all of fine workmanship. We find also some specimens of 
shafting hangers and pulleys, a gear wheel and propeller, and 
also some specimens of carpenter tools, the planes having a sort 
of horn in the rear of the handle. A case of coins shows the 
diiferent kinds of money used in the empire, and gives the gold, 
•silver and copper coins of the several denominations." 

A small space across the north aisle is devoted to a showing 
of the silk culture of Brazil, which is as yet in its infancy. 
The habits of the silk worm are exhibited in a most interesting 
manner, and a loom for spinning silk thread is in operation. 

On the south side of Machinery Hall, and west of the 
Hydraulic Annex, are three substantially built structures, smaller 
than, but similar in outward appearance to, the principal edifice. 
These are the Annexes for the display of boilers and quartz- 
crushing machinery, which may be seen in operation here. 




CHAPTER XIV. 

AGKICULTUKAL HALL. 

DeBcription of the Building — Interior Arrangements — Classification of the 
Exhibit— The American Department— Agricultural Machinery— The Plows 
—Harvesting Machines— Threshing Machines — The Cider Mill— The 
Native Wines of America— The Starch Makers— The Windmill— The 
Natural History Collection— The California Biiftet— The Aquaria— The 
Tobacco Exhibit— A Fine Display — Collective Exhibits of the Agricultural 
Products of the States of the Union— Daniel Webster's Plow— The Cape 
Ann Fisheries— " Old Abe"— The British Court— A Small Display— Agri- 
cultural Products of Canada— Canadian Machinery— The French Exhibit— 
A Fine Display of French Wines— Gernumy's Contribution— The Wines of 
the Rhine land— Agricultural Products of Austria and Hungary— Exhibit 
of Russian Products— Italian Wines and Oils— Bologna Sausages— The 
Spanish Court— A Complete Exhibit of the Products of Spain— The Portu- 
guese Collection— HoUand's Exhibit— The Norway Fisheries— Swedish 
Exhibit — The Japanese Court — The Tea and Silk Culture — The Brazilian 
Court — The Cotton Pavilion — A Remarkable Collection — The Brazilian Silk 
Culture — Exhibits of Venezuela and the Argentine Republic — The Liberian 
Court — The Pomological Annex — The W^agon Annex. 

>^J|] HE Agricultural BuiUling stands on the third of the 
spurs or ridges which break the Exhibition enclosure, 
and is situated to the north of the Belmont valley, and 
on the eastern side of Belmont avenue. It is the third 
in size of the Exhibition buildings and is constructed 
principally of wood and glass. The exterior is painted a dark 
brown, and the roof is a dark green broken only by the sky- 
lights which are placed at numerous points in it. 

The buildin<r consists of a nave 820 feet in leno^th and 100 
feet in width, extending from north to south. This nave is 
crossed by three transepts running east and west, each 540 feet 
long. The central transept is ICO feet in width, the side 
transepts 80 feet in width. At the point of intersection of the 
470 




THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



471 



nave and central transept a handsome cupola rises from the 
roof, surmounted by a weather vane. The nave and transepts 
are composed of Howe truss-arches of a Gothic form. The 
height of the nave and central transept from the floor to the 
point of the arch is 75 feet; the two end transepts are 70 feet in 
height to the point of the arch. 

The four courts enclosed between the nave and the transepts, 
and the four spaces at the corners of the building, having the 
nave and end transepts for two of their sides, are roofed over 
and constitute integral portions of the hall as it stands. At 




AGRICULTTTRATi HALI/. 



each end of the nave and of the transepts are placed handsome 
ornamental entrances, at each side of which rises a pointed 
turret. These turrets, the central cupola, and the pointed roofs 
give a picturesqucness to the buildino^, w^hich is, on the whole, 
a ha]>py blending of architectural skill and taste wnth adapt- 
ability to the purpose for which it is designed. Seen from 
the spur on which the Horticultural Hall is located, the effect 
is very fine and imposing. 

The interior of the hall is simply decorated, the roof, arohos 
and columns being covered with a plain coating of whitewash, 
which color adds much to the air of spaciousness which is a 



472 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

• 

characteristic of the hall. The view is broken at intervals by 
the bases of the Howe truss-arches and slender columns of 
wood. Overhead is a be vildering network of trusses and beams. 

The ground-plan of the building, including the courts and 
corner spaces, is a parallelogram of 820 by 540 feet, covering 
an area of about ten acres. 

The hall is lighted with gas, reflectors for this purpose being 
suspended from the roof, and is supplied with water. Boilers 
situated in a frame building to the east of the hall supply 
steam for the engines which turn the agricultural machinery. 
Water-cloriets are located at tlie east and west ends of the build- 
ing, and a com[)lete fire-service is provided. The building, 
being of wood and more inflammable than the other great 
structures, an ingenious arrangement has been efi'ected by which 
a fire can be at once smothered by the action of carbonic 
acid gas. The contract for the erection of the building was 
made on the 2Gth of July, 1875, and the work was begun in 
the following September, and finished about the middle of 
April, 1876. The, cost of the building was §260,000. The 
architect was James H. Windrim, of Philadelphia; the con- 
tractor, Philip Quigley, of Wilmington, Delaware; and the 
builders. Bell Brothers, of Philadelphia. 

Stock-yards for the exhibition of horses, cattle, sheep, swine, 
poultry, etc., are provided in the vicinity of the Exhibition 
grounds. 

The following is the classification of the exhibits made in 
this building by the Centennial Commission : 

Departjient yi. — Agriculture. 

600 — 609. .. .Arboriculture and Forest Products. 

610—619 Pomology. 

620—629 Agricultural Products. 

630 — 639. . . .Land Animals. 

640 — 649 Marine Animals, Fish Culture, and Apparatus. 

650 — 662. . . .Animal and Vegetable Products. 
665 — 669. . . .Textile Substances of Vegetable or Animal Origin. 
670 — 679. . . .Machines, Implements, and Processes of Manufacture. 
680 — 6S9. . . .Agricultural Engineering and Administration. 
690 — 099. . . .Tillajre and General Management. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 473 

The display collected within this hall is the largest and most 
complete ever attempted at any of the World's Fairs, and is 
by many considered the most striking and original feature of 
the whole Exhibition. Other International Expositions have 
made great displays of machinery, manufactures, and art col- 
lections, but none have ever given such an exhibition of the 
sources from which the world draws its food. To the visitor 
who has gone through the other great buildings, the Agricul- 
tural Hall is a delightful surprise, and he may walk for hours 
through it, finding something new and interesting at every 
turn. 

The American department occupies about two-thirds of the 
entire space of the hall, and embraces an extensive and varied 
collection. We turn our attention to it at first. 

The United States. 

We enter the building at the north door of the nave, and 
turning to the left make our first inspection in the northeastern 
quarter of the hall, which is devoted exclusively to a display of 
agricultural machinery and farming implements. 

Near the north door Messrs. Alexander Speer & Sons, of the 
Pittsburgh Plow Works, make a handsome display of their 
famous plows, each of which is brought to the highest stage of 
perfect workmanship and artistic finish. In the midst of this col- 
lection of splendid implements is a worn, faded-looking plow, the 
frame and share of which are wood, the latter being shod with 
sheet-iron. It was made sixty years ago, and was the result of 
.1 contest of skill between three manufacturers. It was made at a 
small shop in Pittsburgh, which has since grown into the well- 
known Pittsburgh Plow Works. The exhibit of the Messrs. 
Speers thus show^s at a glance the great progress that has been 
made in this branch of our industry during the present century. 

On the opposite side of the court Messrs. B. F. Ames & Sons 
show some handsome plows of an improved pattern, also some 
fine cultivators. 

Passing the plows we enter the line of v/heat-cleaning 
machinery, fans, etc., which brings us to the eastern end of the 



474 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

building. Here is a handsome exhibit of spades, shovels, rakes, 
hoes, etc., made by George Griffiths & Sons, of Philadelphia, 
and Oliver Ames & Sons, of North Easton, Massachusetts. 
In the midst of the collection of Messrs. Griffiths & Sons is an 
old rusty and half-eaten spade, dug up by the late Rev. Dr. 
Brainerd from the line of the intrenchmcnts of the American 
army at Valley Forge during the Revolution. This mute 
instrument, which did its humble part in the \vork of establish- 
ing the freedom of the republic, not inappropriately comes r.ow 
to share in the crowning glory of the era which it helped to 
inaugurate, though the patriot hands which wielded it iiave 
long: since mouldered to foro^otten dust. 

We turn into the court to the north of the first transept, and 
return towards the nave. We pass through a row of drills, 
horse-rakes and threshing machines, and notice Foust's fine 
machine for taking up hay and loading it on the wagon in the 
harvest field. It will take up a ton of hay and load it on 
the wasron in five minutes, and take it as clean as bv the hand 
fork. It is exhibited by the makers, Messrs. Stratton & Cul- 
lom, of Meadville, Pennsylvania. 

In the midst of this collection the Oliver Chilled-Plow Com- 
pany, of South Bond, Indiana, make a beautiful display of their 
plows. One of these is the handsomest in the building. The 
metal parts are nickel-plated, and the frame is of rosewood, 
beautifully carved with agricultural symbols. 

We are now at the nave again, and turn into the northeast 
transept and follow it eastward. Here the Higganum Plow 
Company, of Connecticut, have a fine display of plows, in the 
midst of which is a venerable plow made in Connecticut in the 
year 1756. The contrast between this and the splendid plows 
exhibited by this company is even more striking than that re- 
ferred to in our account of the exhibit of the Pittsburgh Plow 
Works. 

About half way down the trknsept is a handsome soda foun- 
taiu. On the north side of this fountain Messrs. Hurst & 
Bradley, of Chicago, exhibit a number of fine gang plows, and 
on the south side Messrs. Collins & Co., of Kev/ York and 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 475 

Hartford, Connecticut, make a similar display. These plows of 
tliose firms are in the best style of American workmanship, and 
are amons: the finest articles exhibited in the buildinoj. 

On the south side of the transept we notice a collection of 
threshing machines and portable steam-engines for operating 
them. Opposite these the Wayne Agricultural Company, of 
Richmond, Ind*. na, exhibit the famous Planet Reaper. 

A collection of butchers^ and meat-packers^ machinery occu- 
pies the eastern end of the transept, and passing through this 
we reach the eastern door, and turn off to the right into the 
court immediately south of the northeast transept. 

A little way down, on the left, is a large space devoted to the 
display of the Buckeye Mower and Reaper and the Sweepstakes 
Thresher. These machines are among the best known in the 
Union, and those exhibited here are finished in elegant style. 
On the opposite side of the court the Ilalladay Standard Wind- 
mill makes a fine appearance; and in a space immediately back 
of this Westinghouse & Co., of Schenectady, New York, exhibit 
one of their splendid steam-threshers, which attracts much atten- 
tion. Some distance farther on, on the right of the court, is a 
beautiful model of the Union Corn Planter, exhibited by Selby 
& Co., of Peoria, Illinois. 

AVe are at the nave again, and turn off into the next court on 
the south and go eastward again. On the north side of the 
court is one of the most interesting machines in the Exhibition, 
namely, "Slosser's Self-Loading Excavator." Under the man- 
agement of a single man, who is also the driver of the team, 
this machine digs up the ground, takes up a load of earth and 
deposits it at any desired place. It does its work with a rapid- 
ity that is astonishing, and has been used on some of the most 
important public works in the country. It is exhibited by 
Peter J. Stryker, of New Brunswick, New Jersey. A short 
distance farther on, on the same side of the court, the Johnston 
Harvester Company, of Brockport, New York, have a large 
space elegantly fitted up, in which they make a large and hand- 
some display of reapers and mowers. One of these machines is 
so arranged that it can be used eitlier as a mower or as a reaper 




476 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 477 

at the pleasure of the operator. A little farther on, on the 
south side of the court, the famous McCormick Reaping and 
Mowing Machines occupy a large space and make a handsome 
display. The merits of this, the pioneer reaper of America, are 
so well known that they need no description here. A most 
ingenious and valuable improvement to this machine is the 
automatic binder, by which bundles of grain are taken up from 
the cradle of the machine, bound, and distributed at regular 
distances. The remainder of the court, on both sides, is taken 
up with harvesting machines of various kinds, prominent among 
which is the Adams & French Harvester, which also has a 
binding and dropping attachment. By a carrier attached to the 
binder's stand, the bundles of grain are carried on the machine 
until enough of them are gathered to make a shock ; then they 
are dumped together. This saves the labor of one man. The 
machine is exhibited by the Adams & French Harvester Com- 
pany, of Cedar Falls, Iowa. In the same space the Sandwich 
Manufacturing Company, of Illinois, exhibit a number of the 
famous Adams Power Corn-Sheller, one of the largest of its 
kind in the Exhibition. 

We are now at the east door, where a horizontal engine is at 
work supplying power to the line of shafting which turns the 
agricultural machinery in this quarter of the building. We 
pass by it and enter the next court on the south. This court, 
like the preceding one, is filled with harvesting machines of 
various kinds. In the midst of these a fine display of grain- 
drills of improved construction is made by the Farmers' Friend 
Manufacturing Company, of Dayton, Ohio. The Buckeye 
Agricultural Works, of Springfield, Ohio, also make a fine 
exhibit of this class of machines, and of cultivators and sulky 
plows. 

Being at the nave again, we pass to the central transept and 
go east, noticing on the left the handsome exhibit of horse-rakes 
made by J. H. Thomas & Sons, of Springfield, Ohio. Passing 
through a collection of reapers and rakes, we come to a hand- 
some pavilion of black velvet, ornamented with pitchforks, hoes, 
rakes, scythes, cutting-knives, etc., made by the Auburn Manu- 



478 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

facturiiig Company, of Auburn, New York. It is one of the 
handsomest exiiibits in the building, and the articles mentioned 
are dis])layed in a very original and tasteful manner. 

Opposite this pavilion, on the north side of the transept, 
Whiteley, Fassler & Kelly, of Springfield, Ohio, exhibit a mag- 
nificent specimen of their Light Ciiampion Mower and Reaper. 
The metal parts of the machine are nickel-plated, and the frame 
is of rosewood. It is the most beautiful piece of work of this 
kind in the hall, and of course attracts much attention. 

Harvesting machinery occupies the transept to the eastern 
end, where the Rochester (New York) Agricultural Works show 
a larire Hubbard Mower harnessed to two fine wooden horses. 
This is one of tlie notable displays of the hall, and deserves the 
praise it receives. 

Immediately south of this machine the Walter A. AVood 
Mowing and Reaping Machine Company, of Hoosick Falls, 
New York, exhibit one of the handsomest and most satisfactory 
harvcstintr machines in the hall. Attached to it is Locke's Self- 
Binder. This binder is operated by the driver of the machine, 
and does its work with a wonderful exactness and rapidity. It 
can be easily detached and a binder's table substituted for it in 
case of accident to it. It is a genuine triumph of American 
ingenuity. 

We are now at the east wall again,, and pass into the court on 
the south of the central transept. At the eastern door of this 
court is a vertical engine for running the machines in the south- 
eastern section of the building. 

On the south side of this court, at its eastern end, Messrs. 
Boomer & Boschert, of Rochester, New York, have an immense 
cider-mill in operation. The apples are ground by a grating 
machine which has a capacity of five hundred bushels an hour. 
It is claimed for this press, which is the most powerful of its 
kind in the world, that it extracts more of the juice of the apples 
than any other. The whole process of cider-making is shown 
here. Beyond the cider-mill, on the south side of the court, is 
a display of portable steam-engines, and farm saws for steam or 
horse-power ; and to the west of these is a collection of meat- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL, EXHIBITION. 479 

chopping machinery. On the opposite side of the court the 
Howe Manufacturing Company show a collection of scales suit- 
able for farm uses. On the south side of the aisle, opposite the 
scales, is an exhibit of ice-cream freezers, churns and wooden 
ware; and fronting these, on the north side of the aisle, is a col- 
lection of lawn mov/crs of various patterns. These make up 
a ])retty display, and bring us to the nave once more. 

AVe turn into the next court on the south and p:o east ajxain. 
On the north side of the court Robert Wood & Co., of Phila- 
delphia, make a handsome exhibit of a model stable of three 
stalls, and a quantity of ornamental iron-work for farm and 
stable use. Above the stable is a collection of machinery for 
making ice-cream by steam-power, churns, butter tubs and other 
wooden ware ; and on the south side of the court, immediately 
opposite, is a display of threshing machines. 

A farm saw-mill is shown by Harbert & Raymond, of Phila- 
delphia, on the north side of the aisle ; and above this P. K. 
Dedrick & Co., of Albany, New York, exhibit their improved 
press for baling hay, straw, broom-corn, hemp, cotton, wool 
and liair. It may be operated by either hand, horse, or steam- 
power. 

At the eastern end of the court is a fine iron stable, with a 
patent flooring, exhibited by James L. Jackson, of New York. 
It is complete in every detail, and has stalls for four horees. 
Immediately opposite, on the south side of the court, is a col- 
lection of the largest and finest power threshing machines and 
horse-{W)wers in the hall. They are exhibited by J. I. Case, of 
Racine, Wisconsin, and the Pitts Agricultural Works, of Buf- 
falo, New York. 

Having reached the east wall again, we pass into the next 
court on the south. On the south side of this court are the 
Canadian and Liberian exhibits, the north side of the court 
being the limit of the American department in this quarter of 
the building. It is an unbroken line of threshing machines for 
steam and horse-power, and of portable engines. Passing by 
these, w^e find ourselves in the nave once more. 

We turn northward now and pass up the nave towards tlie 



480 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

north door. For a while our inspection is confined to the east 
side, as the opposite side is taken up with several foreign de- 
partments. We enter at once upon the exhibit of the native 
wines of the United States. These are handsomely displayed 
in bottles, each wine-grower having his own booth, or stall, 
some of which are finely fitted up. Here are the wines of Cali- 
fornia, Ohio, Missouri and central New York, consisting of 
champagne, still and sparkling wines, port and claret. The 
excellence of these wines is generally admitted, and they are 
rapidly acquiring a footing equal to the best foreign wines. The 
making of wine is yet in its infancy in this country, but from 
what has been already achieved there seems to be little doubt 
that it will before many years rank among our most important 
and extensive industries. The exhibit here is most encouraging. 
At the intersection of the nave and the central transept stands 
a handsome bronze fountain, which throws its waters almost to 
the roof The design is attractive, and the fountain very much 
superior to the large one in the Main Exhibition Building. 

On the east side of the nave, opposite the fountain, the Weikel 
& Smith Company, of Philadelphia, show a complete model of 
their extensive works, in Front street, Philadelphia, and a col- 
lection of mustards, spices, blacking, etc., manufactured by them. 
This is one of the handsomest exhibits in the hall, and is much 
admired. 

North of the fountain the American department extends along 
both sides of the nave. The western side is occupied by the 
exhibits of the starch-makers. The Glen Cove Company have 
a beautiful Moorish pavilion with an imitation stained glass 
roof and tile- work at the base, one of the handsomest structures 
in the building, in which are displayed in a most attractive 
manner specimens of their starch, and illustrations of the pro- 
cess of manufacture. Above this, Andrew Erkenbrecher, of 
Cincinnati, has a tall and handsome case of black walnut and 
plate-glass. He exhibits samples of his perfumed starch, the 
only preparation of the kind in the world. A fine display is 
made by T.rKingsford & Son, manufacturers of the famous 
Oswego (New York) starch. Both the Glen Cove and Oswego 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 481 

Companies exhibit starch for the laundry and corn-starch for 
table use. 

Above the starch-makers is a display of extracts of hops and 
malt, and a line of canned goods, all tastefully shown. On the 
opposite side of the nave is an exhibit of cologne spirits and 
whiskeys, in glass and wood. 

A handsome soda fountain stands in the middle of the- nave 
at this point. On the west, or left-hand side of it, the American 
Condensed Milk Company make a tasteful exhibit. Adjoining 
this C. J. Fell & Brother, of Philadelphia, make a fine exhibit 
of spices, gelatine and self-raising flour. The show-cases of this 
firm are of black walnut and plate-glass, and are among the 
richest in the hall. On the opposite side of the nave is the stand 
of the Rumford Chemical Works, of Providence, Rhode Island, 
where the baking powders of the company are displayed, and 
hot biscuit prepared w^ith them are daily baked and dispensed 
to the visitors. - 

Diagonally opposite, on the w^est side of the nave, the Port- 
land (Maine) Packing Company exhibit an extensive assortment 
of their famous canned meats, fish, shell-fish, fowls and soups. 
This is one of the largest establishments in the Union, and 
conducts twenty factories in Xew England and the British 
provinces. It turns out about two and a half million cans an- 
nually, and its goods are well known in all parts of the world. 

In the next space above, Atmore & Son, of Philadelphia, 
have a handsomely fitted-up stand, with velvet cushioned seats, 
in which they display their mince meats and English plum 
pudding. The stand is surmounted by a large stuiFed cow. 

On the opposite side of the nave the bakers make one of the 
handsomest exhibits in the hall. Their crackers, cakes, bread, 
biscuit and other products are displayed in ornamental cases, 
and are often arranged in tasteful and sometimes artistic 
designs. 

A large windmill stands in the nave at this point. It is 

built in the old style, is about thirty feet in height and its sails 

reach nearly to the" roof of the hall. It bears the date 1776, 

and is complete in all its arrangements. If a suflScient force of 

31 



482 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

wind could be obtained in the hall, it could be put to work at 
any moment. It is exhibited by George V. Hecker & Co., of 
New York, who display here and on the west side of the nave, 
immediately opposite the mill, samples of their self-raising 
flour, buckwheat, farina and cracked wheat. 

Along the eastern side of the nave is a large exhibit of stuffed 
animals and birds. Some of these are American, others are 
natives of foreign countries. The principal display is made by 
Professor Henry A. Ward, of Rochester University, one of the 
best known and most skilful scientists in the Union. He has 
here a large Bactrian camel, a giraffe thirteen feet high, and a 
number of casts of celebrated fossils. The collection is the best 
of its kind in the Exhibition, and is deeply interesting to the 
masses as well as to the student of natural history. 

North of the windmill, on the east side of the nave, the 
confectioners make a handsome display of their wares. The 
principal exhibits are by Stephen F. Whitman & Son, of Phil- 
adelphia, and Henry Maillard, of New York. Schare & Co., 
of New York, make a unique display of a tall pyramid of 
candy, with figures of the same material, illustrating the sign- 
ing of the Declaration of Independence and the principal events 
of our history. North of Whitman's cases Walter Baker & 
Co., of Dorchester, Massachusetts, make a tasteful and attrac- 
tive display of their chocolates and cocoa and broma prepara- 
tions. On the opposite side of the nave the macaroni and 
oatmeal makers exhibit their goods. 

We are now at the north door, and, turning to the left, enter 
the northwest section of the building. Here is a handsome 
little room, enclosed with a tasteful wooden screen in white 
and gilt, known as the California Restaurant, where an oppor- 
tunity can be had of becoming acquainted with one of the best 
varieties of California wirte, the sale of which is the specialty 
of this establishment. 

We pass along the first court on the north, pausing to notice 
the handsome display of the mustard and spice grinders. 
Farther on 6mith, Earle & Co., of New York, and George A. 
Alden & Co., of Boston, have a large space in which they 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 4So 

exhibit crude India rubber and elastic gums, with specimens 
of the trees from which they are obtained. An exhibit of fer- 
tilizers occupies the opposite or north side of the court, extend- 
ing to the western end of the building. 

Along the western wall is a row of aquaria containing the 
food fishes of our rivers, lakes and the sea. It is deservino^ of 
careful study. Sea water is brought daily from the ocean for 
the marine fishes. 

We pass to the next court on the south. The Norwegian 
fishery exhibit occupies the south side of this court for a short, 
distance, and beyond it, on the same side, is a display of bird 
cages. Fertilizers occupy the northern side for a considerable 
space, and are followed by samples of the native woods of the 
United States, among which is a collection of forty-eight 
specimens of different kinds of wood found growing in a 
space of an acre and a half in ^ew Jersey, not far from 
Philadelphia. 

We now enter the section devoted to the tobacco exhibit. It 
is very large, and occupies a considerable portion of this section 
of the hall, extending over to and beyond the northwest tran- 
sept. The various manufacturers have exerted all their in- 
genuity to render this section as attractive as possible. It is 
entirely unique, and many of the exhibits are displayed with 
originality as well as taste. The collection embraces the vir- 
gin leaf, manufactured tobacco of every kind for chewing and 
smoking, and snufF. We notice especially the fine display of 
plug tobacco and twists made by L. Loftier, of Richmond, 
Virginia; and not far from this the handsome pavilion in 
which George W. Gail & Ax, of Baltimore, exhibit their 
famous fine-cut tobaccos and snuffs. C. A. Jackson & Co., 
of Petersburg, exhibit a pavilion built of plug tobacco, close 
by. On the north side of the northwest transept E. Hol- 
brook, of Louisville, makes an exceptionally fine display of 
manufactured tobaccos, the virgin leaf and the growing plants. 
Immediately opposite, Frishmuth & Brother, of Philadelphia, 
have a handsomely fitted-up space filled with manufactured 
tobacco. Adjoining this space is the exhibit of P. H. Mayo & 



484 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



Brother, of Richmond, Virginia, in which the various stages 
of the process of manufacturing chewing tobacco are shown. 
This space is adorned with festoons of tobacco twists. West of 
tliis is the handsome exhibit of P. Lorrillard & Co., of New 
York, consisting of their famous brands of fine-cut tobacco and 
snuiFs. In the next space, on the west, is a lofty case of ebony 




INTERIOR OF AGRICULTURAL HALL. 



with gilt mountings, in which Krebbs & Spiess, of New York, 
show a collection of fine cijrars. 

Passing the tobacco exhibit, and continuing along the court, 
we enter the exhibit of flour, which is well arranged and at- 
tractive. It occupies the remainder of the court to the nave. 

We enter the northwest transept from the nave. The east- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 480 

eru part of it is occupied on both sides by a display of pickles, 
preserves and canned goods of various kinds. From these we 
pass through the tobacco exhibit again, and beyond it, on the 
north side of the transept, notice a decayed tree covered with 
Southern moss. This is the natural state of the growing moss, 
which is here exhibited by the Delta Moss Company, of New 
Orleans, who also show several bales of the cured moss, which 
is now being extensively used in the place of curled hair for 
upholstering purposes. The supply of this article in the 
swamps of the South is unlimited, and it is much cheaper and 
quite as elastic as hair. 

At the west end of the transept is an apparatus for the 
artificial hatching of chickens, which attracts much attention 
from those interested in the raising of fowls. 

From the western end of the transept we turn into the next 
court on the south. On the left hand side is the exhibit of 
horse shoes, with a model of the machine for making them, and 
opposite this is a large evaporator for drying fruits for market. 
By the side of this is an immense steam road-roller from the 
Pioneer Iron AYorks, of Brooklyn, New York. 

On the right hand side of the court, beyond the steam roller, 
the State of Oregon makes a collective exhibit of her agricul- 
tural products. A large part of tiie display is made up of 
specimens of the native woods of the State, which are among 
the finest in the world. The grains and other products of the 
State are well shown, and a specialty is dried fruits, of which 
large quantities are produced in Oregon and shipped to all parts 
of the world. The most remarkable product in the exhibit is 
a specimen of dried cider. The water is evaporated from the 
cider, and the. solid residue is then rolled around a wooden 
roller and is ready for transportation. It is dissolved in water 
when ready for use, and makes excellent cider. Bricks of 
solidified apple butter are also shown. Beyond Oregon, Wis- 
consin and Illinois make collective exhibits of their agricul- 
tural products, the chief feature of their displays being speci- 
mens of the splendid grains which they produce. Ears of corn 
are shown which are of astonishing size, and every kernel is as 



486 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

perfect as the most ardent farn)er could desire. Opposite these, 
on the left hand side of the court, Massachusetts shows 
her agricultural products and also specimens of her beneficial 
birds. 

At its eastern end the court is occupied by the pickle and 
preserve makers and canned goods packers again, and in the 
midst of these a handsome display is made by the New York 
Condensed Milk Company and Borden Meat Preserving Com- 
j)any. This house was the first to engage in the process of 
condensing milk and other substances, and was founded by Gail 
Borden, the inventor of the process. 

Passing into the next court, on the south, we notice a dis])Iay 
of pickles, prepared mustards and sauces, on both sides. All 
the goods of this class exhibited in the hall are displayed in 
the most attractive manner, and constitute one of the prettiest 
features of the ascricultural exhibit. On the north side of the 
court, a little way down, J. W. Norris & Co., of New York, 
exhibit a number of fine canvas-covered hams in a glass case. 

The north side of the court below this is occupied by the 
collective exhibits of the States of Michigan, Indiana, Connecti- 
cut and New Hampshire, and the Territory of Washington. 
These are all displayed in a tasteful manner, each State occu- 
|)ying an enclosed court and laying especial weight upon the 
]>roducts in which it excels. The Western States exhibit wheat 
and corn that cannot be surpassed. New Hampshire shows 
her native woods, and some exceptionally fine samples of wool. 
She also exhibits two stuffed ho^js of enormous size. One is 
seven feet four inches, and the other eight feet four inches, in 
length, from snout to tail. The former was killed when nine- 
teen months old, and weighed 1253 pounds- the weight of the 
latter when he was killed, at the age of twenty-one months, 
was 1307 pounds. A large plow, thirteen feet long, is also ex- 
hibited by the New Hampshire State College of Agriculture. 
It was made by Daniel Webster, who delighted in large things, 
and it was one of his greatest delights to guide it. Four oxen 
were required to draw it. 

On the south side of the court, opposite the Indiana display, 



OF THE CENTENNIAI. EXHIBITJOX. 487 

the Cotton Exchange, of New Orleans, exhibits a number of 
fine varieties of Southern cotton in the bale and by sample. 
Adjoining this is an exhibit of wool from New England. 

At the west end of the north side of the court is the fishery 
exhibit of Massachusetts. In a large tank float a number of 
models of the fishing craft of 1776 and 1876. Projecting into 
the water is a fac-simile in miniature of the. wharf of a century 
ago, and one of the wharf of to-day, with its extensive fish- 
house, with men and women engaged in jDreparing the fish for 
packing. Around the tank, on slielves and frames, are ranged 
the various apparatus used in fishing, oil-cloth clothing for the 
men, nets, etc. The whole exhibit is made with a skill and 
taste which reflect the highest credit upon the people of Cape 
Ann. 

This brings us to the west wall of the building, and we pass 
into the next court on the south. At the head of this court, on 
the north side, is a large case containing a number of specimens 
of California silk-worms at work. They are fed with fresh 
mulberry leaves at stated times, and the manner in which they 
are shown affords an excellent opportunity of studying their 
habits. On the same side of the court the native woods of 
California are shown, also the native birds and a number of the 
agricultural products of that State. On the opposite side of the 
court the Central Pacific Railway exhibit a number of large 
photographs of scenery on their road. 

On the north side of the court the States of New^ Jersey and 
Delaware exhibit their agricultural products, and on the oppo- 
site side similar exhibits are made by the States of Ohio and 
Nebraska. Beyond the Nebraska exhibit is the display of the 
seedsmen, whose cases extend across to the central transept and 
almost to the nave. The eastern end of the court is taken up 
with a large display of oakum and curled hair, opposite which, 
standing proudly on his lofty perch, surveying the scene around 
him with an air of royal majesty, is *^01d Abe," the famous 
eagle of the Eighth Wisconsin Regiment of Infantry. This 
noble bird accompanied the regiment through its entire period 
of service in the civil war, was present in every battle in w^hich 



488 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

it was engaged, and was twice wounded. He is accompanied 
now by the sergeant who bore him at the head of the regiment 
during the war. 

Between the court and the central transept the space along 
the nave is occupied by the collective exhibit of the pork- 
packers of Cincinnati. 

We pass into the central transept, on the south side of which 
is the Spanish exhibit. On the north side D. Landreth & 
Sons, of Philadelphia, make au extensive and handsome display 
of their famous seeds for the garden and farm. Mr. B. Lan- 
dreth, one of the partners in this well-known house, is the 
Chief of the Bureau of Agriculture. The zeal and skill with 
which he has conducted his department are shown in their 
highest light in the grand exhibition of the products of the 
world collected within the Agricultural Building. 

The transept is here occupied by a confectionery stand, 
beyond which, on the north side of the transept, is Renter's 
Restaurant, the principal eating-house in this hall. 

Beyond the restaurant the State of Iowa makes a beautiful 
display of her agricultural products, a prominent feature of 
which is a large and complete collection of fruits under glass. 
Beyond this is an exhibit of the minerals of Nevada, and at the 
west end of the transept Io\va exhibits specimens of her soils in 
tall glass columns. 

We are now at the end of the American department, and in 
turning our attention to the exhibits of foreign nations give 
the first place to the mother country. 

Great Britain and /re/and. 

The British section is in the southeast corner of the hall, and 
extends from the nave to the eastern wall, and from the south- 
east transept to the south wall. The display is small, and does 
not compare favorably with the splendid showing made by 
Great Britain in the Main Building. Scarcely any of the 
English agricultural machinery is to be found here, and the 
exhibit is far from doing justice to England as an agricultural 
country. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 489 

The post of honor, on the front line of the section, is given to 
the makers of pickles, potted meats, mustards and extracts. 
Crosse & Blackwell, the famous Chow-Chow makers, have a 
lofty case of black and gilt, semicircular in shape, at the inter- 
section of the nave and transept, in Avhich they show their 
goods, and immediately behind them Keen & Robinson, of 
London, have a handsome case of mustard. On the front line, 
immediately south of Crosse & Blackwell, T. & H. Smith, of 
Edinburgh, have a handsome display of extracts of various 
kinds. The most conspicuous portions of their exhibits are 
two fine white crystallized substances, looking exactly alike. 
One of these is coffeeiney or the active principle of the coffee 
bean; the other, tlieine, the active principle of tea. Adjoining 
this exhibit is a case of fine extracts by John Mackays, also 
of Edinburgh. To the south of the extracts is an exhibit of 
bee-hives and bee- furniture, by George Xeighbor & Sons, of 
London, and in the adjoining space John L. Bowes & Brother, 
of Liverpool, exhibit samples of wool from all parts of the 
world. At the south end of the front line the Cork Distilleries 
Company, of Cork, Ireland, have a tasteful pavilion in which 
they show some superior Irish whiskeys in wood and glass. 

Having finished the front line along the nave, we go back to 
the southeast transept and continue our examination along its 
south side. Adjoining Keen, Robinson & Co.' s exhibit Emile 
Menier, of London, makes a handsome display of fine choco- 
lates and cocoas. Farther on, on the south side of the transept, 
John McCann, of Drogheda, Ireland, exhibits a fine article of 
Irish oatmeal, and shows the appearance of the meal at the 
different stages of grinding. To the right of the oatmeal is an 
exhibit of meat extracts, soups and potted meats. The Colonial 
Produce Company, of London, exhibit specimens of their patent 
tea, milk and sugar, and patent coffee, milk and sugar. These 
are reduced to a powder and wrapped in air-tight gelatine en- 
velopes, which readily dissolve with the powder in hot water. 
A package will make three cups of tea and coffee. This is a 
capital preparation for travellers or for porsons camping out for 
pleasure or from necessity. 



490 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTOUY 

All e-xliiblt of ginger ales and aerated waters now follows, 
bevond wiiicli John Coope & Co., of Burtou-on-Trent, display 
their well-known Burton ale. In the next space is one of 
Avelino" ■& Porter's road steam-engines which we noticed in 
Machinery Hall. By the side of it is a large wagon for road 
locomotives. Farther on Barnard, Bishop & Barnard, of Nor- 
wich, exhibit a collection of ornamental iron Avork for farm 
and stable use. 

From the east end of the transept we pass to the next court 
on the south. Half way down this is a portable engine for 
farm use, diiferent in style from those used in this country and 
occupying less space. Below it the exhibit of ales is continued. 
On the south or opposite side of the court James Fussell & 
Sons, of Somersetshire, have a collection of reaping hooks and 
other edge tools used in agriculture. 

Lower down are the confectioners, who show their goods in 
handsome cases, and to the south of them Lea & Perrin have 
a case of ebony and gilt, in which they exhibit their world- 
famed Worcestershire Sauce. 

Passing: to the most southern court of all we notice a hand- 
some case of walnut, containing a large display of ales, Dublin 
stout and w^iiskey, by E. & J. Burke, of Dublin. 

Farther eastward is an apparatus for suckling young calves, 
sheep and pigs. It is a wooden trough, which is filled with 
milk when ready for use. A number of tubes project from the 
side, each with a rubber nipple. Beyond this a potter, too late 
for a place in the Main Building, exhibits a collection of por- 
celain and plain whiteware. Then follow some ornamental 
work, ditching tiles, drains, etc., in terra cotta, and several 
French burr millstones for hulling rice and grinding flour. 

Canada. 

The Canadian section lies in the southwest quarter of the 
hall, opposite that of Great Britain, and extends from the nave 
back to the Liberian section. 

The front line along the nave is taken up with an extensive 
display of the agricultural products of the Dominion, consisting 



OF THE CENTENNIAI. EXHIBITION. 491 

of ilie grains, beans, peas, roots and flour grown and made in 
Canada. Immediately back of these is an exhibit of Canadian 
wool. The quality is very fine, and the length of the wool is 
notable. 

In the next line, going eastward, is a row of tall cases, in 
which are shown prepared specimens of the birds, animals and 
insects of Canada. The exhibit of insects is by the Entomo- 
logical Society of London, Ontario ; the birds and animals are 
exhibited by individuals from London, Toronto and Halifax. 
In the rear of these collections John Harvey & Co., of Hamil- 
ton, Canada, have a number of fine fleeces, showing a remark- 
able length and thickness of wool. Then follows an exhibit of 
vinegar in barrels, native fruits, macaroni, flour, salt, pickles, 
cheese, cured fish and canned goods of various kinds, which 
take up considerable space, and show the progress of the efforts 
of our Northern cousins in this direction. 

A pyramidal stand, of considerable size, contains a display 
of the agricultural products of British Columbia. Some very 
fine wheat is included in this exhibit, and samples of this grain 
and oats on the stalk show the size and vigor which they attain 
in this high northern latitude. Specimens of the woods and 
barks of the country are also shown, and there are t\vo blankets 
of variegated colors, woven by the Indians. 

We now enter the department of agricultural machinery, in 
which over one hundred exhibitors take part. The collection 
is similar to that in the American department, and is particu- 
larly rich in reapers, mowers, plows, harrows, root and straw- 
cutters and horse-powers. The variety in plows is, if anything, 
greater than our own, but the number of plows is much smaller. 
The most conspicuous exhibits of plows are made by George 
Ross, of Chatham, Ontario, and T. Spardle, of Stratford, On- 
tario. The "Yeondle plow^,'' exhibited by the latter, is the 
finest in the Canadian collection, and one of the very best in 
the hall. The Hamilton Agricultural Works show a fine speci- 
men of the Iron-clad Adjustable Table and Platform Reaper, a 
worthy rival of the best American reapers. A machine which 
forms a conspicuous part of this exhibit is the turnip-drill, 



492 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTOllY 

which does not appear in our own collection. The Canadian 
climate is not suited to corn, and turnips and peas are raised in 
place of it. The collection includes also portable engines, cider- 
presses, potato-diggers, sno'v plows for breaking winter roads, 
grain-drills and hay-loaders. Some of the threshing machines 
exhibited here are among the largest and best in the hall, 
and are handsomely ornamented. 

France. 

The French section lies west of the nave and along the 
southwest transept. It extends on the south side of the tran- 
sept from the nave to the Dutch court, and on the north side 
of the transept from the nave to the west wall. It adjoins the 
Brazilian section on the north and the German section on the 
south. * 

The most prominent feature of the French exhibit is the dis- 
play of wines. Every grade of wine made within tlie limits of 
the French republic is shown here. We find champagnes in 
abundance, and the dainty and delicious wines of the south of 
France are well represented. Plere are Burgundies, clarets, red 
and light wines, and brandies and liquors of every description. 

The front line aloug the navo is occupied by a row of hand- 
some show-cases, principally of ebony and gilt, in which are 
displayed champagnes, brandies, liquors and olive oils. On the 
south side of the transept Menier & Co., of Paris, have a hand- 
some case of ebony and gilt, filled with a collection of fine 
chocolates. In the sides of the case are set photograj^hs of the 
Menier establishment and the people employed in it. On the 
north side of the transept, Meunier, of Paris, has a beautiful 
case of carved ebony, ornamented with lithographs of his fac- 
tory in 1785 and 1876, in which is a collection of fine chocolates. 
These firms are the principal chocolate-makers of France. The 
house of Meunier was founded in 1760, and is the oldest now 
in existence ; and its rival, Menier, claims to do an annual trade 
in chocolates of 25,000,000 francs. 

On the south side of the French court, near the nave, C. Du- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 493 



\ 



moutler, of Claville, makes an exhibit of the agricultural pro- 
ducts of the department of the Eure. 

Immediately back of the front line, the south side of the 
section is occupied for some distance by a triple row of hand- 
some oak stalls, in which the great Paris seedsmen, Vilmorin 
& Andrieux, exhibit photographs of flowers, vegetables, and 
plants, and samples of seeds. 

Passing this we reach the principal exhibit of wines, brandies, 
liquors, cordials in glass bottles and small stone jugs, which 
takes up the entire space south of the transept, back to the 
Dutch section. 

On the north side of the transept is an extensive collection, 
by a number of exhibitors, of the famous pate de foi gras of 
Strasburg, pickles, preserves, mustards, jellies and prepared 
food of various kinds. Preserved fish and sardines in oil form 
a prominent part of the collection, and candied fruits, dried 
fruits, and vegetables, and prepared soups are extensively 
displayed. 

Oa the north side of the court D. Gazaubon, of Paris, 
exhibits a fine collection of machinery for making and bottling 
mineral waters, and syphon bottles of a handsome pattern; and 
near the west end of the court several makers display machines 
for bottling and corking champagnes and other sparkling wines. 

A number of French burr mill-stones of a fine quality are 
shown near the northern border of the court, and near these 
are some fine crucibles, and specimens of various kinds of 
cements, hydraulic lime and artificial stone. The Roquefort 
cheese factory exhibits specimens of its famous cheese ; the tan- 
ners have an extensive exhibit of leather; and the silk-growers 
of southern France show their raw silk and cocoons. Artificial 
manures, phosphates, and animal charcoal are also shown. 

Germany. 

The German section lies on the south of France and extends 
to the south wall of the building. It front? .ii the nave and 
extends westward to the "Austrian court 

At the nave the Rlienisli Sparkling Wine Company of 



494 THE ITXUSTRATED HISTORY 

Schielstein have a large pavilion made of wine boxes, and sur- 
mounted by an immense wine bottle of glass at each of the four 
corners, in which they display their famous wines. Back of this 
pavilion is the collective exhibit of Riiine wines, in which the 
finest as well as the ordinary grades are shown. Alongside of 
these wines the German brandies, liquors, extracts and essences 
are displayed. A fair exhibit is also made of Bavarian and 
Prussian beer and hops, and of samples of the malt from which 

these are made. 

The confectioners, makers of wax, and manufacturers of smok- 
ing and fine-cut tobacco for chewing, cigars and cigarettes, ranke a 
large display; and there is a fair exhibit of prepared mustard, 
sugar and starch. Frankfort sends samples of curled hair, and 
Prussian Silesia some fine wool. The Royal Steel Works of 
Fredericksthal, Wurtemberg, have a large stand representing a 
palm tree. The trunk is of wood, and the branches are scythe 
blades arranged in a picturesque manner. 

The wines are the strong feature of the German exhibit, and 
no effort has been made to show the agricultural system or 
resources of that country. 

Austria and Hungary, 

The Austrian section is situated immediately west of the 
German court. The display is not large, but is interesting. 
On the eastern border of the court, fronting Germany, Johann 
Michael Schary, of Prague, exhibits a collection of raisins and 
other dried fruits, beer, wine, vinegar and mustards from 
Bohemia. Beyond this space is an exhibit of Austrian and 
Hungarian wines ; and at the north end of the court Marks 
& Weyden, of Buda-Pesth, Hungary, exhibit a fine collec- 
tion of the fruits and nuts of Hungary and the Danubian 
provinces. To the north of this collection is a display of 
candied fruits from Vienna, nearr which are specimens of hemp 
of an excellent quality grown in Hungary. Samples of fine 
Hungarian wool are also shown ; and near the west end is a col- 
lection of the grains of all the different provinces of the Aus- 
trian empire. Specimens of flax from Austria and Hungary 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 495 

are included in the exhibit, and a number of samples of leather 
from Austria and Bohemia. 

Russia. 

The Russian court lies on the south side of the central transept, 
immediately west of the Spanish court, and extends back to the 
western wall. It is unenclosed, and occupies about one-third as 
much space as France. It is filled with one of the handsomest 
and most interesting collections in the Agricultural Building, 
and one that is richly worth studying carefully. 

The wheat, oats, barley, rye and other grains of the empire 
are shown in the most tasteful manner. They are arranged 
upon pyramidal stands, bags of the grains being collected 
about the base of the stands, while stalks with the ripened ears 
are placed in handsome majolica vases at the top. Large frames 
are filled with hemp suspended from the top of the frame in 
order to show the length of the fibre. The agricultural products 
of the various portions of the empire are shown according to a 
systematic classification, and many illustrations of Russian 
farm-life are given.- A number of the agricultural implements 
of the country are exhibited, and two large farm-wagons from 
Poland constitute a principal feature of the collection. Candied 
and dried fruits, preserves, crackers and confections are ex- 
hibited in glass cases, and the liquors and wines of the country 
are also shown. 

At the western end of the space, a number of exhibitors who 
were crowded out of the Russian court in the Main Building 
display a collection of rich and beautiful wares in large cases of 
oak and plate glass. 

As in the Main Building, Russia was one of the last countries 
to have her exhibit in readiness. 

Italy. 

The Italian court is situated in the southeast corner of the 
hall, and covers but a small space. Along the east wall "are 
samples of raw and combed hemp exhibited by P, F. Facchini 
& Co., of Bologna, and adjoining these are a number of speci- 
mens of leather and boots and shoes. 



496 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

The principal portion of the exhibit consists of wines, liquors, 
cordials and olive oil, representing all the grades of these 
articles made in the Italian Peninsula and in Sicily. They are 
exhibited in bottles, and make an attractive display. In the 
southeast corner of the court the soap-makers have a creditable 
display. Large blocks of Castile and olive oil soap are among 
the most conspicuous objects in the court. A collection of 
grains, peas, beans and nuts, principally from Sicily and central 
Italy, is arranged along the southern side of the court, and rice 
from Piedmont is also shown here. It will be remembered 
that it was from a small quantity of rice obtained in Piedmont 
and sent to America by Mr. Jefferson, at the close of the last 
century, that the finest grades of our own rice have been pro- 
duced. There is a handsome display of confectionery and 
candied fruits from Turin ; and a case of the minerals found in 
the Peninsula is shown near the centre of the court. At the 
western end of the court are a number of specimens of man- 
ganese and iron ores from the mines of Rae Brothers, at Monte 
Argentino in Tuscany. Both minerals are of a fine quality and 
the ores are exceedingly rich. Milan sends Parmesan and Gor- 
gonzola cheese; Ancona and Turin, leather and hides; Palermo, 
Rome and Sienna, honey; Bologna, her world-renowned sausages 
and salted meats; Naples and Sicily, macaroni and dried fruits; 
Syracuse, nuts ; and the other Sicilian cities, oranges, lemons, 
olives and figs. Sicilv also makes an exhibit of a case of the 
essential oils of fruits, and of some fine liquorice. Sardines are 
to be seen here in quantities, and in glass and tin, in oil and 
pickled. Along the northern side of the court are several 
plows from Ancona, Cremona 'and Pisa, and a harrow^ from 
Venice. They are heavy and clumsy in appearance, and in 
striking contrast with the fine plows to be seen in the American 
or Canadian departments. 

Spain. 

The Spanish court is situated on the south side of the central 
transept, and extends from the nave back to the Russian section. 

As in the Main Hall, Spain makes here one of the hand- 
somest exhibits in the building. Her section is surrounded with 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 497 

a high wall of yellow wood, in the sides of which are set small 
glass-cOvered panels, which are filled w^ith collections of the 
grains, beans, peas, nuts, fruits, and other agricultural products 
of the Spanish kingdom. The entrance to the court is throuo-h 
a lofty gothic archway decorated with the arms of the kingdom 
and the national colors. 

Entering the court we find ourselves in the midst of one of 
the most extensive and best arranged collections in the hall. 
Immense log-s of mahogany and rosewood lie on the ground, and 
festoons of tobacco leaves and sheaves of grain ornament the 
pillars, while from the roof along the sides of the court are sus- 
pended specimens of skins and Spanish leather. On each side 
of the entrance stand pyramids of the finest wools of Spain, and 
along the sides of the court the rich wines of the country are 
displayed in bottles arranged on shelves rising one above 
another. At the eastern end are several barrels of the famous 
Duff Gordon sherries. At the southeast corner of the court the 
Valencian Society of Agriculture show" a collection of the 
agricultural products of that province. There is a large 
display of Manilla hemp, and cordage made from it, from the 
Philippine islands. In the centre of the court is a rustic struc- 
ture of rough wood, containing specimens of resinous pine and 
the gums and resins extracted from it ; and to the east of this 
the agricultural products of the Philippine islands are exhibited 
in glass jars. Near the south end, the cigar-makers of Havana 
and Manilla have a large and handsome exhibit of cigars, 
cigarettes and tobaccos. They are displayed in ornamental 
cases of mahogany mounted upon standards. A large collection 
of chocolates occupies the northwest corner of the court, and 
close by it is a tall metal stand containing large jars and bottles 
of olive oil. The skill and ingenuity with which the articles 
are displayed is as noticeable as the completeness and excellent 
character of the exhibit. 

Portugal. 

The Portuguese exhibit fairly rivals that of Spain both in size 
and variety. It is distributed in two parts of the hall. The 
principal section assigned to Portugal lies on the south and west 
32 



498 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

of the Spanish court, and is filled with a large and varied exhibit 
of the products of the kingdom. In the section on the south 
of the Spanish court, the little kingdom displays her oils and 
wines ; the south side of this section being entirely taken up 
with bottles of Port and Madeira wines. Here also are to be 
seen the raw silk and cocoons, which form a part of the Portu- 
guese exhibit. In the section to the west of the Spanish court is 
a very extensive collection of the agricultural products of the 
kingdom, arranged on shelves and in glass jars. These consist 
of the grains, roots, fruits, nuts, olives, raisins, dried fruits, and 
spices of the different provinces of Portugal. Some very large 
potatoes and turnips are preserved in alcohol. Pickles, preserves, 
and canned meats, vegetables, and fish are exhibited in large 
quantities. 

The products of the Portuguese colonies are displayed in a 
similar manner, in a small court in the southeast corner of the 
hall, between the Italian and English sections. 

The Netherlands. 

The section assigned to the Netherlands lies south of the south- 
west transept, and extends from the west wall of the building to 
the French section on the east, and from the transept to the 
Austrian and Venezuelan sections on the south. "With charac- 
teristic industry the Dutch were among the first to have their 
exhibit ready, and have arranged it with admirable system and 
neatness. 

Starting from the west end of the section we notice the collec- 
tive exhibits bv the a2:ricultural societies of Guelderland and 
Zealand, of the products of those provinces, including seeds, 
specimens of grain, plants, dye-woods, photographs of cattle, beans 
and peas, and a model of a thatched hay-cock. In this exhibit 
are shown the wooden shoes worn by certain classes of the Dutch 
peasantry. Close by is an exhibit of a peculiar kind of flour 
which has the property of keeping pure and sweet for years. 
Adjoining this is the exhibit of the makers of chocolate and 
cod-liver oil. A collection of round Edam cheeses is shown 
to the east of these ; and then come specimens of fine flax. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 499 

Opposite the flax is the exhibit of cigars and manufactured 
tobacco. 

On the north side of the court are a number of models of old 
and new style Dutch fishing vessels, from Scheveningen, with a 
collection of fishing tackle. Large seines for deep-water fish- 
ing are suspended overhead. 

We come next to the collection of pickles, canned meats, fish, 
and vegetables, which is large and well displayed. Adjoining 
this are jars containing samples of different grades of beet-sugar 
from the Beet-Sugar Factory of Arnhem. 

The remainder of the section is taken up with the exhibit of 
Holland gin, cordials and liquors, which is very large. The 
principal display is made by the liquor-makers, who occupy a 
handsome pavilion of wood ornamented in maroon-color and 
gilt. Here are shown the finest grades of anisette, curagoa, 
cr6me de mocha, noyau, and a hundred other odorous and pun- 
gent drinks not much used in this country, but which are very 
popular in Holland, and especially among the ladies. 

Opposite this pavilion, on the north side of the section, the 
Dutch agricultural society make a collectiv^e exhibit of all the 
agricultural products of Holland. The entire exhibit speaks 
eloquently of the skill, taste, energy, and thrifty industry of the 
Dutch. 

Norway. 

The Norwegian court lies immediately west of that of Brazil, 
and is enclosed with a light and tasteful railing. Along the 
front line is a collection of heavy, clumsy-looking plows, such as 
are used for breaking the rugged soil of this northern land. 
The exhibit is small, but consists of pale ales and a strong 
liquor called punch, which is much used in Norway and Sweden, 
as a stimulant against the intense cold of those countries. Wines, 
brandy, cordials, tobacco, cigars, confectioneries, essences, and 
canned meats and fish make up the display. There is a fine 
exhibit of leather at the back of the court, and specimens of the 
water-birds of Norway are shown. 

In the northwest section of the building, Norway has another 
space enclosed with a light railing and handsomely draped with 



500 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

seines and the national colors. Here she makes an -exhibit of 
tlie products of her fisheries, and shows models of her fishing 
vessels of all kinds and their equipments, specimens of fishing- 
tackle, and samples of dried and preserved fish, anchovies, etc., 
as they are prepared for the market. For the purposes of this 
display, some of the larger kinds are preserved in alcohol. 

Sweden. 

The Swedish court lies immediately west of that of Norway. 
Along the north side are a number of fine plows, every part 
being of metal. They are intended for deep plowing, and seem 
capable of doing good work. 

The liquors, especially bottled punch, are a strong feature of 
the display. Here are also confections, prepared coffee, crackers, 
snuffs, and chewing tobacco. A chemist from Stockholm has a 
case of phosphates and other preparations of agricultural 
chemistry. Towards the west end of the space are models of 
the various kinds of vessels used in the Swedish fisheries, with 
samples of fishing-tackle, and overhead are suspended the seines 
used by the Swedish fishermen. Specimens of the fish of the 
country are exhibited in alcohol. A number of samples of 
leather hang against the wall. The exhibit of native woods is 
complete and interesting. The grains of the country are shown 
in glass jars and also in the stalk and ear, and close by are a 
number of covered earthen jars containing samples of flour made 
in Sweden. 

Sardines, anchovies, herrings, and potted meats, scythes, and 
dairy utensils complete the collection. 

Denmark. 

The Danish section lies west of the Norwegian and south of 
the Swedish court. It is small, and the exhibit is made up of 
Danish punch, grains in the blade and in small canvas bags, 
brandies, pickles, preserves, and potted meats and fish. 



OP THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. , 501 

Belgium. 

The Belgian section lies west of the nave, and im mediate! v 
east of the Spanish and Portuguese courts. The exhibit is very 
small, but thirty-eight persons taking part in it. It comprises 
chiccory, raw, in the pod, and manufactured, chocolate, and the 
details of chocolate manufacture, specimens of fine leathers and 
kid, candies, cordials, gin, flax, wool, and millstones. 

Japan. 

The Japanese court is situated in the southwest corner of the 
hall, immediately west of the Austrian section, and is divided 
into small passage-ways by canvas screens. Each passage-way 
is provided with long rows of shelves on which the articles 
exhibited are arranged. Along the south wall, samples of native 
tobacco are shown ; but the greater part of this section of the 
court is devoted to an exhibit of the teas of Japan. Specimens of 
tea are shown, and the process of tea-culture is illustrated by a 
number of drawings of the different stages of the growth of 
the plant. 

Along the west wall is a display of the fishing-tackle, nets, 
etc., used in Japan, with specimens of cured fish, some of which 
are put up in canvas, like bacon. Fishing-nets are suspended 
overhead, and a part of the space along the west wall is given to 
an exhibit of the few simple agricultural implements used in 
Japan, a primitive-looking plow and harrow, a scythe and cradle. 

On the north side of the south aisle of this court is a beautiful 
exhibit of the culture of silk as carried on in Japan. It is 
shown by specimens of the worm and cocoon, and of floss silk, 
and by models and drawings with explanations in English. 

In the next aisle on the north is a large collection of skins 
of fish and animals, and of shells, also samples of cotton from 
the government manufactory. 

The south side of the next aisle on the north is taken up with 
a display of tackle for hand-fishing, very much like our own, 
but made with the neatness that characterizes everything of 
Japanese workmanship. On the north side of this aisle is a 



502 THE ILLUSTRATED HlSTOliY 

collection of sauces made from vegetable substances, and con 
tained in stone bottles. 

In the last aisle on the north the grains and other agricultural 
products of Japan are shown according to a systematic classifica- 
tion, and on the southern wall of this aisle is a display of the 
native woods of the empire. Each block of wood has affixed to 
it a specimen-leaf or twig of the tree from which it was taken. 

Brazil, 

The Brazilian section lies west of the nave and extends back 
to the Norwegian court. The French section bounds it on the 
south and the Portuguese on the north. Brazil was one of the 
very first of the foreign nations in this hall to have her exhibit 
in readiness, and it is fully in keeping in thoroughness and 
beauty with her display in the Main Building. 

In front of the court in which the principal display is made 
stands one of the most unique structures in the building. It is 
a rustic pavilion, the posts and rafters of which are w^rapped in 
native cotton, giving to it at a distance the effect of an immense 
house of snow. The different grades of Brazilian cotton are 
shown in bales arranged around the sides of the pavilion. The 
annual production of cotton in the empire amounts to about 
$14,902,443. Within the pavilion the different grades of 
Brazilian coffee are shown in jars and boxes of fanciful design, 
the Mocha and Rio being conspicuous among the other grains. 
The annual product of coffee in Brazil is $64,047,481, thus 
making its culture the principal and most profitable industry of 
the empire. Samples of native leaf tobacco are also shown in 
this pavilion. 

The principal court lies immediately in the rear of the cotton 
pavilion, and is enclosed by a brilliantly ornamented railing, 
decorated with streamers of green and yellow and national flags. 
The collection of native woods is astonishing in the number and 
richness of the specimens displayed. It comprises over one 
thousand different woods, among which rosewood and mahogany 
are conspicuous, and is arranged along the entire court. A con- 
siderable display is also made of leather and skins, which are 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 603 

suspended overhead around the court. The wines and liquors 
of the empire are shown, though these do not as yet constitute 
a very prominent Brazilian industry. 

The annual product of sugar in Brazil amounts to $15,403,- 
151, making it the second industry of the empire. Twelve 
different kinds of sugar are shown in this court, and will com- 
pare favorably with the sugars of our own Southern States and 
the West Indies. 

The exhibit includes cocoa in the nut and prepared for the 
market ; rice from Maranhao ; starches ; rubber, ready for the 
market and in the crude gum ; ninety diiFerent varieties of edible 
beans ; Brazilian teas, the culture of which is as yet in its in- 
fancy; gums, resins, canned goods, hemp; vegetable fibres for 
making rope, and a finer fibre which can be worked up into a 
sort of wool ; wax, pickles and preserves. 

The tobacco exhibit is large, and, besides smoking tobaccos, 
cigars and cigarettes, includes fourteen different kinds of snuff. 

The Brazilian silk-worm and its habits are shown in an ad- 
mirable manner. The Brazilian worm winds itself in such a 
way with its silk threads that in utilizing the silk the grower 
does not have to kill the worm, as is the case with the Asiatic 
worm. This worm is abundant in nearly all parts of the Bra- 
zilian empire, and produces in each generation an average of two 
hundred and forty cocoons of silk ; each cocoon weighing two 
and one-half drachms and containing thirty grains of good silk. 
The Brazilians take great pride in their silk culture, and every 
effort is made to extend and improve it from year to year. 

Venezuela, 

The Venezuelan exhibit arrived so late that it could not be 
given a place in the Main Exhibition Building, and was 
assigned a section in Agricultural Hall. This section lies in 
the southwest quarter of the hall, north of Japan and west of 
Austria. It is enclosed by a tasteful railing, ornamented in 
red and blue. 

The collection is almost entirely agricultural in its character, 
and includas the grains, vegetables, fruits and barks of the re^ 



504 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

public. A large exhibit of coffee is made, and cochineal forms 
a considerable part of the display. A collection of oils, balsams, 
rum, and the famous Angostura bitters, is also exhibited. The 
skins of the native animals of Venezuela are suspended over- 
head, and samples of native tobacco are affixed to the pillars of 
the court. Pine-apples and other large fruits are shown in 
alcohol. 

A cabinet of very rich gold-bearing quartz and other minerals 
stands on the north side of the section, and on this side are also 
exhibited specimens of Venezuelan printing and book-binding, 
chocolates, boots and shoes, fruits in wax, embroideries, leather, 
and flowers made of the feathers of native birds. A portrait of 
Washington, surrounded by national emblems, made of human 
hair, is also shown. Samples of sugar and dye-woods complete 
the collection. 

The Argentine Republic. 

The section assigned to the Argentine Republic lies back of 
]Portugal and south of the Russian court. It is enclosed with a 
light wooden railing, ornamented with the national coloi-s. 
Festoons of the leaf of the native tobacco are hung about the 
court, and the skins of the native wild animals of the country 
are suspended overhead. 

The collection is very large, and includes over six hundred 
exhibitors. It comprises the native woods, barks, gums, resins, 
dye-woods and seeds of forest products; the grains, sugars, 
beans, peas, fruits, tobacco, coffee, chocolate, wines, dried fruits, 
nuts, liquors, leather, starch, flour, wax, honey, cotton and wool 
of the country. An exhibit is made of the silk grown in the 
republic, and several grades of sugar are shown. 

- Liberia. 

The Liberian section is located at the east end of the hall, 
north of the southeast transept, and to the east of the Canadian 
section. It is the only display made by Liberia in the entire 
Exhibition, and is due entirely to the energy of Messrs. E. S. 
Morris & Co., of Philadelphia, who are extensive growers of 



Of the centennial exhibition. 50b 

coffee iu that far-off land. The members of this firm have 
assumed the entire expense of the exhibit, and deserve praise for 
their generous conduct. It may be said that they have been 
tlie principal means of developing the culture of coffee in 
Liberia, which is now one of her most prominent industries. 
They have also given themselves heart and soul to the work of 
civilizing Liberia by educating its people, and have caused a 
number of native African boys to be educated at the Lincoln 
University, at Chester, Pennsylvania, and intend sending them 
back home next year to establish schools among their own 
people. All the proceeds of the sales of Liberian coffee at this 
stand during the Exhibition are devoted to the building of 
school-houses. Messrs. Morris & Co. intend to supply the de- 
ficiency from their own means. They will establish tlie schools 
as soon as possible, and require each pupil to pay for his tuition 
by planting and cultivating a small patch of coffee at his own 
home. Thus they hope to make Liberia a great coffee-growing 
country, and to extend the production of that article among the 
native tribes of the interior of Western Africa. 

The collection exhibited here consists of coffee principally. 
This is of an excellent quality, as the writer can testify from a 
personal knowledge of it. Palm soap is the next exhibit in 
importance. Palm oil is shown in glass jars hermetically sealed. 
Lime-juice, chocolate, arrow-root, sugar, indigo, ivory and iron 
ore, make up the list of Liberian products. Messrs. Morris & 
Co. have their own indigo works in Liberia, the only establish- 
ment of the kind on the west coast of Africa. A coffee-huHino: 
machine forms a part of the exhibit, and there are a good many 
curiosities in the way of implements and clothing made by the 
native tribes. The cap and robes of an African king are also 
shown. Ten native African boys, taken from the bush, and 
destined to serve as teachers, as mentioned above, are on duty in 
this department. 

The Pomological Annex, 

To the east of Agricultural Hall is a large wooden building 
intended for the various displays of ripe fruits and vegetables 



506 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 

which are to be made from time to time during the progress of 
the Exhibition. 

The Wagon Annex 

Is situated to the north of Agricultural Hall, and is simply a 
series of rough sheds, whitewashed. It contains a fine display 
of farm wagons and carts, bakers' and milk carts and ice 
wagons. These represent the highest degree of skill in wagon 
making, and show an admirable combination of lightness and 
strength, which is particularly characteristic of American work- 
manship in this department. They are handsomely ornamented, 
as a rule. American-made wagons have long commanded a 
high reputation in the markets of Europe for their admirable 
workmanship and beauty of design, as well as for their marked 
superiority over European vehicles in the combination of light- 
ness, strength and durability, to which we have referred. 





CHAPTER XY. 

HOETICULTUKAL. HALL. 

Desciiption of the Building — Tlie Grand Conservatory — A Beautiful Hall — 
Tlie Fountain — Cost of the Building — Classification of the Exhibit — A Rich 
Collection of Tropical Plants — A Beautiful Scene — The Forcing Houses — 
The East and West Rooms — Exhibit of Gardening Materials — The Electri- 
cal Organ — The Horticultural Grounds — The Guano Pavilion — The Tent — 
Anthony Waterer's Rhododendrons — The Cuban Summer House. 

HE Horticultural Building is the smallest of the five 
principal edifices of the Exhibition. It stands on the 
Lansdowne terrace, a short distance north of the Main 
Exhibition Building, from which it is separated by 
the Lansdowne valley. It is located a short distance 
back from the brow of the hill which rises from the Schuyl- 
kill, and commands a fine view of the river, the city and the 
surrounding country. The design of the building is in the 
Mauresque style of architecture of the twelfth century, tlie 
edifice being constructed principally of iron and glass. Seen 
from a distance the effect is charming. The exterior is painted 
in variegated colors, which give to the building a liglit, fairy- 
like aspect, in perfect keeping with its graceful design. The 
length of the building is 383 feet, the width 193 feet, and the 
height, to the top of the lantern, 69 feet. 

The main floor is occupied by the central conservatory, 230 
by 80 feet, and 55 feet high, surmounted by a lantern 170 feet 
long, 20 feet wide and 14 feet high. Running entirely around 
this conservatory, at a height of 20 feet from the floor, is a 
gallery 5 feet wide. On the north and south sides of this 
principal room are four forcing-houses for the propagation of 
young plants, each of them 100 by 30 feet, covered with curved 
roofs of iron and glass. Dividing the two forcing-houses in 

507 



608 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



each of these sides is a vestibule 30 feet square. At the centre 
of the east and west ends are similar vestibules, on either side 
of which are the restaurants, reception room, offices, etc. From 
the vestibules ornamental stairways lead to the internal gal- 
leries of the conservatory, as well as to the four external gal- 
leries each 100 feet long and 10 feet wide, which surmount 
the roofs of the forcing-houses. These external galleries are 
connected with a grand promenade, formed by the roofs of the 
rooms on the ground-floor, which has a superficial area of 1800 
square yards. 




HORTICULTURAL BUILDING. 

The east and west entrances are approached by flights of blue 
marble steps from terraces 80 by 20 feet. In the centre of each 
stands an open kiosque, 20 feet in diameter. Each entrance is 
adorned with ornamental tile and marble work, and the angles 
of the main conservatory are provided with eight ornamental 
fountains. 

The basement is of fire-proof construction, and contains the 
kitchen, the heating apparatus, store-rooms, coal-houses, etc. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 509 

Mounting the marble steps and passing through the vestibule 
to which they lead, the visitor finds himself in the main con- 
servatory, a spacious and beautiful hall, which elicits the ad- 
miration of every beholder. The roof is of glass, and the iron 
framework in which the glass is set is tastefully decorated in 
fresco. A light gallery, with railings of open fretwork, extends 
around it, and opens at each of the four sides of the hall upon 
the external galleries to which reference has been made. It is 
supported by horse-shoe arches of black, white and red bricks. 
Two superb chandeliers hang from the roof, affording the 
means of brilliantly illuminating the hall at night. 

In the centre of the hall is a large fountain of marble, exe- 
cuted by Miss Margaret Foley, an American artist, in Rome. 
It is a tall structure, the water falling from several successive 
basins into the pool below, in which is a group of statuary in 
marble, of quaint design. It represents a group of children 
bathing from a reedy bank. One joyous little one is blowing a 
shell, and another, half reluctant to plunge into the cold water, 
upon which she gazes down, leans lightly on the chubby 
shoulders of a third child. From the fountain walks radiate 
to the north, east, west and south, and divide the floor of the 
conservatory into beds. 

Around the hall is a row of corridors, from which the arches 
which support the iniler gallery open into the conservatory. 

The Horticultural Building is the property of the city of 
Philadelphia, and will remain a permanent ornament of the 
park after the close of the Exhibition. It cost $300,000, 
which sum was defrayed by appropriations by the City Councils. 
The ground was graded and the foundations laid on the 1st of 
May, 1875, and the building was completed April 1st, 1876. 
It covers an area of about an acre and a half. The architect 
was H. J. Schwarzmann ; the contractor, John Rice, both of 
Philadelphia. The wrought-iron was furnished by the Key- 
stone Bridge Company, of Pittsburgh ; the cast-iron by San^uel 
J. Cresswell, of Philadelphia ; the painting was done by Joseph 
Chapman, of Philadelphia ; and the masonry by Moore & Scat- 
tergood, Philadelphia. 



510 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

The collection exhibited in the Horticultural Buildinjr is 
classified as follows by the Centennial Commission : 

Department VII. — Horticulture. 

700 — 709. . . .Ornamental Trees, Shrubs and Flowers. 

710 — 719. . . .Hot-houses, Conservatories, Graperies. 

720 — 729. . . .Garden Tools, Accessories of Gardening. 

730 — 739. . . .Garden Designing, Construction and Management. 

• The conservatory, or main hall, of the building is filled with 
a superb collection of rare and luxuriant tropical trees and 
shrubs. The side spaces of the hall are filled with statuary, 
the most important work being a colossal Diana in plaster com- 
position from the famous Doulton potteries in England. 

The collection of plants in the conservatory is deeply inter- 
esting, and is deserving of careful study. Here are the broad 
fan palm, the sago, date and cocoa palms, all of full size, and 
as graceful as a dream of Eastern romance. The orange and 
lemon trees, with their rich golden fruit, the camphor tree, 
with its luxuriant growth of sharply cut leaves ; the eucalyptus, 
which is said to have the property of neutralizing the malarial 
poisons of the air ; the guava ; the mahogany, and the India 
rubber tree, with its thick, heavy leaves, all make up a rich 
and beautiful display of foliage, which is charming from what- 
ever part of the hall it is viewed. A banana, with its fat, 
sturdy branches of fruit, forms a conspicuous object of the 
collection, and a number of fine cacti are scattered through 
the hall. 

It would not be possible to give a complete account of the 
plants gathered within this hall, without making a copy of the 
catalogue, and we must content ourselves with the brief summary 
given above. 

The green-houses, which extend on either side of the con- 
servatory, are sunken eight or t^n feet below it. These, as has 
been said, are four in number, and are covered with curved 
roofs of glass. Each is 100 by 30 feet in size, and is intended 
for the propagation of young plants. In one of these forcing- 
houses is a collection of tree-ferns gathered from almost every 



OF THE CKNTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



511 



country on the globe, and a number of rare plants from an 
English green-house, which were sent to this country carefully 
packed in moss. Among the curious specimens gathered within 
these forcing-houses are a number of fragrant azalias from 
Belgium, the flower of which is of a pale cream color; and 
close by them is a maple from Japan with crimson shadings in 




STAIRWAY IN HORTICULTURAL HALL. 

its fine cut leaves. There is also a group of pitcher plants from 
the South Sea islands, which bear a blotched greenish cup, 
which looks as if it were made for a frog to drink out of. A 
flamingo plant {Authurium Williamsii) is a notable member of 
the stately assemblage, its blossoms of deep rich scarlet being 
ill form simply a broad curled leaf Close by it stands a deli- 



512 



THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



cate fairy-like Norfolk Island pine; and the Sandwich islands 
send some fine specimens of fern, which spread out from the 
stem like a broad umbrella. A most interesting tree is a sago 
palm, about ten feet high. It was once the property of Robert 
Morris, the great financier of the Revolution, and is said to be 




THE FORCING-HOUSE, HORTICULTURAL HALL. 

from one hundred and twenty-five to one hundred and thirty 
years old. 

The lover of the beautiful in 'nature may spend hours in this 
rich collection. One of the green-houses contains a superb 
collection of ferns, belonging to a gentleman of South Amboy, 
New Jersey, and valued at $10,000. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 513 

The rooms at each end of the building are liandsomely frescoed, 
and are filled with a variety of horticultural appliances. The 
room on the north side of the western entrance is the office of 
the chief of the Bureau of Horticulture. That on the opposite 
side is used for the display stands and frames for flowers, aquaria, 
and wax-flowers, and along the walls are arranged a number of 
designs for landscape-gardening. Tlie room opening into this 
contains a similar display, and a number of handsome garden 
vases, and garden tools, watering-pots, and hanging-baskets. 
At one side of the room Henry A. Dreer, of Philadelphia, makes 
a handsome exhibit of garden and flower seeds, garden tools and 
implements and flower stands. 

In a room on the north side of the west entrance, adjoining 
the office of the Bureau, is an exquisite display of cut flowers by 
Pennock & Bro., of Philadelphia; a case of natural flowers and 
fruits preserved by a new process ; and a large collection of 
flowers and fruits in wax. 

At the eastern end the rooms adjoining the entrance contain 
apparatus for heating green-houses, furniture for them, garden 
tools, iron furniture and ornamental work for gardens and lawns. 
There is also a large collection of lawn-mowers and of garden 
vases. 

The view from the west end of the building i& very beautiful. 
It embraces the Main and Machinery Halls on the left hand, 
and a number of smaller buildings to the north of them. To 
the westward are the United States Building, the Woman's 
Pavilion and the State Buildings, while to the left the towers 
of Agricultural Hall rise through the trees. Almost the entire 
expanse of the Exhibition grounds can be seen at a glance from 
this point. The view^ from the eastern end is as interesting, but 
different. It embraces the Schuylkill with the East Park, 
Laurel Hill, and the country beyond, and in the distance one 
can see the towers and spires of the city. To the right the 
eastern ends of the Art Gallery and Main Hall fill up the 
picture, with the wooded depths of Lansdowne Valley lying 
between them and the gazer. 

In the eastern gallery of the conservatory is one of the most 

33 



514 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

remarkable macliines to be seen in the Exliibition. It is the 
" Electro-Magnetic Orchestra," and is exliibited by the inventors, 
AVm. F. & H. Schraoele, of Philadelphia. It consists of an 
** Orchestrion," which is supplied with wind in the ordinary 
way from a bellows, but which reads the music it is to perform 
and executes it by the action of electricity. i 

" The automatic reading is based upon the idea that if the 
music notes be printed on paper in metallic or conducting marks 
(such as printers style illuminated work), the electricity will 
distinffuish the conducti no: characters thus formed from the non- 
conducting surface of the paper, and will thus be made to feel 
or *read' the notes. If, in place of this printed music, the 
notes be cut as perforations in the sheet, and a metallic plate be 
placed beneath, over which the sheet is drawn, this plate, which 
shows through the paper wherever the perforations exist, answers 
practically the same purpose as the marks on the printed sheet, 
being in fact but an additional modification of the same principle. 
The perforated notes have been preferred for the music of the 
]>rosent instrument, because the sheets can thus be prepared by 
hand, thereby obviating the otherwise costly necessity of setting 
up type and going to press for single copies of the pieces desired. 
Such notes hear the same relation to the printed or gilt ones that 
manuscript does to printed matter. 

" The music sheets are in the forms of rolls, which are drawn 
under a row of charged feelers or ' readers,' whose office is to 
distinguish the notes. They are moved by passing between two 
gum-covered rollers, rotated by a mechanism called a ^ wind- 
engine.' The motor power of this is the compressed air or 
*wind' of the bellows of the instrument; and it contains, in 
its construction, all the necessary elements of a steam-engine, 
represented, however, in such different forms, that no resem- 
blance to the latter is left. It is a double engine, each pair of 
opposite wind-pockets being equivalent to a steam-cylinder ; and 
the alternate movements of their swino^ingr leaves are the counter- 
parts of the push and return of the piston-head. The noise or 
puff is prevented by a peculiar construction of the valves, and 
the manner of working of the cut-off; and the expanding gussets 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 515 

of the pockets take the place of the 'packing' in a steam- 
cylinder, over which they have the great advantage that they 
consume no power in friction, so that the wind-engine is exceed- 
ingly economic, using the whole force of the wind without waste. 
These advantages, and the cheapness of construction of this wood 
and leather engine, render it an admirable motor for low pressures. 

" The present instrument has several hundred ' readers ' or 
feelers, standing close together in order that a great many may 
be placed in a small space. The electricity, which may be 
called a hundred-fingered performer, pervades them all, ready 
to pass at a moment wherever a note occurs. The various 
instruments, representing a band of twelve pieces, besides the 
drums, etc., have their appropriate spaces allotted them on the 
music sheet ; and the connections between their ' readers ' and 
the performing parts are made by wires, which, when grouped 
together, form tiie cable running from the reading apparatus to 
the main case. Each note, as soon as detected, is telegraphed 
to the corresponding performing magnet ; and as a great number 
may be simultaneously read, it follows that the music may be 
exceedingly varied." 

About twenty-five acres of ground immediately around the 
Horticultural Hall have been laid off as an ornamental garden 
by Mr. C. H. Miller, the Chief of the Bureau. These grounds 
are filled with a beautiful display of native and foreign flowers, 
which give to them an exceedingly brilliant and charming 
appearance. A broad sunken garden leads from Belmont avenue 
to the western door of the Horticultural Building. It is bright 
with flowers of a thousand different hues, and sparkles with 
handsome fountains. The flowers of England, France, Germany,, 
and the tropics grow side by side with those of our own comitry 
in the beautiful garden, in the midst of which the grand Con- 
servatory stands like a central jewel in the midst of a thousand 
gems of various hues. 

At the western end of the Horticultural grounds the Pacific 
Guano Company, of Boston, Massachusetts, have a beautiful 
Moorish pavilion, in which they display samples of their 
fertilizer. The grounds immediately around this pavilion are 



516 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 

planted with tobacco, and a number of tropical plants, which 
thrive admirably in this soil, which has been fertilized with the 
guano of this company. 

At the north side of the Horticultural Building is a large 
tent-like structure, consisting of a series of wooden arches 
covered with canvas. It is designed for the exhibition of 
flowers in bloom, and was first used for the display of a mag- 
nificent collection of rhododendrons by Mr. Anthony J. Waterer, 
of the famous Knapp Hill Nurseries, in England. 

A large exhibit is made of rustic furniture, seats, fencing, etc., 
which is scattered through the grounds. At the south side of 
the hall, on the slope of the Lansdowne Valley, Cuba exhibits a 
collection of rustic work and flowers in a tasteful summer-house, 
and back of this is a fisherman's hut of bark, such as is every- 
where to be seen on the coasts of the West India islands. 




CHAPTEE XVI. 

MEMORIAL HALL. 

Description of the Building— Bronze Groups of Statuary — The Annex — Clas- 
sification of the Art Exhibit — The Reception and Central Halls — The 
Paintings and Statues in them — The Art Galleries — Notable Pictures by 
American Artists — The English Gallery — Masterpieces of the Modern 
English Painters — The Older English Artists— The Queen's Pictures — The 
South Kensington Exhibit — The French Pictures — The German Gallery — 
The Austrian Collection— A Fine Collection of Italian Statuary — Italian 
Paintings — The Castellani Collections — Spanish Pictures — Art Gems from 
Sweden and Norway — Masterpieces of the Modern Dutch School — Notable 
Pictures from Belgium — The Danish Gallery — Brazilian and Mexican Art 
— The Photographic Annex — A Fine Display of Photographs. 

EMORIAL HALL is the most substantial of all the 
Exhibition buildings. The materials of which it is 
,^ constructed are stone, iron and glass. It was built at 

V-^ a cost of §1,500,000 by the State of Pennsylvania and 
city of Philadelphia, and is designed as a permanent 
memorial of the Centennial year of American independence. It 
is placed at the disposal of the Centennial Commission to be 
used during the Exhibition as an art gallery, after which it is 
designed to make it the receptacle of the Pennsylvania Museum 
of Industrial Art, an institution similar to the South Kensington 
Museum, at London. 

The building stands on the plateau on which the Main Exhi- 
bition Building is located, and is about two hundred to two hun- 
dred and fifty feet north of that structure. It is planted upon 
a broad terrace six feet above the general level, the banks well 
turfed and bordered with shrubbery, to which the visitor ascends 
by broad and easy steps in front, or smaller ones at the side. 
At each side of the front row of steps are enormous bronze 

517 




518 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

figures of horses held in check by women in flowing drapery. 
On the right of the building is a fine group of bronze, represent- 
ing the firing of a shell from a large mortar. The shell has 
been fired, and an officer of the naval service, glass in hand, is 
leaning forward watching its course. A sailor has sprung on 
top of the mortar, and is shading his eyes with his hand and 
looking in the same direction. Another stands on the right of 
the mortar and is similarly engaged. The expression of the 
figures is excellent. 

The group on the left of the hall represents a lioness dying in 
the midst of her whelps. The arrow of the hunter is deeply 
imbedded in her shoulder, and she is in the agonies of death. 
Pier whelps are gathered about her in mute astonishment, and 
the male lion, who realizes the full extent of the misfortune, is 
staiuling ready to defend or avenge his mate. 

Memorial Hall is three hundred and sixty-five feet long, two 
hundred and ten feet wide, and fifty-nine feet high over a base- 
ment of twelve feet. It is built of granite, w^th an iron and 
glass roof, iron being altogether used in the place of wood, and 
is entirely fire-proof. The design is a modern renaissance. 
The general plan is a right-angled parallelogram, relieved by 
square towers at each of the four corners, and by projecting 
vestibules and steps in the centre of each of the long sides. It 
is crowned by a central four-sided dome, rising one hundred 
and fifty feet above the ground and capped by a colossal ball, 
from which rises the figure of Columbia. At the base of this 
dome are seated four figures representing the four quarters of 
the globe., 

" The main front looks southward ; it displays three distinc- 
tive features : 

" First. A main entrance in the centre of the structure, con- 
sisting of three colossal arched doorways of equal dimensions. 

"Second. A pavilion at each end. 

" Third. Two arcades connecting the pavilions with the centre. 
The central section is ninety-five feet long, seventy-two feet high ; 
the pavilions are forty-five feet long, sixty feet high ; the arcades 
each ninety feet long and forty feet high.- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHlliinON. 



519 



Cfl 



Tlie front of the south face of the central section displays a 
rise of thirteen steps to the entrance seventy feet wide. The 
entrance is by three arched doorways, each forty feet high and 
fifteen feet wide, opening into a hall. Between the arches of 
the doorways are clusters of columns terminating in emblematic 
designs illustrative of science and art. 

"The doors, which are of iron, are relieved by bronze panels, 
having the coats of arms of all the States and Territories. In 
the centre of the main frieze is the United States coat of arms. 




MEMORIAL HALL, OR ART GALLERY. 

The main cornice is surmounted by a balustrade with cande- 
labra. At either end is an allegorical figure representing science 
and art. 

"Each pavilion displays a window thirty feet high and twelve 
feet wide; it is also ornamented with tile-work, wreaths of oak 
and laurel, thirteen stars in the frieze, and a colossal eaofle at 
each of its four corners. 

" The arcades, a general feature in the old Roman villas but 
entirely novel here, are intended to sc reen the long walls of the 
gallery. 



520 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTOKY 

* 

" These each consist of five groined arches — these arcades 
form promenades looking outward over the grounds and inward 
over open gardens, which extend back to the main wall of the 
building. These garden-plats are each ninety feet long and 
thirty-six feet deep, ornamented in the centre with fountains 
and designed for tlie display of statuary. A stairway from the 
gardens reaches the upper line of these arcades, forming a second 
promenade thirty-live feet above the ground. Its balustrade is 
ornamented with vases, and is designed ultimately for statues. 
Tlie cornices, the atticas, and the crestings throughout are highly 
ornamented. 

" The walls of the east and west sides of the structure display 
the pavilions and the walls of the picture galleries, and are re- 
lieved by five niches designed for statues; the frieze is richly 
ornauiented — above it the central dome shows to great ad- 
vantage. 

" The rear or north front is of the same general character as 
the main front, but in place of the arcade is a series of arched 
Yv'iudows, twelve in number, with an entrance in the centre; in 
all, thirteen openings above, in an unbroken line, extending the 
entire length of the structure ; between the pavilions is the grand 
balcony — a promenade two hundred and seventy-five feet long 
and forty-five feet wide, and elevated forty feet above the 
ground, overlooking northward the whole panorama of the park 
grounds. 

" The main entrance opens on a hall eighty-two feet long, sixty 
feet wide and fifty-three feet high, decorated in the modern 
renaissance style; on the farther side of this hall three door- 
ways, each sixteen feet wide and twenty-five feet high, open into 
the centre hall ; this hall is eighty-three feet square, the ceiling 
of the dome rising over it eighty feet in height. 

*•' From its east and west sides extend the galleries, each 
ninety-eight feet long, forty-eight- feet wide, and thirty-five feet 
in height. These galleries admit of temporary divisions for the 
more advantageous display of paintings. The centre hall and 
galleries form one grand hall two hundred and eighty-seven 
feet long and eighty-five feet wide, capable of holding eight 



OF THE CENTENNIAL. EXHIBITION. 



521 



thousaud persons, nearly twice the dimensions of the largest 
hall in the country. From the two galleries doorways open 
into two smaller galleries, twenty-eight feet wide and eighty- 
nine feet long. These open north and south into private apart- 
ments which connect with the pavilion rooms, forming two side 
galleries two hundred and ten feet long. Along the whole 
length of the north side of the main galleries and central hall 
extends a corridor fourteen feet wide, which opens on its north 
line into a series of private rooms, thirteen in number, designed 
for studios and smaller exhibition rooms. 

"All the galleries and central hall are lighted from above; 
the pavilions and studios 
are lighted from the sides. 
The pavilions and central 
hall are designed espec- 
ially for exhibitions of 
sculpture.'' 

The work on Memorial 
Hall was begun on the 
4th of July, 1874, and 
the building ^vas com- 
pleted on the 1st of 
March, 1876. The archi- 
tect was H. J. Schwarz- 
niann ; the contractor R. 
J. Dobbins, both of Phila- 
delphia. The iron-work 
was furnished by the 

Edgemoor Iron Company, the Pencoyd Rolling Mills, and the 
Kittredge Cornice Company. The stone-work was furnished 
by Sargent & Co., the Westham Granite Company, the Con- 
shohocken Stone Company, S. F. Prince & Co., and the Ex- 
celsior Brick Company. The glass was furnished by Shoemaker 
& Co., Ward & Co., and J. M. Albertson. 

At an early period of the work on Memorial Hall it was 
found that the applications for space in it were so numerous 
that the buildincr would not accommodate the works of art to 




EAGLE USED IN ORNAMENTATION OF 
MEMORIAL HALL. 



522 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

• 

be exhibited in it. An extension, or annex, was therefore built 
immediately north of the hall. It is of brick and iron, and 
harmonizes well with the principal building in design and color. 
It is intended to be permanent. Tlie principal building gives 
75,000 feet of wall space for painting, and 20,000 feet of floor 
space for statuary, etc. The annex aflbrds 60,000 square feet 
of wall space for paintings, and contains thirty galleries, each 
forty feet square, besides four galleries each one hundred feet 
long by fifty-four feet wide, and two transverse central corridors 
twenty feet wide. 

The exhibit of works of art contained in these buildings is 
thus classified by the Centennial Commission : 

Department IV. — Art. 

400—409 Sculpture. 

410—419 Painting. 

420 — 429. . . .Engraving and Lithograpiiy. 
430—439 .... Photography. 

440 — 449. . . .Industrial and Archiieciural Designs, etc. 
450 — 459. . . .Ceramic Decorations, Mosaics, etc. 

The exhibition of photographs is so krge that a third build- 
ing was provided for it. It will be described at the close of 
this chapter. 

From the main entrance the visitor passes into the south 
hall or vestibule of the building. The wainscoting is of colored 
marble, but the remainder of the hall is finished in simple 
white. It is in the modern renaissance style, and is elegant 
and tasteful. A magnificent crystal chandelier, exhibited by 
Cornelius & Sons, manufacturers of gas fixtures, Philadelphia, 
hangs from the ceiling. At the north side three massive arches 
open into the central hall, and at the east and west sides doors 
lead to the gardens lying within the arcades of the southern 
front of the building. 

The hall is filled with statuary in marble and bronze. 
Against the arches of the north w^all is a colossal bust of 
Washington, by Pietro Guarnerio, of Milan, Italy. The col- 
lection of statuary is very good, and we shall allude to it again 
in our remarks upon the Italian section. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 623 

The gardens aud arcades on the east and west sides of the 
main entrance are prettily ornamented with flowers, and con- 
tain a small collection of statuary. In the eastern arcades is a 
fine bust of Dante, and another of Michael Angelo. In the 
garden on the west side are some interesting specimens of 
statuary and vases in spelter. 

Passing through the arches at the north end of the south 
hall, Ave enter the central hall, a spacious and beautifully pro- 
portioned apartment, lighted from the dome overhead. It is 
finished in simple white, and it is to be regretted that its 
beauties were not enhanced by a judicious use of color in its 
decorations. 

In the centre, under the dome, is a copy in terra cotta of the 
large group representing "America," from the Albert Memorial 
in Hyde Park, London. At the south side of the hall is a 
life-size bronze statue of Professor Morse. He is represented 
in the act of examining his first telegraphic message. On the 
same side is a bronze statue of Robert R. Livingston, of New 
York. At the southeast corner, fronting the German depart- 
ment, is a fine colossal statue of Prince Bismarck. At the 
southwest corner is an equestrian statue in plaster of President 
Blanco, of the republic of Venezuela; and just back of this is 
a fine allegorical painting, by Professor E. Von Reuth, repre- 
senting America doing homage to the spirit of her institutions. 
A number of vases in bronze, by the late Horatio Stone, are 
scattered through the hall. At the north side is a handsome 
memorial altar and reredos in marble from Italy. It is adorned 
with pictures in mosaic work, representing the Adoration of 
the Magi and the Shepherds, and the Crucifixion. The latter 
is a copy of the famous painting by Guido Reni, in the Church 
of St. Lorence, in Lucina, at Rome. The northeast corner, 
fronting the German department, contains three superb vases 
of Sevres porcelain and some bronzes, among which are a 
statuette of President MacMahon, in silver bronze, and a full- 
sized Egyptian girl, with a harp, in ornamental bronze. 

The space in the centre, around the base of the group repre- 
senting America, is filled with statuary, chiefly by American 



524 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

artists. The most important works are Thetis, with the infant 
Achilles in her arms, thinking how she may regain the boy's 
birthright, by P. F. Connelly ; a bust of Charles Sumner, by 
Presk^n Powers; a bust of Cleopatra, by Miss Margaret Foley; 
and a full-length statue of Medea, by W. W. Story. 

The halls on the east and west of the central hall are divided 
by partitions into smaller a})artments, which are assigned to the 
various countries taking part in the Exhibition. The corridors 
which lead east and west from the central hall are thus merely 
temporary. They are lined with paintings. 

It will not be possible to give a complete list of the works 
of art in the Memorial Hall and the annex, nor to descril^e 
each of them. We can but glance at the various departments, 
calling attention oiily to the most prominent works in them. 

The United States. 

The American dei)artment is divided between Memorial Hall 
and the annex. It fills one large hall, a corridor and a part 
of a second in the principal edifice, and nine galleries and a 
corridor in the annex, 'and comprises several thousand pictures 
and statues. As a whole it has been much criticised, and is 
not accepted by the critics as the best exposition of American 
art that could have been given. Still it contains works of 
which the country has reason to be proud. 

One of the ends of the American gallery in Memorial Hall 
is entirely covered by Rothermel's large painting of the Battle 
of Gettysburg, which formerly stood in the Art Gallery at old 
Fairmount. This painting has been sharply criticised, but 
nevertheless finds much favor with the masses who daily throng 
around it. 

A notable picture is " Going to Church in New England in 
the Olden Time," by George H. Boughton. Edward Moran 
exhibits two fine marine views, " The Coming Storm over New 
York Bay," and " Minot's Ledge Light." Thomas Moran ex- 
hibits his ''Mountain of the Holy Cross," and the "Hot Springs 
of the Yellowstone," two of the most superb pieces of mountain 
scenery in existence. Eastman Johnson sends two pictures in 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 525 

his happiest style, "A Kentucky Home " and " What the Sea 
Says/' M. F. H. De Haas has a fine marine view, "Moonrise 
at Sunset." J. F. Cropsey has a careful study of a " Church 
in the Isle of Wight,-' which is much admired. W. Whitt- 
redge's " Home by the Sea " is a beautiful work ; and R. S. 
Gifford's "Fishing Boats of the Adriatic," "Lake Geneva" 
and " The Golden Hour " show the artist at his best. Charles 
N. Miller, of New York, sends two excellent works, " Return- 
ing to the Fold" and " The Old Mill at Springfield." J. F. 
Kensett has a fine view of "Conway Valley, New Hampshire." 
G. P. A. Healey has several of his most carefully and solidly- 
painted portraits in the collection. Daniel Huntingdon sends 
a view of "Lake George," and Toby Rosenthal has an 
"Elaine," representing the barge with the dead maiden de- 
scending the stream. Thomas Hill's large painting of "Con- 
ner Lake, California," occupies a prominent place and attracts 
much attention. Professor W^eir's famous " Gun Foundry," 
and his less known " Confessional," are also fine pictures. 
George H. Smilie sends "A Lake in the Woods," a pretty com- 
position ; and F. A. Bridgeman has a brilliant Moorish scene 
called " The Story-Teller." Albert Bierstadt exhibits six pic- 
tures of Western and Pacific coast scenery. One of these is a 
"View of Yosemite Valley from Glacier Point Trail;" another, 
a glimpse of " Mount Hood ; " and a third, " Spring in Cali- 
fornia." His "Settlement of California" attracts much atten- 
tion. W. L. Sontag has a beautiful "Sunset in the Wilderness," 
and C. Schussele, a Philadelphia artist, a striking painting of 
"Solomon and the Iron Worker." F. D. Briscoe, another 
Philadelphia artist, has a spirited water scene representing "A 
Breezy Day off Dieppe." The late Charles L. Elliott is repre- 
sented by two fine portraits, one of Edwin Forrest, the other 
of General Bouck. Harry Fenn sends "The Old Convent 
Gate " and the " Old Fire-Place," executed in his best style. 
Winslow Homer's " Snap the Whip " shows that artist's best 
qualities as well as his faults. Henry Innman has a portrait 
of Hackett in the character of Rip Van Winkle. D. T. Ken- 
drick, of Boston, sends "A Foggy Day at the Beach." Page is 



526 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

/•ep resented by his well-known "Farragut Entering Mobile 
)3ay," a large and stirring work. T. B. Thorpe has a landscape 
called " Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way." Louis 
C. Tiffany sends several Oriental scenes, among them ^'X 
Guard at Prison Gate, Tangier.'^ Jerome Thompson's "Old 
Oaken Bucket '^ is here. It is well known by the excellent 
chromo which had such a large sale a few years ago. 

There are several of Washington Allston's paintings in the 
collection, but the only one which shows him at his best is 
*' Spalatro's Vision of the Bloody Hand.'' Rembrandt Peale 
is represented by one of his portraits of Washington. Among 
the portraits are Commodores Perry and McDonough, by 
Jarvis; General Jackson, by Waldo; Commodore Decatur, by 
Sully; General Meade, by Thomas Hicks; Washington, by 
Charles Wilson Peale, the elder of the two painters of that 
name; Washington, by Colonel John Trumbull; John Adams, 
Thomas Boylston and Mrs. Boylston, by J. S. Copley ; John 
Jay, Fisher Ames and Judge Story, by Gilbert Stuart. 

These, as has been said, are but a few of the most prominent 
nf the American pictures; and the list of necessity omits many 
tiiat are deserving of notice. 

England. 

The English collection of pictures is placed entirely in 
Memorial Hall, and occupies two rooms and the northwest 
corridor lying between them. It is in every respect the best 
and the most judiciously arranged collection in the Exhibition. 
No such exhibition of English art has ever been made before 
in any foreign country. It is a better display than Avas made 
by England at Paris in 1867, or at Vienna in 1873. 

The main room is devoted to the modern painters of Eng- 
land, and is well filled with their finest works. Here are Sir 
John Gilbert's "First Prince of Wales'' and "Battle of 
Naseby,'^ in his best style. Frederick Leighton, whose work 
is as poetic as it is artistic in the highest sense, has three of the 
finest paintings in the hall : "Summer Moon," "The Court of 
a Jew's House at Damascus" and "An Eastern Slinger Scaring 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 527 

Birds from a Field in the Harvest Time.'^ Alma Tadema has 
five pictures in the collection, two of which are water-colors. 
These are "An Egyptian Mummy of the Roman Period," "The 
Sick Girl," " The Vintage Festival," " The Connoisseur " and 
" The Story of a Good Wife." The last two are water-colors. 
It is impossible to write of these pictures here as they deserve. 
We can only mention their presence in the collection, and in- 
vite the reader's attention to them. 

Among the portraits is a fine one of Lady Marianne Alford, 
by R. Buckner ; one of George H. Boughton, by John Pettie ; 
Mistress Dorothy, by George A. Story; Betty, by Luke Fildes; 
a curious portrait of himself, by Hoi man Hunt ; aad portraits 
of Leighton and Millois, by Watts. 

William Frith Powell's famous "Railway Station," embody- 
ing the arrest of one of the most notorious English forgers at 
the moment of the departure of the continental train, occupies a 
prominent position and receives the praise it deserves. Edward 
Armitage sends his "Julian the Apostate Listening to the Dis- 
putes of the Sectaries." Luke Fildes has a powerful London 
scene, entitled, "Applicants Seeking Admission to the Casual 
Ward of the Workhouse." The north wall has two " Studies 
of Lions," by Landseer, and " The Marriage of Griselda," by 
Charles West Cope. At the east end of the room is a full- 
length portrait of Washington, by Gilbert Stuart. George H. 
Boughton has a scene of the olden time, called "God Speed 
the Pilgrims on their Way." Millois sends a charming study 
of a child. H. Moore and John Brett send each a noble, but 
different, seashore view, and Colin Hunter has another, called 
"Trawlers Coming Ashore," three pictures which have no 
equals of their kind in the Exhibition. 

The corridor between the two English rooms is largely de- 
voted to water-colors. One of the best of these is an " Interior 
of the Sistine Chapel," by H. M. Knowles. Another is A. P. 
Newton's " Left by the Tide." Sir John Gilbert has a water- 
color of "Francis I. and his Court Visiting the Workshop of 
Bonvenuto Cellini." Louis Haghe has a fine work repre- 
senting "The Tepidarium of the Baths of Pompeii." "The 



528 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

Night Watch " (the artist's name is not given), is also a fine 
work. 

The upper end of this corridor continues the collection of oil 
paintings. The most notable are E. Croft's " Battle of Ligny " 
and " The Convent Ferry," by Arthur Hughes. 

The northwest gallery contains a notable collection, many 
of them by deceased painters. Here are Maclise's " Banquet 
Scene in Macbeth," one of his largest works; Mulready's 
"Village Buffoon," loaned by the Royal Academy; portraits 
of the "First Three Partners of the House of Baring," by Sir 
Thomas Lawrence; the large painting of "The Marriage of the 
Prince of Wales," by William Powell Frith, loaned by Queen 
Victoria ; " The Marriage of the Young Princess," by the late 
J. Northcote, also loaned by the queen ; Benjamin West's 
"Death of Wolfe," also the property of her Majesty; Gaines- 
borough's "Portrait of the Duchess of Richmond;" West's 
" Christ Blessing Little Children ; " Landseer's portrait of the 
first Lord Ashburton ; " Dolbadden Castle," a genuine Turner, 
loaned by the Royal Academy; Barry's "Adam and Eve;" 
and " Landscapes," by Creswick, Calcott and Stanfield. 

The other rooms north of the British corridor are devoted to 
an exhibit of the course of industrial art taught at the South 
Kensington Museum. The exhibit consists of copies of famous 
art works, and the designs and drawings of the pupils of the 
school. 

France. 

The French section occupies several galleries in Memorial 
Hall and in the annex. But few of the leading artists of France 
are represented, and the collection contains none of her great 
names in art. The best picture in the ol lection is Carolus 
Duran's large portrait of his sister-in-law, Mile. Croixette, of 
the Theatre Frangais. The lady is seated on her horse, which 
stands on the sands of the sea-shore with (he last ripple of the 
waves breaking about his feet. The lady is exceedingly pretty, 
and the horse is perfect. 

Among the notable pictures of this collection are, " Rizpath 
Protecting the Bodies of her Sons," by George Becker, a power- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 529 

fill work, and the largest in the collectiou ; "The First Step in 
Crime," by Jean Pierre Antigua ; "A Conspiracy under Catha^- 
rine de Medicis," by Louis Adan; a large "Death of Ctesar," 
by Felix Clement ; " Haddon Hall, Derbyshire," and " A Call 
on Uncle Cardinal," both by Joseph Castiglione; the "Story 
of Euth," by Paul de Curzon ; " Saint Antonio, Patron of the 
Mariners of Porto d^Angio, Italy," by Henri Dubouchet; 
"Kapoleon I. with Goethe and Wieland," by Eugene Hille- 
macher; a "Fellah Woman," by Charles Landelle; "The In- 
discreet," by Armand Leleux; the "Morv^an King," by 
Evariste Leminais ; "The Kcst," by Leon Perault; "Morning 
on the Lagune of Venice," and "Sunset at Sea," both by 
Amedee Rosier ; " Heath Flowers," and " Snow Flowers," by 
Auguste Schenck ; an exquisite " Leda and the Swan," by 
Jules Saintin ; " The Gitana's Dance in Grenada," by Benjamin 
Ulmann ; " Boulogne-Sur-Mer," by Alexandre Veron ; and 
"Josephine, in 1814," by Hector Yiger. The portrait of 
" Bielle, the Flower-Girl of the Paris Jockey Club," by Pierre 
Glaize, and "Cassandre," by Leon Commere — the latter in the 
annex — are two splendid specimens of flesh-painting. 

The main gallery in Memorial Hall contains a number of 
exquisite tapestries from the national manufactories of the 
Gobelins at Paris, and at Beauvais. 

Germany. 

The German exhibit is confined chiefly to Memorial Hall, 
and occupies the coutheast gallery, opposite the French section. 
In the corridor leading to tho principal hall are a number of 
German paintings, the principal of which are, "A Courtyard in 
Venice," by Henry Jaeckel ; '' The Mahmondi Canal, at Cairo," 
by E. Korncr ; " Portrait of Pauline Lucca," by O. Begas ; " Mt. 
Vesuvius," by R. Heck ; " xrust with Care," by R. Deutsch. 

Upon entering the German gallery, the first object that 
attracts the visitor is the large equestrian portrait of the Crown- 
Prince William Henry. The horse and rider appear to have 
just emerged from the line of fire in the battle that is raging 
behind them, and both are full of the excitement of the fight. 
U 



530 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

The picture is by C. Steffeck, and is much admired, as it richly 
deserves to be. 

There are two pictures of the *^ Surrender of Sedan," on the 
2d of September, 1870. One of these, and the more powerful 
picture of the two, is by Louis Braun ; the other by Count 
Harras, who ^vas himself present at the memorable scene, and 
who has another fine painting in the gallery — the "Arrest of 
Luther on his Return from the Diet at Worms.'' Julius 
Schrader, an artist whose fame is not confined to Germany, has 
a fine representation of " Elizabeth Signing the Death Warrant 
of Mary of Scotland ; " and a companion to this is the " Lady 
Jane Grey Confuting Bishop Gardiner," a stiking picture, by 
Tolingsby. R. Heck sends a beautiful view of a " Natural 
Arch at Capri ; " and Q. BeckeFs " Before the Christening," and 
"After the Christening," are delightful in their sweet simplicity. 
A. Scwartz has a much admired painting called "Brown 
Flowers," and F. Boser one entitled "Early Trials," before 
which visitors linger long. The "♦Evening Scene in the Zoo- 
logical Gardens at Berlin," by Herdert, is an exceedingly care- 
ful and life-like picture. Ferdinand ^leyer's "After the Church 
Festival," is not only an admirable painting full of keen humor, 
but conveys a sound moral. Meyer, of Bremen, has a capital 
picture, " The Village Gossips," close by, and Achenbach, one 
of Germany's best marine painters, exhibits "Flushing in a 
Storm." Xylander's " Moonlight at Sea " is much admired, and 
Jordon's " Old Pilot," is admirable in its way. Louis Horst 
sends a fine portrait of the Emperor William, and Gustavo 
Richter, one of George Bancroft. " The Flight of Frederick 
Y, from Prague, after the Battle of the White Mountain," by 
Faber du Tour, is one of the best pictures in the gallery. The 
scene is one of the greatest confusion, and is admirably depicted. 
H. Briicke exhibits a large " Discovery of America by Columbus," 
which is w^armly praised. 

In one of the small rooms of the northeast quarter of the 
building, is one of the finest of the German pictures — Wagner's 
masterpiece — "Scene in the Circus Maximus at Rome, a.d. 88." 
It is well-known in this country, and is exhibited by Goupil & 
Co., of Paris. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 531 

Austria. 

The Austrian collection occupies tlie eastern gallery, and 
comprises 163 paintings, etchings and statues. It is very good 
as a rule, and contains many pictures which are worthy of care- 
ful study. 

The gem of the whole collection is John Makart's "Venice 
Paying Homage to Catharine Cornaro." The picture is 35 
feet long and 14 feet high. On the death of her husband, Don 
Jacopo J I. Lusignano, King of Cyprus, she made a free gift of 
that kingdom to the Kepublic of Venice, under whose tutelage 
she had been brought up as " figlia di San Marco.'' Upon her 
return to Venice she was greeted with the reception which this 
picture commemorates. The canvas contains a large number 
of portraits of persons well-known in Vienna. 

Ernest Lafitte has two exquisite pictures, a " Girl of Upper 
Austria," and "Peasant Woman of Upper Austria." John 
Canon, of Vienna, exhibits "A Page," and a '^Girl with Frnit," 
Avhich are so much like Rembrandt's work that many experienced 
judges have pronounced them his, and have almost refused ta 
believe them modern. Frederick Freidlander exhibits his 
"Tastino: the Wine," one of his best works. G. A. Kuntz 
exhibits "In the Cell," a picture of a nun with her head leaning 
on her folded hands gazing out of the window of her cell. The 
expression on the nun's face is marvellous. The picture is also 
remarkable for the reason that Kuntz until four years ago was 
a distinguished sculptor, and had done nothing with his brush. 
Aloysius Schonn sends a " Siesta of an Oriental Woman," a work 
noted for its warmth of coloring. The Countess of Nemes- 
Ransonnet, one of the most accomplished lady artists of Austria, 
sends her own portrait and a view of the " Interior of St. Stephen's 
at Vienna," which receive, as they deserve, great praise. Maria 
Von Parmentier, another lady artist, exhibits several charming 
Tyrolese scenes. Of these, the best is the "Mill in the Tyrol.'' 
F. Rumpler's " Smiling Girl " and " The Two Female Friends " 
are charming works, and are much admired. Charles Leopold 
Miiller, one of the greatest of living Austrian artists, has only 



532 THE ILLUSTRATED IIISTOr.Y > 

two small works here which do not fairly show his merits, but 
which are among the gems of the collection. These are " In the 
English Garden, at Palermo," and *^ ^lonte Pellegfino, near 
Palermo." Adolphns Obermiillner exhibits three fine paint- 
ing's — "Welcome Sounds" '^ The Lake of Constance at the 
Beginning of a Storm," and *' The Grum-Alp, with the Palu- 
glacier." The first of these represents the' meeting of two sledge 
parties belonging to the Austro-Hungarian Arctic Expedition 
of 1872-74. F. Rass exhibits "A Girl with a Cat," and " Life 
in a Castle of the Middle x4ges," both admirable. " Sans Souci," 
a study of Italian Lazzaroni, by F. Fux, is a capital scene; and 
Chas. Probst's " Head of a Youns; Ladv" is a charmino: study. 
Robert Russ exhibits the "Mill at Mais, in South Tyrol;" 
Augustus George Mayer, a "Bathsheba;" A. Schsefier, a deso- 
late beach scene, called "At the Sea ; " L. Munsch, a view of the 
"Alp Gschlbss towards the Gross-Venediger ; " Rosa Schwenin- 
ger a " Neapolitan ; " Eugene Felix, " Pan and Bacchantes ; " 
Lewis Mayer, "The Judgment of Paris;" Ralph Ribarz, an 
" Ox Team ; " Remi Van Haanen, a " View of a Dutch Town 
in Moonlight ; " and Gustavus Wertheimer, " The Moor and his 
Horse," all of which are excellent. A number of fine water- 
colors are included in the collection. 

In the collectioii of statuary, the notable works are a bust of 
the Emperor of Austria, by C. Zumbusch, loaned by his Majesty; 
and busts of Maximilian I. and Charles V., by C. Costenoble, 
all in marble. F. Pezzicar has a colossal bronze statue of 
"' The Freed Slave," about which crowds gather daily in admira- 
tion. The negro exultantly displays Abraham Lincoln's Pro- 
clamation of Emancipation, and his chains lie broken at his feet. 

Italy. 

The entrance or reception hall of the principal Art Gallery is 
tlie only room in Memorial ,Hall occupied by Italy, with the 
exception of the rooms in the northeast section of the building, 
which contain the Castellani Collections of Classic and Mediaeval 
Antiquities. These are the property of Signor Alessandro Cas- 
tellani, of Rome, and consist mainly of ancient marbles, bronzes, 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 533 

Italian majolica, gold work, and } ersonal ornaments. Tlio col- 
lections are unique in many respects, and are among th6 riclie.st 
and m():?t valuable in the world. Our limits do not allow a 
description or even complete list of the treasures here exhibited. 
They comprise seventeen portrait busts and heads in marble 
from the Greek mythology ; twelve of the exceedingly rare 
bronze dressing-cases of tlie Etruscan ladies, of which there are 
but one hundred now in existence; a large and valuable collec- 
tion of old porcelain and majolica ware, the glory of which is a 
case of superb Gubbio ware ; and many gold ornaments and 
gems of Phoenician, Etruscan and Greek workmanship. Some 
of the gems are unequalled by anything iu modern art. 

In the vestibule at the northern entrance to Memorial Hall, 
are a number of superb pictures in mosaic from Rome, the 
finest display of the kind in the entire Exhibition. 

Italy occupies six galleries in the annex to Memorial Hall, 
and in these displays a large collection of paintings and sculp- 
ture. The busts and statues number three hundred, and among 
them are some of the best works of some of the most famous 
sculptors of Kome, Florence, Milan, and Bologna. It is 
believed that this is the largest collection of sculpture ever dis- 
played at any Exhibition. We can only point out a few of the 
most prominent works. 

First in order must be mentioned the productions of the 
renowned Florentine sculptor, E. Caroni, professor at the Fine 
Arts Academy at Florence, and one of the Italian Commissicm- 
ers to the Exhibition. His "Africaine'^ is a masterpiece, the 
lineaments showing all the workings of the betrayed woman's 
mind. Of a different type is his "Love's Telegram," rep- 
resenting a young lady who, during the siege of Paris, being 
unable to communicate with her lover by ordinary means, is in 
the act of despatching a carrier pi<reon with tha amorous mis- 
sive. Then comes *' Love bursting forth from the Egg," a 
charming piece of fancy. Next, *^ Christmas Day," bearing a 
capon in one hand and good wishes in the other. Then an 
exquisite allegory, "Butterfly Youth," which, flying from one 
of life's pleasures to another, at last remains entangled in the 



534 



THE I ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 



net of disappointment. In representing children Profes.«or 
Caroni has been eminently successftd ; his ''Recreations of a 
School GirP^ is as gay as his ''Cold'' is pathetic — in the latter 
the tripod containing the charcoal has upset and the shivering 
child, hiding her liands under iier frock, looks the very essence 
of chilly despair. So also the " Impressions of Cold Water '^ 




ITALIAN STATUARY IX THE ANXEX TO THE AKT GALLERY. 

portray the little bather's mingled feelings of curiosity and 
timidity, while the "First Cai)ture" shows the intense delight 
of the boy at having caught the little sparrow in his hand. 
Professor Romanetti's" Franklin and his Whistle" and "Wash- 
ington and his Hatchet" will attract general attention, as will 
ilso Zocchi's " Infancy of Benjamin Franklin," where the youth- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 535 

ful compositor is setting up his first types. Professor P. Guar- 
uerio, of Milan, whose "Washington '' in the Memorial Hall is 
already familiar to thousands of visitors, has in the Art Gallery 
a fine design of " Raphael in his Youth," and his " Girl Bath- 
ing" is full of power. Signor D. Baroaglio, of Milan, who has 
already won for himself fame among young Italy's sculptors, 
has a colossal piece, " Flying Time." Heedless of the attempts 
of Youth, who would detain him. Father Time hurries on; the 
parchment scroll of History in his right, the sharp scythe in his 
left hand, and forces reluctant Youth on after him. Not less 
successful has the sculptor been in his " Blowing Bubbles," 
"Butterfly" and ''First Call," all of which are full of expres- 
sion. Signor Renato Peduzzi, of Milan, has shown great 
originality in his " Berenice," the inscription on which statue 
tells its own tale, " Venus, to thee and other gods I sacrifice 
these tresses, shouldst thou return to me from war my spouse^" 
Signor Peduzzi's work will not readily be forgotten by any who 
have seen it. The distinguished artist, Cavaliere Cantalamessa 
Popatti, whose sculpture is almost as well known in America as 
it is in Italy, and who is one of his country^s commissioners, 
has on this occasion two charming statuettes, " Sunshine " and 
"Storm," as also "Love's Morn," all of which are worthy of 
the sculptor's reputation. Signor Torelli, of Florence, exhibits 
" Eva St. Clair," from " Uncle Tom's Cabin," " Shy Girl," and 
a sweet " Little Housekeeper," who, with her broom, is sweep- 
ing out of the house envy, hypocrisy, pride, vanity, and 
calumny. Professor Bopi, of Milan, has a fine bust of Gari- 
baldi, and has been equally happy in his " Hope." 

The Italian sculptors have naturally, on this occasion, 
brought out the connecting link between Italy and the dis- 
covery of our continent, and such productions as D'Amore's 
" Night of October 11, 1492," and Zocchi's " Columbus Scanning 
the Chart," speak eloquently for themselves. F. Barzaghi, of 
Milan, has a number of productions which strikingly denote 
the artist's genius. " Phryne before her Judges," "Sylvia 
Looking at Herself in the Fountain," " The Finding of Moses," 
and " Blind Man's Buff" will all engage the spectator's atten- 



536 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY ' 

tion, as will also the same sculptor's " First Friend/' represent- 
ing a Scotch terrier playing with a lovely child. A little gem of 
the same character is R. Pereda's " Joy ; " the beaming counte- 
nance of the child in this case will be generally pronounced 
perfect. This Milanese artist's productions are all alike chaste 
and graceful. In the ^^Rete d'Amore" the girl willingly 
allows herself to be entangled in the network of lov(», and draws 
the net around her heart. The same#sculptor's ''Motherless 
Children/' "Childish Grief/' and "Little Smoker" are all 
telling and true. E. Braga, of Milan, has a "Bacchus" and 
"Child's Plaything/' both noteworthy/and few will pass by 
C. Corti's "Lucifer/' from "Paradise Lost/' without admira- 
tion. Zocchi's " Michel Angelo's Chisel in Hand " is a grandly- 
conceived work, and not less so is Pazzi's " Episode from the 
Divine Comedy." We have scarcely space even to mention 
Romanelli's "Madonna of St. Luke's Bologna/' Barcaglia's 
" Love Blinds/' Antonio Bottinelli's " Vanity/' Argenti's 
"Sleep of the Innocent/' Motelli's "Unwelcome Interruption/' 
Bergonzoli's "Angel of Love/' and Sperlini's "Confidence." 
C. Pandiani has some finely executed works; his "Moses 
Trampling on the Crown " and " Love " will attract the observer, 
as will also C. Pagani's "Psyche." Not entirely unnoticed 
must we pass over the " David/' a copy in miniature of Michel 
Angelo's masterpiece; the "Angelica/' from Tasso's "Freed 
Jerusalem/' or the admirably portrayed " Ruth the Gleaner.'* 
A. Malfatti's " Disappointment " and " Emancipation/' the lat- 
ter in plaster of Paris, will attract considerable attention. 
Besides Professor Guarnerio's great works above mentioned, 
he has also a number of other productions, among them being 
"The Forced Prayer," where the sulky little fellow is repre- 
Bented with life-like accuracy; "Vanity," " The Rebuke/' and 
the " Last Day of Pompeii." What es|)ecially characterizes this 
remarkable exhibition of sculpture is the close attention that 
has evidently been given to anatomical study ; every detail is 
true to nature, and there is nothing out of harmony with its 
surroundings. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 537 

The windows of the south hall of the aunex contain a 
handsome display of stained glass of American manufacture. 

Among the paintings in the Italian section are a number of 
good copies of the great works of the Italian masters. Con- 
spicuous among these is a copy of Raffaele's "Galileo before the 
Inquisition." 

The originals are good as a rule. Gilli, of Turin, has a fine 
representation of the famous scene between "Arnold of Brescia 
and Pope Adrian IV.," in which the pontiff sentenced the great 
preacher to death. Fumigalli has a fine picture of " Columbus 
in Chains," and ^[archesi an admirable "Interior of the 
Sacristy of !Milan." "A View of the Bay of Naples and 
Mount Vesuvius," by Smargiassi, and the " Head of a Lady," 
by Romagnoli, are admirable works. 

Spain. 

The Spanish collection occupies one side of the western gal- 
lery of Memorial Hall. It is small, but contains some good 
pictures. The best modern work in the collection is "The 
Burial of St. Lorenzo," painted at Rome, by Alejo Vera, in 
1862. It is a noble picture, and shows well among the older 
masters. There is a fine "Christ on the Cross," by IMurillo, 
which of cour:^e attracts much attention. Two laro^e paintings 
of " The Landing of Columbus," by A. Gisbert and D. Puebla, 
and one of " Columbus Demonstrating his Theory to the 
Monks of La Rabida," by E. Gano, occupy conspicuous places. 
P. Gonzalvo has a fine "Interior of the Cathedral of Sarafiossa " 
and A. Domingo exhibits a spirited picture entitled "A Duel." 

Srceden, 

The Swedish collection occupies the eastern wall of the west 
gallery of Memorial Hall, facing that of Spain, and a gallery 
in the annex. It is the first opportunity the people of this 
country have had to become familiar with Swedish art, and 
the collection therefore attracts much attention. The most 
prominent painting is Hockert's "Burning of the Royal Palace 
at Stockholm." This catastrophe occurred when Charles XII. 



638 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

was a mere youth, and the young hero forms the principal 
figure in the spirited scene. 

Baron Otto Hermelin, the Swedish Commissioner in charcre of 
the Art Department, has several of his pictures in the collec- 
tion, lliese are " Winter Day in the Neighborhood of Stock- 
hohu;" "Poor People's Burying Ground, near Stockholm;" 
*'The First Snow;'' "Fishing Harbor, near Stockholm;" 
^'On Montmartre, Paris," and "Autumn Day at Djugorden." 
Another noble artist, Baron G. Cederstroera, exhibits a clever 
painting called " Dark Moments." Miss A. Lindegren's 
"Girl with an Orange" is much admired. "Sigurd Ring, 
King of Scandinavia and Engl," by Severin Nilsson, is a 
stirring scene from the legends of the Vikings. M. E. Winge 
has two pictures drawn from the same source, " Ligne Burning 
herself on Seeing her Lover Hanged " and " The Viking 
Fleet." B. Kordenburg has two good pictures of every day 
life, "A Weddnig in a Swedish Country Church" and the 
"Killed Sheep." August Jernberg's "Market Day in Dussel- 
dorf" is a careful and excellent Avork. He has also another 
fine ])icture, "Visitors in the Museum of Amsterdam Kegard- 
inc: Kcmbrandt's Ni<:ht AVatch." 

Norway. 

The Xorweg-Ian collection is divided between a small room 
in the southwestern corner of the principal building, the win- 
dows of which are filled with American stained glass, and a 
gallery in the annex. 

Professor Hans Gude has here a fine picture called "A Fresh 
Breeze on the Norwegian Coast," and a "Calm in Christiana- 
fiord." " Hardengerfiord," by P. Thurman, is also a notable 
picture. 

The collection in the annex is larger and better than, that in 
Memorial Hall. The most notable picture is "A Scene in the 
Romsdalsfiord," by A. Norman. 

The Neiher lands: 

Holland occupies three galleries in the annex, and makes au 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 539 

admirable display of the works of ber artists. Tbey are marked 
by the same care that characterizes everything attempted by the 
people of the Low countries, and it may be safely asserted that 
this collection is as rich in excellent paintings as that of any 
nation represented in the Exhibition. 

First we notice four large copies, by S. Altmann, of Amster- 
dam. These are " The Banquet of the Civic Guard, after 
Van der Hlest ; " " The Five Masters of the Drapers, after 
Rembrandt ;"" The Masters of the Klovenier's Guild at 
Harlem, after Frans Hals ; " and '* The Young Bull, after 
Paul Potter.'' 

Among the originals the following are admirable, though the 
list does not include all the good pictures of this collection : 
" The Church of Trier," by J. Bosboom ; "At Church," by C. 
Bisschop ; "The Cat Feigns to be Hanged," by B. H. Gempt : 
"Four Weeks after St. John's Day," by J. D. Huybers; 
"Landscape on the Mediterranean Coast," J. Hilverdink; "A 
Moment of Expectation," by Gerke Henks; "Still Water 
near Dordecht," and " View on the Yo in Amsterdam," by E. 
Koster; "A Conference," by L. Lingeman ; "Evening on the 
Beach," by H. W. ^lesdag ; "A Yiew of Amsterdam in the 
Sixteenth Century," by J. A. Rust ; "A Cheese Market in a 
Town of JS'orth Holland," by C. Rochussen ; "The Deacons of 
the Silversmiths' Guild Conferring a Freeman's Certificate," 
by J. A. B. Stroebel ; "Gleaning," by P. Sadee; "A Barber 
Shop in Cairo," by W. de Famars Testas; and "Domestic 
Happiness," by H. Yalkenberg. 

Belgium. 

The Belgian art exhibit in ^lemorial Hall is established in a 
little room on the east of the north entrance, and consists of 
statuary, bronzes and figures in earth and plaster. The most 
conspicuous of these is a life-size group in marble of "A Mother 
and her First Child," by Charles Fraikin. There is also a fine 
display of Faience ware. 

The Belgian paintings occupy three galleries in the annex. 
The most prominent are "Autumn on the Meuse," by A. Assel- 



510 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 

l)erg; "Alias Montaniis VI^^iLing the Printing Oltice of Plontyn 
at Antwerp," by Joseph Jii'llemans; "Rome, iVoni the Tiber 
near the Quay of Ripetta," by Francis Bossuet; " Greve, Coast 
of Brittany," by A. Bouvier ; "The Church of St. Fermo at 
Verona," and " The Gate of Wertheim in the Grand Duchy 
of Baden," by Jacques Carabain ; " Dante and the Young Girls 
of Florence,*' by N. De Keyser ; "' The Sentinel nt the Gate of 
the Harem," by George de St. Cyr, a pupil of Portaels ; "The 
O'd Hermitase of St. Hubert at Namur," bv Geortje Genisson; 
"Sunday at the Convent," by Franz Meerts; "A Woman of 
the Roman Campagna," and "A Young Girl ot the Vicinity 
of Rome," by Xavier Mellery; "View of Saxenhausen," and 
the " Dome of the Invalides," by Robert Mols ; " Scene in 
Rotterdam," by Francois Musin ; "Burning of Ruhla, near 
Eisenach, in Thuringia," by Ferdinand Pauwels ; " The De- 
ception," by Jean Portaels, one of the most eminent artists of 
Belgium; "Interior of Hindeloopen," by Peter Sebes ; "A 
Christian Martyr under Diocletian," by Ernest Slingmeyer ; 
"^yar" and "Rodelta," by Eugene Smits; "The Bad St. 
Martin," by Charles Soubre; "The Cave of Diomede, an 
Episode of the Destruction of Pompeii," by Joseph Stallaert; 
" View of Dordrecht, from the Meuse," and " The House of 
the Confraternity of Archers," by Francis Stroobant ; "The 
Rhine, between Bonn and Coblcnz," and " Posilipo, near 
Naples," by F. R. Unterberger ; " Desdemona," by Jules Van 
Kiersbilck ; "After the Rain," and " Morning," by Joseph Van 
Euppen; "The Confederates before Margaret of Parma," and 
"A Flemish Woman of the Sixteenth Century," by Professor 
Franz Vinck ; and " The Hotel de Ville at Alost," by Gustave 
Walckiers. 

Denmark. 

The Danish collection is small, and shares a gallery with 
Norway in the annex. The principal works are "The. Dis- 
covery of Greenland in A. D. 1000," and "Two Greenland 
Pilots," by J. R. C. Rasmussen ; and "A Midsummer Night 
under Iceland's Rough Weather," by >yilhelm Melby. 



miiiiii!iiii'ii'it 




541 



542 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY. 

♦ Brazil. 

The Brazilian exhibit is not large. It is located in one of 
the eastern galleries of the annex. Its most important works 
are the large paintings representing scenes in the late war with 
Paraguay. These are" The Battle of Hiimaita;'' "The De- 
fence of the Island of Cabrito by the Brazilian Army and 
Navy ; 'r and " The Naval Battle of Riachnello." 

Mexico. 

Mexico has a part of a gallery in the annex. Its most im- 
portant paintings are " The Valley of ^lexico," by Jose Ma 
Valesquez : " Brother Bartholomew de las Casas " and " Gali- 
leo," by Felix Pavia ; and " Donna Isabel of Portugal," by 
Pelegrin Clav^. 

The Photographic Annex. 

The space in Memorial Hall and the annex being taken up, 
a third building was erected for the exhibition of photographs. 
It is of wood, stuccoed, and is situated on the Avenue of the 
Republic, east of Memorial Hall and north of the Main Exhi- 
bition Building. It contains a large collection of fine photo- 
graphs from the United States, Great Britain, Germany, 
Austria, France, Italy, Russia, Canada, Denmark, Sweden and 
Mexico. ^lany of these are views of the scenery of the 
countries to which they belong. The collection may not fairly 
represent the progress made by foreign nations in the photo- 
graphic art, but such as it is, it shows the United States far in 
advance of all the competing countries. A specialty of the 
American display is the series of splendid views of the scenery 
of the Pacific coast. 

A large exhibit is also made of photographic apparatus and 
material, and magic lanterns of the better class. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

THE UNITED STATES GOVEENMENT BUILDING. 

Description of tlie Building— The Grounds — Exhibits of the Various Depart- 
ments Outside of the Building — The Monitor Turret — The Grent Guns of 
the Arruy and Navy — The Postal Cars — The Transit of Venus Exhibit — 
Army Trains — Disposition of Space in the Hall — Exhibit of the Post-Office 
Department — A Model Post-Office — The Agricultural Department — A Fine 
Display — The Interior Department — Exhibit of the Patent Office — His- 
torical Relic? — A Rich Display of Indian Curiosities — The Educational 
Exhibit — The Census — Photographs of the Geological Survey of the Terri- 
tories — A Magnificent Display by the Smithsonian Institution— The Animals 
and Fislies of the United States — The Mineral Collection — The Treasury 
Exhibit — The Light-House and Coast Survey Branches — The Navy Depart- 
ment — A Splendid and Complete Display of the Construction and Equip- 
ment of an American Man-of-War — The Torpedo Service — The War De- 
partment — Splendid Exhibit of the Signal Service — The Engineer Corps 
and its Work — Making Rifles and Cartridges by Machinery — The Post 
Hospital — The Laboratory — The Light-House. 

'^EXT in size and importance to the five Exhibition build- 




ings already described is the edifice erected and coll- 
ie trolled by the geneml government of the United States. 
i^ It is located on Belmont avenue, north of Machinery 

Hall, from which it is separated by the lake. It is 
constructed in the form of a cross, with offices built in the con- 
cavities of the angles. The main stem of the cross, or nave of 
the building, is four hundred and eighty feet long, and the 
arras, or transept, three hundred and forty feet long. This is 
clear of the entrance, which will protrude ten feet farther on 
each end. The building rises to a height of two stories in the 
main portions of J^he cross, the upper story having for its sides 
long rows of windows which act as skylights for the building. 
Spans run clear across the edifice, supporting the roof with the 

/ 543 



514 THE I ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

a*d of rows of columns built along the main aisle. The whole 
design, while very strong, has the appearance of lightness, no 
heavy work being visible anywhere. In the middle of the 
building, in the centre of tlie angles of the cross, is a dome sur- 
mounted by a small cupola, and this again by a flag-staff. The 
dome is octagonal in shape, and lighted all around with win- 
dows. Around it on the offices mentioned, as in the angles, are 
four smaller domes of similar design. The building is placed 
on a terrace above the surrounding grounds. 

The outside is handsomely painted, the prevailing tints being 
brown and wood-color. The lower portion, or main body of 
the structure, has a stripe of red at the top; beneath this are the 
windows, which are continuous all around. Then comes a 
broad band of w'ood-color, with a neat yellow figure placed at 
intervals in it ; next a band of dark red, and then the lower 
band plain. The dome is of wood-color, and these, with the 
black composition roof, give a subdued but pleasing effect at a 
distance. The prevailing color inside is wood-color, all the 
lower part being so; but it is relieved by small red bands, inter- 
spersed with neat geometrical figures. The ceilings of both the 
building and dome are painted a dark blue. The main feature, 
however, consists of the sides of the building, which are divided 
into panels, and these again are subdivided into diamond shape. 
Each panel covers much space, and in the centre of each of its 
diamonds or lozenges is painted the emblem of the department 
of the government there represented. The Agricultural Bureau 
has a plow, with stalks of corn and wheat around it; the 
Interior Department has a bow and arrows, surmounted by a 
tomahawk; the Smithsonian Institute, the skull of an animal, 
encircled with a wreath ; the Army, by the lictors' rods and axe ; 
the Navy, an anchor and cable ; the Treasury, a shield, with 
scales, and beneath a key ; and the Post-Office, the wings of 
Mercury, a telegraph pole and a letter. The fisheries are recog- 
nized by a writhing fish impaled with a trident. These designs 
are innumerable and are very pretty. 

Tlie main entrance is quite handsome. It rises to a peak, 
and has an immense window and circular top. Columns staud 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 545 

on each side, resting on large pedestals. In the columns are 
panels, and on these, in relief, is a group of standards crossed 
over a drum, on each side of which are cannon balls. The doors 
of the main entrance stand out from the building, and are fifteen 
feet high. This edifice is designed for the exhibition of the 
resources of the United States as a war-power and its internal 
resources in time of peace. 

The grounds around the building are handsomely laid off. 
The space immediately adjoining the edifice is occupied with a 
display of heavy ordnance and other objects too large for exhibi- 
tion within the building. 

On the east side of the building is a sample monitor turret, 
such as is used in the iron-clad monitors of the United States 
navy. It is constructed of wood, and is a clever imitation of 
iron. It contains two formidable fifteen-inch guns, and is pro- 
vided with every detail necessary to the showing of its practical 
workings. The turret is exhibited by the Navy Department, 
which also displays a formidable battery of ship and boat guns 
of all sizes and patterns, of brass and iron. Each one is mounted 
and equipped as when in active service, and is accompanied with 
a number of specimens of the shot and shell used with it. These 
guns occupy the space to the south of the building. Here also 
the Navy Department exhibits the boat "Faith,^' which was 
used by the first Grinnel Arctic Expedition under Lieutenant 
De Haven, and the second Grinnel Expedition under Dr. E. K. 
Kane. This was one of the three boats in which Kane in 1858, 
upon abandoning the "Advance," pushed with the survivors 
and stores of the expedition eighty miles over ice to the open 
sea, and thence nearly one thousand miles to Disco. It was 
brought home by Captain Hartsene, United States navy. 

Here also is the boat made out of the wreck of the " Polaris," 
in which a part of her crew escaped in June, 1872, and in which 
they were picked up by the Scotch whaler " Ravenscraig," after 
their long and perilous voyage in it. 

Near the southeastern corner of the building the Post-Office 
Department exhibits two postal-cars, one of the style used by 
the New York Central, the other the car used by the Pennsyl- 
35 




546 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 547 

vania Railroad. These show the style of car used by the great 
trunk roads of the Union for the fast mail service, and illustrate 
the entire method of assorting, receiving and delivering the mails 
while the train is in motion. The cars rest upon a section of 
railroad track laid in the most careful manner and heavily bal- 
lasted with stone. This is a special exhibit made by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, and is designed as a specimen of its own 
track and to show what a well-built road should be. 

To the westward of the postal-cars the Xavy Department ex- 
hibits the frame buildings and instruments used by the American 
expedition in the observation of the transit of Venus, December 
8-9, 1874. 

On the north side of the building the engineer section of the 
War Department makes an interesting exhibit of a bridge train, 
with pontoons, wagons, etc., and a large display of army wagons 
is made by the quartermaster's branch of the service. On the east 
side of the building the "War Department exhibits its heavy ord- 
nance. Here are a huge ten-inch Woodbridge rifle gun, which 
uses a charge of seventy pounds of powder with a four hundred 
pound ball, and a twelve-inch Thompson rifle, weighing 84,280 
^^ounds, firing a six hundred pound shot, for which one hundred 
and twenty pounds of powder are used. The latter is a breach- 
loader, and one of the most interesting guns in the Exhibition. 
Close by is a thirteen-inch sea-coast mortar, which uses a two 
hundred ■ pound shell. A Sutcliffe rifle breach-loading gun is 
also shown. It uses a two hundred and thirty pound shot and 
forty-five pounds of powder. The most formidable gun in the 
collection is the twenty-inch Rodman, which is a muzzle-loader, 
and fires a one thousand and eighty pound ball, with a charge 
of two hundred pounds of powder. 

At the northeast corner of the building are two vertical en- 
gines which supply the motive power for the machinery within 
the hall. 

The cost of the building and of the display of the articles it 
contains was provided for by an appropriation by Congress 
on the 3d of March, 1875. The amount appropriated was 
§505,000, and it was expressly provided that not more than 



548 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

$150,000 should be expended in the construction of the build' 
ing. The actual cost of the edifice was $110,000. The floor 
space is divided among the various departments as follows : 

To the War Department 11,200 

To the Navy Department 10,400 

To the Interior Department 20,600 

To the Treasury Department 3,000 

To the Post-Office Department 3,800 

To the Smithsonian Institution, including the Fish Commission. . .26,600 
To the Agricultural Department 6,000 

Total 81,600 

The main body of the building and its transept are traversed 
centrally by walks, which cross in the centre under the rotunda, 
or lantern, crossing the intersection. The principal arm of the 
cross consists of three aisles, which have side-lights beneath the 
eaves, the central aisle rising above the side aisles and having 
ventilators at the comb. The transept has but a single aisle. 

Entering the building we find it one of the handsomest and 
most attra'itive of the great halls of the Exhibition. It is taste- 
fully painted, as has been said, and is gayly decorated with flags 
and streamers, draped and festooned overhead. 

The Post- Office Department. 

Commencing our tour of exploration at the south door, we 
give our attention first to the Post-Office Department, which 
occupies a portion of the southeastern section of the building. 
It lies east of the transept, but does not reach quite to the nave 
of the building. 

The principal portion is taken up "with the Post-office of the 
Centennial Exhibition. It is constructed of black walnut and 
plate glass, and is fitted up in the handsomest style. All letters 
for the army of exhibitors and employes engaged within the 
grounds are received and delivered from this office. There is 
a system of lock-boxes, a general delivery and a carrier's de- 
partment, each of which is designed as a specimen of this 
branch of the service. Money orders, both domestic and 
foreign, are issued and paid here, and there is also a depart- 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 549 

ment of registered letters. The office is a branch of the Phila- 
delpliia Post-Office, and is in charge of Postmaster Fairman 
and a special force of clerks. The government has provided a 
special stamped envelope, which may be purchased here, as a 
souvenir of the Exhibition, and which is good for postage all 
over the Union. 

The railway mail service is shown by the postal cars without 
the building, to which we have alluded, and by small models 
inside the building. 

The Topograpkicol Division exhibits a series of splendid 
railway and general postal route maps, and maps showing the 
location of the money order offices. 

The Division of Boohs and Blanks exhibits specimens«of all 
the books, blanks, etc., letter scales, marking and rating stamps 
used by the department. 

The Mail Equipment Division exhibits leather pouches for 
letter mails, canvas bags for printed and miscellaneous matter ; 
also registered letter mail bags, mail locks of the pattern now 
in use, and those which were formerly used but have been 
thrown aside by the department. 

From the Stamps, Stamped Envelope and Postal Card Di- 
vision we have a complete exhibit of all the stamps, stamped 
envelopes and postal cards ever used by the department, and 
specimens of registered letter envelopes and post-office official 
envelopes now in use. Here also is a machine in operation 
which cuts, folds, stamps, gums and counts stamped envelopes, 
taking the paper in rolls and turning it out in packs of com- 
pleted and stamped envelopes; and another engaged in the 
manufacture of postal cards. 

Around the walls of the space occupied by the Post-Office 
Department are hung portraits of the postmasters-general of 
the various periods of our history ; and in a glass case is ex- 
hibited the ledger used by Benjamin Franklin while post- 
master-general of the North American colonies. 

The Agricultural Department 

The exhibit of the Agricultural Department is large and 



550 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

exhaustive, and is made mainly in handsome glass show-casefe 
of large size. 

The Statistical Division exhibits large outline maps of the 
United States, showing forest areas ; the extent and value of 
farming lands, and amount of production, by counties ; charts 
and diagrams showing the amount of special products, by sec- 
tions, and statistics of farm animals, and other matters relating 
to the agricultural industries of the country. These maps are 
divided into spaces of different sizes and colors, which are 
arranged and numbered with reference to a carefully adjusted 
schedule printed in one corner of each map. 

The Chemical Division exhibits specimens of soils arranged 
in the order "of their geological formation, comprising marls, 
calcareous earths, green sand and phosphatic marls. Then 
come phosphatic rocks, animal and vegetable fertilizers, and a 
combination of the three in a manufactured state. The next 
feature, the utilization of vegetable products, is illustrated by 
means of specimens, beginning with the product in its natural 
state and proceeding through the various stages of manufacture 
to the finished article. It comprises the manufacture of flour, 
meal and starch from cereals ; of sugar from cane, beet-root, 
maple and sorghum, and exhibits models of the machinery used 
in the manufacture of these. The fermentation is shown of 
starchy substances from which beer, ale and porter are made, 
and also the distillation of whiskey. A model still and plans 
of notable American distilleries are exhibited. Then are seen 
the fermentation and distillation of sugar, molasses and fruits, 
resulting in a complete set of samples of American wines, these 
in turn being distilled and converted into brandy. Following 
up the systematically arranged display, the visitor witnesses the 
preservation of fruits and vegetables by hermetically sealing in 
glass or tin, packing in sugar and syrup, or desiccation ; the 
manufacture, with the assistance of leaves, barks, herbs and 
roots, of concentrated extracts from hemlock or oak ; the manu- 
facture of dye-stuffs ; the distillation of dry wood by heating in 
closed retorts, free from air ; the manufacture of pyroligneous 
acids, acetate of lead and other acetates used as mordants in the 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 551 

process of dyeing ; the manufacture of linen, cotton and woollen 
goods, paper, tobacco and snuff; of vegetable oils, and from 
these in turn of fancy soap, and also of the eighteen different 
essential oils that comprise the whole number manufactured in 
this country. Then follow an illustration of the manufacture 
of butter and cheese; a specimen of phosphate rock from South 
Carolina, weighing 1150 pounds, and a display of materia 
medica, separated either in the crystalline form, the oil or the 
resin from the active proximate principle." 

The Botanical Division is perhaps the richest and most com- 
plete in the department. The display of the wood growth of 
the country is exhaustive. At the foot of the cases stand many 
hundred sections of logs, overhead in the case being specimens 
of the foliage of their respective trees. Next to Horticultural 
Hall and grounds this spot affords the botanist the greatest 
delight which the Centennial can give him. From the sub- 
tropical growth of the Gulf and Southwestern States up to the 
hardy coniferee of Maine and the Northwest there is not a tree 
of importance which is not here represented. The patience of 
the curious is sorely taxed in counting the rings of old stagers 
that had reached the hey-day of their growth two hundred 
years before Columbus first saw Guanahani, and of some that 
had doubtless sheltered weary aborigines while Louis of France 
was battling for the cross in Palestine. Most of these interest- 
ing specimens were obtained from the Sierra Nevada mountains, 
in California. The principal of those of which accurate statistics 
can be given are as follows : one of a sugar pine, 175 feet high 
and 27 feet in circumference at the base, and 588 years old. the 
section having been made at a diameter of 7 feet 2 inches ; one 
of a soft, white pine, 130 feet high, 25 feet in circumference ar 
the base, and 510 years old, the section having been made at a 
diameter of 6 feet 6 inches, and one of a red silver fir, 162 feet 
high, 30 feet in diameter at the base, tapering for 100 feel 
before the first branch was reached, and 392 years old. All 
these grew on the Sierra Nevada. There is also one of a 
twisted pine from the Rocky mountains, 123 feet high, 22 feet 
in diameter at the base, and 297 years old. A curious exhibit 



552 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

for most folk in the Middle States is that of the many varieties 
of native oak and the remarkable want of resemblance among 
them in regard to foliage, the tan-bark oak of California, for 
instance, having velvety, willow-shaped leaves, while those of 
the black-jack oak of the Southern Atlantic States are bell- 
shaped. In the grain of the wood, also, the same wide di- 
vergency exists. Whik the canon live oak of the Southwest 
has a smooth bark and fine grain, the post oak of this region is 
rugged both in bark and grain. 

The Microscopical Division exhibits a series of water-color 
drawings representing the family of cryptogamia, with mag- 
nified spores, showing the several stages of the various diseases 
to which they are subject; also preparations illustrating the 
characteristics of poisonous and edible mushrooms common to 
the United States; illustrations displaying the varied character 
of the starch granules of plants; drawings and illustrations ex- 
plaining the method of distinguishing vegetable and animal 
fibres, their kind and quality; drawings displaying vegetable 
and animal cellulose and starches, and illustrating methods of 
detecting them in organizations. 

The Entomological Division contains collections of models of 
the fruits and vegetables of the United States ; stuffed specimens 
of birds, beneficial and injurious to farmers and orchardists ; 
stuflPed specimens of the various types of poultry of this country ; 
a collection of the grains and cereals of the Union; a collection 
of the textile fabrics of the United States, with specimens of 
their manufacture ; specimens of tobacco from different tobacco- 
producing sections of the United States ; and a mounted collec- 
tion of beneficial and injurious insects. 

The Hm^ticultural Division exhibits specimens of economic and 
utilizable plants, showing methods of growth, culture, etc., grapes, 
cotton, tobacco, flax, broom corn, jute, corn, sorghum, yucca 
fibres, etc. 

77?^ Interior Department. 

The exhibit of the Interior Department occupies the south- 
west section of the building, and is large and interesting. The 
most of the articles are shown in glass cases. 



OF THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 653 

The Patent Office, — The display made by this, the oldest and 
best known branch of the Interior Department, is large and 
exceedingly interesting. First of all are shown the publications 
of the office, consisting of the annual reports, official gazette ; 
index to patents, general and yearly ; volumes of patents, 
monthly and weekly; decisions of the Commissioner of Patents; 
mechanical dictionary ; and official classification. 

A selected series of 60,000 drawings of models, and a selected 
series of 5000 models, all carefully chosen from the vast collec- 
tions of the Patent Office, are shown to serve in illustration of 
the work of the office. They embrace the following classes: 
agriculture, harvesters, mills and presses, architecture, civil 
engineering, railways, navigation, metallurgy, metal-working, 
wood-working, steam, hydraulics, pneumatics, mechanical move- 
ments, hoisting, horse-powers, journals and bearings, vehicles, 
fire-arms, textile, printing and stationery, stone, clay, glass, 
leather, light, heat, electricity, household, chemistry, gas, ice, and 
fine arts. Extending over so wide a range, these models aiford 
a fair showing of the ingenuity and success of our country in the 
inventive arts, and furnish food for months of study. The 
exhibit is admirably classified, and if a man wants to find a model 
of a certain stove, he has only to look in the division of heat ; 
if he wants to find a certain reaper, he will find it in the divi- 
sion of agriculture ; and so on throughout the list. 

The National Museum makes a deeply interesting exhibit of 
a case filled with relics of the illustrious Father of his Country. 
They consist of the camp equipage and other articles used by 
General Washington during the Revolution. They are just as 
he left them at the close of the w^ar, and were given to the 
general government for safe-keeping after his death. Here are 
the tents which constituted the head-quarters in the field of the 
great soldier. Every cord, every button, and tent-pin is in its 
place, for he was careful of little things. His blankets, the bed- 
curtain worked for him 'by his wife, and his window-curtain, are 
all in an excellent state of preservation. The chairs are in per- 
fect order, not a round being broken ; and the little square mirror 
in his dressing-case is not even cracked. The washstand and 



554 THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 

table are also well kept. His knife-case is filled with plaiu, 
horn -handle knives and forks, which were deemed "good enough 
for him ; " and his mess chest is a curiosity. It is a plain wooden 
trunk covered with leather, with a common lock, the hasp of 
which is broken. It is divided by thin partitions of wood into 
the necessary compartments, which are filled with bottles still 
stained with the liquids they once held, tin plates, common knives 
and forks, and other articles pertaining to such an establishment. 
His cooking utensils, bellows, andirons, and money chest, all of 
which went with him from Boston to Yorktown, are in this case. 
Here also hangs the suit of clothes worn by him upon the occa- 
sion of his resignation of his commission at Annapolis, in 1783, 
and here is the commission which he gave back to Congress, 
when he had completed his great work. A hall lantern and 
several articles from Mount Vernon, a " travelling secretary," 
Washington's sword and cane, and a surveyor's compass, pre- 
sented by him to Captain Samuel Duvall, the surveyor of 
Frederick county, Maryland, are in the same case. 

This collection includes also the coat worn by Andrew Jackson 
at the battle of New Orleans, and the war-saddle of the Baron 
de Kalb ; a bayonet used by one of Braddock's soldiers, and 
found upon the fatal field of the Monongahela ; panels of the 
state coach of President Washington; two splendidly orna- 
mented muskets presented to President Jefferson by the Emperor 
of Morocco ; a copy of the med